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19 terms

Genetics and Heredity

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Chromosome
The threadlike strands inside the nucleus made up of DNA
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
A complex chemical that contains information about every part of an organism
Gene
The DNA codes on chromosomes that contain all the traits an organism inherits
recessive
A weak trait
dominant
A strong trait
Mutation
a permanent change in the structure of a gene or chromosome
traits (characteristics)
that are passed from parent to offspring are inherited
homozygous
gene pair for a particular trait are the same --
BB or bb
genotype
is the actual genetic make up of an individual
heterozygous
gene pair for a particular trait are different--
Bb
phenotype
is what that individual looks like
What are controlled by genes?
Traits
Who do we inherit genes in pairs from?
one from each parent
Are all genes dominant?
No, some genes are dominant and others are recessive
Do dominant genes hide recessive genes?
Yes
A change or mistake in the DNA is called what?
Mutation
What is the cellular process of sexual reproduction?
Meiosis
Who is the founder of Genetics?
Gregor Mendel
What did Gregor Mendel do?
Through the selective cross-breeding of common pea plants (Pisum sativum) over many generations, Mendel discovered that certain traits show up in offspring without any blending of parent characteristics. For instance, the pea flowers are either purple or white--intermediate colors do not appear in the offspring of cross-pollinated pea plants