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agrarian reform

peasants demanding land redistribution through the process of agrarian reform


the treeless high plain in Peru and Bolivia


an indicator of heightened economic integration in the western hemisphere- eliminates barriers to trade and investment

dependency theory

economic development only occurs through self-sufficiency and internal markets. Strong state intervention with less trade

Import Substitution

making imported products extremely expensive and domestic manufactured goods cheaper


conversion of tropical forest into pasture, contributes to deforestation

informal sector

provision of goods and services without the benefit of government regulation, registration and taxation


Mexican assembly plants that line the border with the US and are characteristic of manufacturing systems in an increasingly globalized economy


long observed practice of maintaining large estates where peasants work the estates


peasants farming small plots for their subsistance- leads to permanent or shifting cultivation. Small farmers typically plant a mixture of crops


a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people


organization of american states- an association including most countries in the western hemisphere; created in 1948 to promote military and economic and social and cultural cooperation


the southern cone common market- an organization promoting economic cooperation


racial category- mixed ancestry


stresses privatization, export production, and few restrictions on imports. No government intervention, one strong agricultural commodity


tropical ecosystems of the western hemisphere


money sent back home from immigrants


large upland areas of exposed crystalline rock that are similar to upland plateaus

squatter settlement

area where many of the urban poor live in self built housing on land that does not belong to them. Found in the periferico

sub-national organization

groups that represent areas or people within the state

supra-national organization

governing bodies that include several states

syncretic religion

blends of different belief systems

treaty of tordesillas

result of portugese presence in the americas- divided land between spain and portugal

urban primacy

when there is one city 3 times larger than all other cities


assemblage of local plants and animals, most probably the tropical savanna of africa


the biogeographic term used to describes a grouping of the worlds flora and fauna- similar "biomes" is like similar vegetation, and climate regions

climate region

are where similar atmospheric conditions prevail


human caused

greenhouse effect

trapping of incoming and outgoing solar radiation by an array of natural greenhouse gases in the atmospheric layer closest to earth

global warming

pollution of the lower atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect. increase int he temperature of the earths atmosphere

thermal inversion

all bad air is trapped by a layer of cold air over a city b/c of high elevation


city that simulates a "green" approach well. Example to other cities

River Basins

Amazon, Plata, Orinoco

elite spine

commerical and business strip that extends from the colonical core to the newer parts of the city


highway that encircles city

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