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Geography-Latin America

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agrarian reform
peasants demanding land redistribution through the process of agrarian reform
Altiplano
the treeless high plain in Peru and Bolivia
CAFTA
an indicator of heightened economic integration in the western hemisphere- eliminates barriers to trade and investment
dependency theory
economic development only occurs through self-sufficiency and internal markets. Strong state intervention with less trade
Import Substitution
making imported products extremely expensive and domestic manufactured goods cheaper
grassification
conversion of tropical forest into pasture, contributes to deforestation
informal sector
provision of goods and services without the benefit of government regulation, registration and taxation
Maquiladora
Mexican assembly plants that line the border with the US and are characteristic of manufacturing systems in an increasingly globalized economy
Latifundia
long observed practice of maintaining large estates where peasants work the estates
Minifundia
peasants farming small plots for their subsistance- leads to permanent or shifting cultivation. Small farmers typically plant a mixture of crops
megacity
a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people
OAS
organization of american states- an association including most countries in the western hemisphere; created in 1948 to promote military and economic and social and cultural cooperation
Mercosur
the southern cone common market- an organization promoting economic cooperation
Mestizo
racial category- mixed ancestry
neo-liberalism
stresses privatization, export production, and few restrictions on imports. No government intervention, one strong agricultural commodity
neo-tropics
tropical ecosystems of the western hemisphere
remittance
money sent back home from immigrants
shield
large upland areas of exposed crystalline rock that are similar to upland plateaus
squatter settlement
area where many of the urban poor live in self built housing on land that does not belong to them. Found in the periferico
sub-national organization
groups that represent areas or people within the state
supra-national organization
governing bodies that include several states
syncretic religion
blends of different belief systems
treaty of tordesillas
result of portugese presence in the americas- divided land between spain and portugal
urban primacy
when there is one city 3 times larger than all other cities
Bioregion
assemblage of local plants and animals, most probably the tropical savanna of africa
Biome
the biogeographic term used to describes a grouping of the worlds flora and fauna- similar "biomes" is like similar vegetation, and climate regions
climate region
are where similar atmospheric conditions prevail
anthropogenic
human caused
greenhouse effect
trapping of incoming and outgoing solar radiation by an array of natural greenhouse gases in the atmospheric layer closest to earth
global warming
pollution of the lower atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect. increase int he temperature of the earths atmosphere
thermal inversion
all bad air is trapped by a layer of cold air over a city b/c of high elevation
Curitiba
city that simulates a "green" approach well. Example to other cities
River Basins
Amazon, Plata, Orinoco
elite spine
commerical and business strip that extends from the colonical core to the newer parts of the city
Periferico
highway that encircles city