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portion of oxygen transport system that can be diffused out of blood and into cells

more o2 binds with Hb

higher PO2...

fully saturated

completely converted to oxyhemoglobin

percent saturation

express avg saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen


2 locations where oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve


2 other factors affecting affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

bohr effect

as acidity increases, affinity of hb an o2 decreases


increasing acidity enhances what?

Hb unloads oxygen easier

result of rising of Pco2

high Pco2

cause of low blood pH

more oxygen released from hb

as temperature increases


most oxygen remains bound during what?

helps unload oxygen by binding with hb

function of BPG

biocarbonate ions

70% of all CO2 is trasported by what?

carbonic acid

when CO2 reacts with water, what forms slowly?

carbonic anhydrase

enzyme that speeds up reaction

dissolved in plasma

7% of CO2 transported by what?

partial pressure

the amout of Co2 that dissolves in plasma is determined by what?


transports 23% of Co2

Co2 attaches to amino groups of Hb

what prevents a competition of Co2 and o2?

medullary rhythmitic of medulla oblongata/pneumotaxic area of pons

2 components of respiratory center

medulla oblongata

the medullary center includes 2 groups that extend the lengths of what?

ventral respiratory group

responsible for the rhythm of breathing

dorsal respiratory group

integrated input from peripheral stretch and chemoreceptors and communicates this information to ventral respiratory center


the pneumotaxic area of the pons sends impulses to ventral respiratory to modify breathing during what 3 events?

chemical factors/higher brain control

2 factors affecting breathing

central chemoreceptors

associated with the respiratory center and are sensitive to changes in the blood concentration of co2 and h+ atoms

peripheral chemoreceptors

within carotid artery, aorttic arch, sense changes in blood-oxygen concentration

higher brain controls

acting through the hypothalamus, and limbic system, strong emotions and pain sending those to the respiratory center to modify rate and depth


characterized by spasms by the smooth muscle in bronichole tubes that result in partial or complete closure of air passageways

allergies/smoke/cold air/aspirin/excersize

5 triggering factors of asthma


type of respiratory disorder characterized by chronic and recurrent obstruction of air flow, which increases airway resistance

irreversible decrease in ability to force air out of lungs

key physiological aspect of COPD


distinguished by permanent enlargement of the alveoli, accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls, causing the lungs to lose their elasticity


inflammation of the plurae and lungs produced by the organism myobacteriumtuberculosis *communicable and destorys lung tissue


acute infection of alveoli, most common cause is pneumococcal bacteria

cystic fibrosis

an inherited disease of secretory epithelia that affects the respiratory passagemways, pancreas, salvilary glands, and sweat glands

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