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Chapter 24 World War 1
Terms in this set (50)
archduke of Austria-Hungary whose assassination triggered World War !
alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
alliance of France, Britain, and Russia
British passenger ship sunk by a German submarine in 1915
pride in one's nation
the policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
uses threats and violence to promote a cause
deadlock in which neither side is strong enough to defeat the other
the spreading of ideas that help a cause or hurt an opposing cause
List three causes of tension in Europe in 1914.
nationalism, imperialism, militarism, the arms buildup, and the alliance system
How did trench warfare make offensives long and deadly?
Both sides shelled the enemy for days, then "charged" over the top to launch attacks that cost huge numbers of lives but gained very little ground. The struggle went on, back and forth, for months over a few hundred yards of territory.
How did President Wilson react to Germany's use of submarine warfare?
He warned Germany not to attack American shipping and threatened to break of diplomatic relations.
German telegram to Mexican government that fueled anti-German feeling.
Congresswoman, peace advocate (against war, for women's right to vote)
Selective Service Act
required young men to register for the draft
Wilson's Food Administration head
bonds that helped raise money to fund the war
person who tries to stir up war
a law requiring people of certain age to serve in the military
unable to read or write
a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials.
people who refuse to fight in any war because they believe that war is evil.
believes that the people as a whole rather than private individuals should own all property and share the profits from all businesses. Socialists argued that the war benefited factory owners but not workers.
Describe Wilson's efforts to achieve peace.
Wilson tried to bring both sides to peace talks, with the United States acting as a neutral arbitrator, but his efforts failed.
Identify three events that moved the United States toward war.
Germany's resumption of U-boat attacks on neutral ships traveling to Britain; the Zimmermann telegram; the Russian Revolution
How did the United States prepare for war?
Passed the Selective Service Act so it could raise an army, created a system to boost food production and manage food resources, created the War Industries Board to mobilize industry, created the War Labor Board to manage the work force
How did the war ignite prejudice against some groups at home?
German Americans were viewed with suspicion and often subjected to intolerant treatment. African Americans who had come to northern cities to find jobs in war industries ran into prejudice and even violence. In some cities, race riots occurred.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
After signing this treaty with Russia, Germany was able to turn its full attention to the Western Front.
Harlem Hell Fighters
the 369th U.S. Infantry, an African American unit
Battle of Belleau
the first major World War I battle for American troops
Battle of the Argonne Forest
the final Allied offensive
an agreement to stop fighting
give up power
the rapid spread of a contagious disease among large numbers of people
Describe the situation of the Allies when the Americans arrived in 1917.
Millions of Allied soldiers had died; survivors were tired and ill; civilians were starving; Russia's withdrawal from the war let Germany start a new western offensive
What role did American troops play in the Allied victory?
Their victories in Belleau Woods and the Argonne Forest kept Germany from taking Paris and then forced a German retreat
What condition did Europeans face after the war?
Millions were dead or wounded; much of northern France was ruined; Germans were starving; influenza killed millions more
outline of Wilson's peace plan
League of Nations
proposed general association of nations, Wilson's fourteenth and most important point
the leaders of the Allied nations
Treaty of Versailles
1919 treaty ending World I
Henry Cabot Lodge
leader of the critics of the peace treaty
the right of the national groups to have their own territory and forms of government
people who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs
Describe the major points of Wilson's peace plan.
end secret agreements; open seas; free trade; limits on arms; self-determination; League of Nations
Why did Wilson's plan run into trouble at Versailles?
It was idealistic ("Peace without victory"). The other allies wanted revenge and reparations.
Why did the Senate reject the Versailles Treaty?
Many feared that Article 10, which called for the League of Nations to protect any member who was threatened, could involve the United States in future European wars. They also wanted Congress to have the power to decide on a case-by-case basis whether the United States would follow League policy.