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AP Euro 30(31)
Terms in this set (95)
Chancellor of Germany in 1949; the former mayor of Cologne and a long-time anti-Nazi, who began his long highly successful democratic rule; West Germany had a majority of Christian Democrats; helped regain respect for Germany. Retired in 1963.
German states who as the first Social Democratic chancellor of West Germany worked to reduce tensions with eastern Europe until 1982. Laid a wreath at tomb of unknown Polish soldier and a monument commemorating the Warsaw ghetto uprising
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
The progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions
Willy Brandt's policy of "opening toward the east" that increased relations between West and East Germany in 1972. German for eastern policy
Federal Republic of Germany
West Germany. Refused to accept the loss of German territory ceded to Poland and the Soviet Union after 1945.
German Democratic Republic
Final Act of the Helsinki Conference
Thirty-five participating nations (U.S. Canada, Soviet Union and all European countries) agreed that Europe's existing political frontiers could not be changed by force. Also accepted numerous provisions guaranteeing human rights and political freedoms of citizens
Socialists emphasizing popular consent, peaceful change, and constitutional government. Maintained a firm commitment to capitalist free markets and democratic electoral politics.
Powerful center to center-right political parties that evolved in the late 1940s in Europe from former Catholic parties of the pre-WWII period. Christian parties gained increasing support in the postwar era, winning elections in par because of their participation in wartime resistance. A vital component of postwar politics, these groups shifted from their decades-old emphasis on advocating church interests to welcoming non-Catholics among their ranks and focusing on democracy, anti-communism, and social reform.
age of affluence
enormous demands in industry, demobilization of the army, automobiles allow people to move to the suburbs, housing construction, baby boom
Second Vatican Council
a national worldwide leadership council from 1962 to 1965 that brought tremendous changes to the catholic church meant to renew the church and broaden its appeal
the activity of changing something (art or education or society or morality etc.) so it is no longer under the control or influence of religion
This movement began at Berkeley with a free mpvement, heavily protested opposition of Vietnam; experimented with drugs and sex
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
A movement of students in the West who advocated simpler, purer societies based on an updated, romanticized version of Marxism.
the personal is the political
To raise awareness that experiences (domestic violence, rape, lack of childcare, and abortion) in private spheres are actually political issues that women face as a class and require political action (bring to public realm)
the widespread changes in men's and women's roles and a greater public acceptance of sexuality as a normal part of social development. Birth control pill invented.
United States psychologist who experimented with psychoactive drugs (including LSD) and became a well-known advocate of their use (1920-1996)
a 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Lyndon B. Johnson
the US president who privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism. 36th U.S. president from 1963-1969
Vietcong Tet Offensive
seen in US as a defeat. Johnson called for negotiations and did not run for re election. The communists first compreshensive attack on major South Viet cities that failed and suffered heavy losses.
Richard M. Nixon
37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. Watergate Scandal.
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Democratic National Convention
In Chicago in 1968; where Democratic delegates gathered to nominate Vice-president Hubert Humphrey. The hall was protected with barbed wire and police officers to keep the protesters away.
A student leader in Germany who lead protests in the late 1960s. He headed the Socialist German Student Union. He was shot in the head in 1968 by someone with opposing views. He suffered brain damage and died 10 years later.
Former prime minister of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978.
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
New Economic Mechanism
Hungary had a system that broke up state monopolies, allowed some private retail stores, and encouraged private agriculture.
New Economic System
East Germany's system inaugurated in 1963, brought limited privitization and also showed moderate sucess, though it was reversed when the government returned to the centralization in the late 60s.
a movement in East Germany named after a conference of writers, officials, and workers in Bitterfield, an industrial city south of Berlin that encouraged intellectuals to take a more critical view of life in the East Bloc.
Novel: Divided Heaven, writer showed a couple tragically divided by the Berlin Wall.
russian term meaing "self-published" referred to books, periodicals, newspapers, and pamphlets that directly criticized communism and thus went far beyond the limits of criticism accpeted by the state. Underground literature critical of communism
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Communist Party Secretary of Czechoslovakia; loosens strict rules; permits criticism of government; assures loyalty to USSR; gets kicked out. Wanted to create "socialism with a human face."
the soviet political leader, and General Secretary of the Soviet Communist party (1964-1982). He was president of the Soviet Union and Khrushchev's successor.
Doctrine created by Leonid Brezhnev that held that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever it saw the need.
Six day war
a war fought in June, 1967, between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, in which Israel captured large tracts of Arab territory. This angered Arab leaders and exacerbated anti-Western feeling in the Arab states
The Arab-led Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. They watched the price of crude oil decline consistently comapred with the rising price of Western manufactured goods. So they decided to reverse that trend by presenting a united front against Western oil companies.
term coined in the early 1980s to describe the combination of low growth and high inflation that led to a worldwide recession
European Economic Community
The Common Market that attracted more nations (Denmark, Iceland, Britain, Greece, Portugal, Spain) cooperated more closely in international undertakings and the movement for western Europe unity stayed alive.
Society that relies on high-tech and service-oriented jobs for economic growth rather than on heavy industry and manufacturing jobs
Formerly industrialized areas that were now empty inner cities where prosperous workers once lived
philosophy of 1980s conservatives who argued for decreased government spending on social services and privatization of state-run industries. Called for privatization
Argued that government should cut support of social services such as housing, education, and health insurance; limit business subsidies; and retreat from regulation of all kinds
the sale of state-managed industries to private owners
The first woman elected to lead a major European state, was one of the late twentieth century's most significant leaders. The controversial "iron lady" attacked socialism, promoted capitalism, and changed the face of modern Britain.
conflict between Britain and Argentina; a military junta claimed ownswership of the British colony sparking an international crisis. The British won the war and the military junta lost authority in Argentina
the president of the US at the end of the cold war who encouraged Americans to mistrust communists. "Government is not the solution to the problem, government is the problem."
a West German chancellor represented a ten-point plan for a step by stem unification in cooperation with both East Germany and the international community. He then promised the ordinary citizens of a struggling, bankrupt East Germany an immediate economic bonanza. Reunified Germany.
The Socialist leader who was the longest serving president of France. Rather than focusing on radical economic policies, he focused on social reform programs and reducing unemployment.
Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoie was a French writer and philosopher who analyzed the position of women within the framework of existential thought and argued that women had almost always been trapped by particularly inflexible and limiting conditions. She believed that only through courageous action and self-assertive creativity could a woman become completely free. Wrote the "second sex"
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
National Organization for Women. Founded by Betty Friedan to press for women's rights.
United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964) Wrote silent spring
An organization devoted to environmental activism, founded in the United States and Canada in 1971. They employ passive resistance in opposition to commercial whaling, the dumping of toxic waste into the sea, and nuclear testing.
A political party intended to fight for environmental causes. Founded in West Germany in 1979.
a terrorist organization organized in 1959 by student activists who were dissatisfied with the moderate nationalis of the traditional Basque party in northern Spain
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
a period of often violent political struggle in N. Ireland, beginning in the 1960's and officially ending in 1998. Struggle between protestants and Catholics
Jean Marie Le Pen
French politician. Born in 1928. Member of the European Parliament for France and founder of the French National Front party.
favoring social equality. a classless society
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
really existing communism
A term used by Communist leaders to describe the socialist accomplishments of their societies, such as nationalized industry and collective agriculture.
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
Czech dramatist and statesman whose plays opposed totalitarianism and who served as president of Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992 and 1st president of the Czech Republic since 1993 (born in 1936)
Formed after the Helsinki Accords. It was an organization of intellectuals in Czechoslovakia. Sought to promote the human rights standards designated at Helsinki. It played a big role in the struggle for democracy and against dictatorship in 1989.
Pope John Paul II
This Polish Pope brought the world's attention to the solidarity movement of the Polish, calling for human rights. He became a hero of the Polish nation.
a working class revolt in the Lenin shipyards of Gdansk that resulted in the workers gaining their revolutionary demands including the right to form free trade unions, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners, and economic reforms.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Outlawed Polish trade union that worked for workers' rights and political reform throughout the 1980s
Prime Minister, Polish Council of Stare and President, former Polish Communist and political and military leader. Declared martial law, arrested Solidarity's leaders
President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. 39th President
Brezhnev's successor, 1982 and longtime chief of secret police. Andropov tried to invigorate the communist system but little came of his efforts. Worsening economic situation led to emergence of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985.
Economic restructuring and reform implemented by Soviet premier Gorbachev in 1985. Permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises
Soviet premier Gorbachev's popular campaign for openness in government and the media
the process of creating a government elected by the people.
A Solidarity leader, who became Prime Minister, along with General Jaruzelski, the Communist President of Poland who would eventually be eliminated. Was editor of Solidarity's weekly newspaper
the Solidarity-led government's radical take on economic affairs that abruptly ended state planning and moved to market mechanisms and private property
he was installed as Premier of Hungary after the Soviet intervention in 1956. In May 1989 he was voted from office by the parliaments. The Hungarian Communist Party changed its name to the Socialist Party and permitted the emergence of other opposition political parties. In October, Hungary promised free elections.
Mass protests in Czechoslovakia, led by playwright Vaclev Havel, that culminated in the fall of communism in that country in November 1989. Peaceful protest
he was an iron-fisted communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and he had long combined Stalinist brutality with stubborn independence from Moscow. Soon his forces were defeated, him and his wife were captured and executed by a military court. The coalition government emerged from the fighting, although the legacy of Ceausescu's oppression left a very troubled country.
A general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war that followed; it called for a scaling down of all armed forces and the acceptance of all existing borders as legal and valid
president of the Russian Republic in 1991--the first post-Cold War leader; he came to power by helping Mikhail Gorbachev when hard-line Communists attempted to overthrow him--but soon forced Gorbachev to resign & declared an end to the USSR
Congress of People's Deputies
Successor the Supreme Soviet (legislature) in the period immediately preceding the Soviet Union's demise. Came about during Gorbachev's Democratization campaign. Involved electing a smaller, full-time parliament and a president.
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.
On 31 May 2005, Khodorkovsky was found guilty of fraud and sentenced to nine years in prison. The sentence was later reduced to 8 years. In 2003, prior to his arrest, Khodorkovsky funded several Russian parties, including Yabloko, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and even, allegedly, the pro-Kremlin United Russia. A billionaire Oil Man
Commonwealth of Independent states
an alliance made up of states that had been Soviet Socialist Republics in the Soviet Union prior to its dissolution in Dec 1991
- hand picked by putin
- "puppet of putin" (not necessarily true)
- appointed putin as PM
- has criticized undemocratic nature of Russia
- less hostile to west
German term referring to nostalgia for the lifestyles and culture of the vanished East Bloc
President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and of Yugoslavia 1997 to 2000. A key figure in the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1900's.
the attempt to establish ethnically homogeneous territories by intimidation, forced deportation, and killing
Kosovo Liberation Army
Military organization formed in 1998 by Kosovar militants who sought independence from Serbia
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