35 terms

Human Geography Vocab - Chapter 14

Acid Deposition
sulfer oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric adic and nitric acid-and return to the earth's surface
Acid depositions contributes to acid rain and its extremely harmful effects.
Acid Precipitation
conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain,snow, or fog
Acid precipitation is a result of acid deposition.
Active Solar Energy Systems
Solar energy systems that collect energy through the use of physical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
Active solar energy systems use moving parts or collectors to power cells and produce energy.
Air Pollution
concentration of trace substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at as greater level than occurs in average air
Air pollution is a major problem as more and more fossil fuels are burned.
Animate Power
power supplied by people or animals
Animate power is created through animate objects; hence its name.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
amount of oxygen required by aquatic baceria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution
The more waste being decopmpose by bacteria, the higher biochemical oxygen demand and therefore the higher the pollution in the water.
the number of species within a specific habitat
Biodeiversity is important in maintaining planet earth.
Biomass Fuel
fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
Biomass fuel is being created as alternatives to fossil fuels.
Breeder Reactor
a nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium
Breeder reactors are significant sources of energy but also produce toxic wastes.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
a gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers
Chlorofluopcarbons are extremely harmful once they enter the atmosphere.
the sustainable use and managements of a natural resource through comsuming it at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced
Conservation is key to ensuring a resource will last a long time.
metals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel
Any metals used in and containing iron are considered ferrous.
the splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
Fission is the basis of certain nuclear reactions.
Fossil Fuel
energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Fossil fuels are extremely useful to harvest energy but release a lot of gas into the atmospher when used at extremely high rates.
creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium
Fusion, like fission, is another form of creating energy from nuclear reactions.
Geothermal Energy
energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks
Geothermal energy is a less harmful alternative to the use of fossil fuels for energy.
Greenhouse Effect
anticipated increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface
Fossil fuels being burned are excelerating the Greenhouse effect and disrupting earth's climate.
Hydroelectric Power
power generated from moving water
Hydroelectric power in an extrmely efficient alternative to other energy sources.
Inanimate Power
power supplied by machines
Inanimate power is harvested from non living objects.
metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel
If a metal is not used in iron or does not contain iron it is considered nonferrous.
Nonrenewable Energy
a source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted
Nonrenewable energy sources must be conserved to ensure they last a long time.
a gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth's surface
The ozone protects humans but is slowly being destroyed by our changing of earth.
Passive Solar Energy System
solar energy systems that collect energywithout the use of mechanical devices
Passive solar energy systems simply absorb the energy in the sun's rays.
Photochemical Smog
an atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, expecially from motor vehicle emissions
Photochemical smog is extremely prevalent in cities.
Photovoltaic Cell
solar energy cells, usally made from silican, that collect solar rays to generate electricity
Passive solar energy systems contain photovoltaic cells in order to capture energy.
addition of more waste than a resource can accomodate
Pollution is harmful to the environment, it has detrimental effects on planet earth.
Potential Reserve
the amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
Potential reserves are scientific estimates of resources within the planet.
maintenance of a resource in its present condition with as little human impact as possible
Preservation is the key to ensuring the planet is damaged as little as possible.
Proven Reserve
the amount of a resource remainingn discovered deposits
Contrary to potential which is a guess, proven resource is a calculated number that explains what's left of a resource.
Radioactive Waste
materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, the Materials must be safely stored for thousands of years
Despite the efficiency of breeder reactors, they result in a lot of radioactive waste.
the speration, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material
Recycling reduces pollution by a significant amount.
Renewable Energy
a resource that has theoretically umlimited suply and is not depleted when used by humans
Renewable enrgy sources are not of much concern to depletion as long as they remain renewable.
a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access and is socially acceptable to use
Resources are anything that is helpful in the world that can be utilized.
Sanitary Landfill
a place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bull-dozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.
Sanitary landfills are used to store human waste but reduce its environmental impact.
Sustainable Development
the level of development that can be maintaned in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development
Sustanable Developement will and is necessary to reducing human impact on the earth as well as ensuring economically feasible resources for later down the road.