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What are the differences between imaging of cystic masses and solid masses?

Cystic Masses: round, thin walled, and presents anechoic w/ enhanced through-transmission or post. acoustic enhancement on US. They do not enhance on CT/MRI
Solid Masses: non-uniform, echoic to a similar extent as the surrounding tissue on US. They will enhance on CT/MRI

How is enhancement used in renal imaging?

Enhancement is used to display obstructions and differentiate masses with renal imaging

What is a tomogram?

Image taken in one specific plane in order to remove obscurity (one plane is kept in focus and everything else is blurred out)

How is a tomogram used in imaging?

It allows for an image of a specific organ at a specific time to be taken, allowing contrast to be followed in imaging protocols such as IVP's.

Pt presents w/ acute scrotal pain, what do you do?

First, r/o TESTICULAR TORSION- color flow Doppler. Decreased color = Testicular torsion,immediate surgery. Increased color = inflammation, no surgery. US is modality of choice.

What are the phases of an IVP?

Nephrogram phase- 1min post injection, can appreciate gross appearance and location of kidney's
Pyelogram phase- 3-4min post injection, can appreciate the calices, infundibulum and pelivses

What study is now considered the "renal colic protocol"?

NON-contrast CT (has replaced IVP)

What are the differences between testicular masses and extratesticular masses?

Testicular- usually malignant (seminoma, lymphoma, leukemia) which appear hypoechoic on US
Extratesticular- usually benign (hydrocele, varicele, hematoma) which appear anechoic on US

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