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122 terms

Feudalism Test

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Feudalism
Gov't where powerful landowning lords gave protection to peasants in exchange for service
Who were the peasants needing protection from?
Huns, Norse, Magyars, Franks and Visigoths
Definition of Feudalism
A way of life based on the ownership and use of land
Fief
The plot of land someone owns, anything that's on the land
Lord
the person who gives the fief
Vassal
The person who gets the fief
Homage
Tribute or honor to someone
Oath of Fealty
Oath of being faithful and loyal
Act of Investiture
What the king is doing to the vassal
Example of an Act of Investiture
Bestowing the fief, granting the land
Forfeiture
You break your oath, they take back the land
What was a castle?
A military fort
What was on the first level of a castle?
Animals
What was on the second level of a castle?
Food
What was on the third level of a castle?
People
What was war?
The normal state of affairs in the feudal society
What was chivalry?
The ultimate lifestyle of feudal society
What was the code of chivalry?
The qualities of a good warrior, virtue and reverence for women
What are the qualities of a good warrior?
Bravery, strength, skill
What was virtue?
Character traits of a good man
What was a page?
Fishing, first haircut, hunting, age 7
What was a squire?
Age 15, weapons, fighting tactics, to be at the beckon call of the knight
What was knighthood?
Age 21
What was the only way to become a knight?
To recieve a piece of property
What was a manor?
Complete communities
What was on a manor?
Castle, staff, a Church
Life on the Manor for Nobles?
Three meals a day, servants for plumbing
Life expectancy for Nobles?
42 years male, 21 years female
Why did females die young?
Childbearing, nursing
Life expectancy for Serfs?
38 years male. 21 years female
What caused BIG changes in pre-reformation europe?
Crusades
Expansion of royal power lead to?
Less submission to the popes, they were less dependent of their vassals and their protection
Less dependent on vassal means?
Kings need their own standing army
Town/Crown Alliance
The kings are getting money and income from the merchants in these towns
What can form a national identity?
Language, Symbols, Religion, National History
Was England a modern nation under Alfred the Great?
Almost, no merchant class and money
Who created a law code based on Scripture and precedent?
Alfred the Great
Who created a navy?
Alfred the Great
Who defeated the Danes and confined them to the northern third of England?
Alfred the Great
Who repelled further Viking attacks with a standing and garrisoned army?
Alfred the Great
Who refurbished the city of London?
Alfred the Great
Who recorded England's history in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle?
Alfred the Great
Who defeated Herald Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings?
William of Normandy
Who re instituted Feudalism?
William of Normandy
Who became the first serfs of the Normans?
Anglo-Saxons
Who brought the French language to England?
William of Normandy
Who created the Domesdays Book?
William of Normandy
Who instituted common law?
Henry II
Who killed Thomas a Becket?
Henry II
What is Archbishop of Canterbury?
Highest position in the catholic church in England
Who married Elinor of Acquitane?
Henry II
Who Elinor's favorite?
Richard
Who was Henry's favorite?
John
Who was the lost brother?
Richard
What did John lose?
French lands, authority against nobles, and war chest
What does the Magna Carta guarantee?
Trial by jury, no taxation w/o representation, habeas corpus, punishment must fit crime, free trade
Who invited representatives to meet with the Great Council?
Simon de Montfort
What did the Great Council become known as?
Parliament
Who created the Model Parliament?
Edward I "Longshanks"
Who conquered Wales in 10 years?
Edward I
Who defeated William Wallace but not Scotland?
Edward I
Where was freedom won for Scotland?
Battle of Bannockburn
Who won freedom for Scotland?
Robert the Bruce
Who was the son of Edward II and French Princess Isabel?
Edward III
Who took over after Charles IV?
Edward III
Who started the 100 Year War with France?
Edward III
100 Year War with France?
English navy wins at sea, Crecy, and Poitiers
Who had trade taxes exceed land taxes?
Edward III
Who protected John Wycliffe from the pope's wrath?
Edward III
Who created the Justice of the Peace?
Edward III
Who conquered England in 1066?
William
Who established Christianity in Ireland?
St. Patrick
Who were raiders from the north of England?
Picts and Scouts
Who was a Christian missionary to Britain?
Augustine of Canterbury
Who were the residents of Scandinavia?
Norsemen
Who were the invaders of Britain from Europe?
Angles and Saxons
Who was one of the first English kings to become Christian?
Ethelbert
Who was the king of Wessex who fought the Vikings?
Alfred
Who was the Italian who founded the monastic order in the 500s?
St. Benedict
Who were the inhabitants of Britain during the Roman occupation?
Celts
Which island did Eric the Red discover?
Greenland
What was a young boy who was training for knighthood?
Page
Who were the religious leader of the Celts?
Druids
Which providence did the Vikings settled?
Normandy
Which portion of England did the Vikings control?
Danelaw
Which part of North America were Nordic ruins found?
Newfoundland
What was a boy of 15 or 16 who was assigned to work with a knight to train for knighthood?
Squire
Who trained to fight on horseback?
Knight
What was a lady?
Proficient at medicine, sometimes shared in supervision of estate
Who governed the manor and castle?
Lord
What was the relationship between nobles and peasant called?
feudalism
What did a fief consist of?
Peasants, land and a castle
What couldn't peasants do?
fight in tournaments
Who lived a life of poverty, famine, and disease?
Serfs
What were friars?
Wandering preachers who lived simply and in poverty
What were heretics?
Denied and challenged certain church teachings
Who believed all people were sinners who could be saved by taking sacraments?
Catholics
What were missionaries?
Monks who were sent to convert people to Christianity
Who is the best word to describe the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages?
Central
What created corruption in the medieval Church?
nobles who appointed their own relatives, who had little devotion to their duties
Who was the first pope elected by church officials instead of political leaders?
Gregory VII
What describes the relationship between the Church and people in the Middle Ages?
Close links at all levels of society
Whose raids were a threat to Germany?
Magyars
Who signed the Magna Carta?
King John
Who established Estates-General to approve his tax bills and policies?
Philip IV
Holy Roman Empires were more interested in _____ than Germany?
Italy
What was the massive survey by William called?
Doomsday Book
What was the council est. by William to advise him called?
Cura Regis
When could a man be paid for a particular craft?
Journeyman
What was Henry's II conflict with the Roman Church over?
The role of church courts in the judicial system
What power did Parliament have over the king?
Power of the purse
What issue did Philip IV fight with Pope Boniface over?
The taxation of church property
Who captured Spain from the Visigoths?
Muslim Moors
Most of Spain was part of _____ from 732 to 1031?
Caliphate of Cordova
What was one of the reasons for the Crusades?
Turkish threat to Constantinople
What was the most successful crusade?
First
Who granted the city charters?
the King
What became the great trade center before the Crusades?
Kiev
What disease killed 1/3 of Europe's population?
the Black Death
Why did the central authority in Germany collapse?
Civil war between the German nobles and the Holy Roman Empire
What was the most important result of the Crusades?
Brought the death of feudalism
Why was Russia cut off from Europe?
An invasion and occupation of Mongols