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Psy 145 Human Sexuality- Exam 1 Review
Terms in this set (97)
vulva (includes all of this minus the anus)
includes outer vulva, mons, clitoris, outer lips, inner vulva, inner lips, vagina
what part of the female anatomy can be seen from the outside?
mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora
the most sensitive portion of the vulva (just like the penis it becomes erect when aroused)
where is the clitoris gland?
most of the clitoris gland is hidden under the "hood" (prepuce), clitoral tissue wraps around the vagina offering pleasure during penetration
how deep is the vagina?
3-4 inch canal from the inner lips to the cervix
what happens to the vagina when aroused?
when aroused, the walls of the vagina fill with blood causing the canal to "balloon out"
the opening of the vagina becomes bigger after childbirth. The outer 1/3 of the vagina can stretch or loosen but the inner 2/3 is always flexible
do most women have a visible labia?
yes, most women have a visual labia despite the photo shop from magazines and pornography.
completely different orifice than the vagina, where the urine passes (cannot normally release urine during intercourse)
why is it important to clean genitals before and after sex?
intercourse can cause cross contamination resulting in a tract infection or yeast infection
thin membrane that covers the vaginal opening, gradually degrades over time and can be "broken" before sex
also called the "skene's gland" or "female prostate". most sensitive region in the vagina (but not as sensitive as the clitoris or labia) located 1/2 inch around the urethra, secretes vaginal fluid (squirting)
beyond the cervix, barrier atop of vagina, houses fetus during pregnancy, inner membrane composed of blood vessels and glands
connects the uterus to the ovaries, lined with cilia that carry eggs, most eggs are fertilized in this tube
egg is fertilized outside of the tube
How do breasts work?
Breasts contain 15-20 clusters of "mammary gland" that can produce milk
why do bras cause sagginess?
breasts internally supported by ligaments and glands, gravity strengthens tissues, lack of gravity can make them love their elasticity
what are the components of a penis?
the shaft which is made of cavernosa, which is spongy bodies that fill with blood when aroused and the bottom cavernosa houses the urethra, and the glands of the penis are on the head
housed in the scrotum, produces sperm and testosterone
sperm travels up the vans deferens and mixes with fluid in the seminal vesicles and prostate
releases pre cum and clean and deacidifies urethra
muscle that contracts during orgasm to ejaculate
how much sperm is produced for each ejaculation
100 million sperm
can you get pregnant from pre cum?
no you can't get pregnant from pre ejaculate because there is no sperm
how effective is the pull out method?
it is 83% effective
foreskin is removed
how can circumcision stop STI transmission?
1. Most STI's travel via fluid (blood, semen, vaginal fluid can be harbored in foreskin for a long time)
2. Foreskin is extremely easy to tear
3. Change in sexual behavior
2nd leading cause of lethal cancer in men
3 factors of differentiation
hormonal differences, pre natal developmental differences, puberty differences
Androgen-insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
insensitivity to androgens/testosterone
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
genetic female develops an enlarged clitoris and
"fused" labia (i.e., no vaginal opening)
Genetic male with small genitals and low testosterone levels
(1st menstruation) occurs around
age 12, but can occur as early as 8 years old (brought on by leptin)
why is menarche happening early?
increased fat in diet, less malnourished, better vitamin intake
what are the 4 phases of menstruation?
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, menstruation
one (sometimes more) follicle releases an egg, which then matures
the egg is mature and located in
the fallopian tube (anytime b/w the follicular phase and beginning of menstruation, 14 days of peak fertility)
Luteal Phase - increases in estrogen and
progesterone cause development of the
endometrium (ureteral lining)
filled with blood vessels, nerves,
and glands to nourish impregnated eggs
if the egg has not been fertilized, estrogen and progesterone levels drop to normal
signs of ovulation
cervical mucus becomes thick and sticky, temp of vagina goes from 97.5 F to 98
Dysmenorrhea (Menstrual Pain)
includes cramping and bloating around the pelvis,
headaches, backaches, and nausea
what causes dysmenorrhea?
caused by prostaglandin, a hormone that causes uterine contractions contractions necessary to dislodge and expel endometrium during menstruation
psychological/physical symptoms occurring 1 - 3 days before menses
Diane Ruble (1977)
told female participants they would experience menstruation in either 2 days or in 10 days
how long does it take sperm to fertilize the egg?
usually takes 1 1/2 hours but sperm can live in the vagina for up to 5 days
make up of ejaculate
releases about 100 million sperm, 1-2% find the egg
-50% of zygotes dont survive
-attaches to the uterine wall around day 10
-organs become fully formed
-heart begins beating
-80% of miscarriages occur in the first 12 weeks (1st trimester)
failure rate of pregnancy tests
failure rate of 50-65%
-13 weeks to birth
-full development of organs and tissues
-movement in limbs
-first semblance of behavior
Contractions begin, separated by 15 - 20 minutes
- These start to efface (thin out) and dilate (open)
the cervix, preparing it to breech
- Women should go to the
hospital when contractions
are 5 minutes apart
- Usually takes 5 - 18 hours
after first contraction
- At this time, cervix is
dilated 3 - 4 inches
Second Stage: Delivery
- Begins when cervix is fully dilated (4 - 5 inches)
- Baby begins to move down birth canal
-Within a few hours, the
-Most doctors then perform
-Cutting the perineum
- Usually painless, because
pressure from baby's head
blocks nerve signals
Third Stage: Afterbirth
-Within an hour, the placenta and inner lining of
uterus are expelled
- Many cultures in history
saved the placenta as a
token of the event
- In some cultures it was
- The placenta is a rich
source of vitamins,
minerals, and protein and
is eaten by many animals
cutting the perineum during
when do fetuses urinate?
3rd trimester baby urinates and practices swallowing
when do babies develop hair?
around 8 months the baby develops full coat of body hair (called lanugo)
what happens when the placenta is expelled from the body?
After placenta leaves the body, levels of
estrogen and progesterone drop dramatically
-Typically takes 3 - 12 months for hormone levels to
return to normal, depending on breast feeding
75% of women experience
-Mild depression, frequent bouts of crying
- Irritability and mood swings
- Fatigue and insomnia
how long does it take for a women to have sex after birth?
typically 4 months
-Thicker and more yellow than breast milk
-Particularly high in protein
-women stop breastfeeding around 4-6 months
why are more females born than males? (106:100)
-X-chromosomes sperm weigh 4.4%
more than Y-chromosome sperm
- Given that sperm are usually
swimming upward (fighting
gravity) this makes a big difference
reverse of "failure rate"
percentage of women who get pregnant using the contraceptive for 1 year
what 2 ways is effectiveness measured?
perfect user effectiveness and typical user effectiveness
from lab-trials in which users are educated and highly motivated
from real-world use in which contraception may be used improperly or intermittently
Diaphragm or cervical caps
Barrier placed on
the cervix itself
- Coated with
- Helps block and
- Also keeps
delivers combination of estrogen and progestin (artificial progesterone)
the skin between the vaginal entrance and the anus
a muscle around the vaginal entrance
erectile tissue running under the inner lips
female prostate (squirting)
two organs in the female that produce eggs and sex hormones
spongy bodies running the length of the top of the penis
a spongy body running the length of the underside of the penis
a layer of skin covering the glans or tip of the penis in an uncircumcised male; also called the prepuce
a form of male genital cutting in which a slit is made the length of the foreskin on the top
a form of male genital cutting in which a slit is made on the lower side of the penis along its entire length
the pouch of skin that contains the testes in the male
tubes in the testes that manufacture sperm
cells in the testes that manufacture testosterone
a highly coiled tube located on the edge of the testis, where sperm mature
the tube through which sperm pass on their way from the testes and epididymis, out the scrotum, and to the urethra
sac like structures that lie above the prostate and produce about 60% of the seminal fluid
the gland in the male located below the bladder, that secretes some of the fluid in semen
a surgical treatment for breast cancer in which only the lump and a small bit of surrounding tissue are removed
a surgical treatment for breast cancer in which the entire breast, as well as the underlying muscle and lymph nodes are removed
removal of the uterus
a hormone secreted by the pituitary; it regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in females and testosterone production in males
a pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammory glands
a pituitary hormone that stimulates milk ejection from the nipples and contractions of the uterus during childbirth
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
a condition in which a genetic female produces excess levels androgens prenatally and therefore has male appearing genitals at birth
androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
a genetic condition in which the body is unresponsive to androgens so that a genetic male may be born with a female appearing body
a substance that produces defects in a fetus
fetal alcohol syndrome
serious growth deficiency and malformations in the child of a mother who abuses alcohol during pregnancy
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