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RA CIFS Altieri

Frontial views

will show the size, length, and width of features in relationship to the face.

Profile views

will show projections, recessions.

Three-quarters view

will show appearance of lips and fullness of the cheeks.


A suface lying at a right angle to the source of illumination, which reflects the maximum amountof light; the lighter and brighter part.


Surfaces which do not lie at right angles to the source of illumination or are obscured by other surfaces and which reflect little or no light.


The widest part of the head is measured by the distance between the two parietal eminences.


The face is three noses long.
The length of the nose is equal to the length of the ear.
The width of the nose at the wings is equal to the width of an eye.


The face of 5 eyes wide from zygomatic arch to zygomatic arch.
The distance between the eye is equal to the width of 1 eye.
The mouth is two eyes wide.


The superior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as the eyebrows.
The inferior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as the base of the nose.
The face is three ears long.

Thumb and Index Finger equals

The length of the ear.
The length of the nose.
The normal hairline to the root of the nose.
The base of the nose to the bottom of the chin

The following 4 measurements are equal

Ear passage to the tip of the nose.
Eyebrow to the base of the chin.
Hairline to the base of the nose.
Ear pasage to the ear passage.

Height of the average adult

is 7 - 8 heads tall.

The width of the face is

2/3 the length of the face.

Combinations / variations of Basic Facial Forms

Vertical-concave - Least Common

Basic Linear Forms of Facial Profiles

Convex - most common type
Concave -least common type - chin protrudes beyond the Infintine retrousse plane

Head Shapes From a Frontal View

Oval - most common -- so called ideal shape.
Triangle - least common head shape
Inverted Triangle


The outer rim of the ear has the general shape of a question mark. It begins superior to the lobe and ends by attaching to the cheek.


The fossa between the inner and outer rims of the ear. It is the shallowest depression of the ear.


The inner rim of the ear. It starts at the superior border of the lobe and continues upward until it ends by becoming the crura. It forms the superior and posterior walls of the concha.


The superior and anterior bifurcating branches of the antihelix

Triangular Fossa * 2nd deepest *

Depression between the crura. * The 2nd deepest depression * of the ear.

Concha * deepest *

Concave shell of the ear; * the deepest depression * of the ear located posterior and superior to the ear passage.


An elevation protecting the ear passage. Arise from the posterior margin of the lateral cheek.


A small eminence obliquely opposite the tragus. Located on the superior border of the lobe of the ear.

Intertragic notch

A notch or opening between the tragus and the antitragus of the ear.


Inferior fatty 1/3 of the ear; not soft inferior part of the ear. Attaches to the cheek. Not made of cartilage.


The origin of the helix that is flattened and ends in the concha.


Latin term for Ear.


the organ of hearing consisting of the external ear, middle ear, and internal ear.


The prominent organ of smell located in the center 1/3 of the face. It is the beginning of the respritory tract and is triangular or pyramidal in shape.

Types of Racial Description



A classification given to the nose that is long, narrow, and high bridged, common to individuals of Western European descent.


A classification given to the nose that is short, broad and has a minimum of projection; common to individiuals of African descent.


A classification given to a nose that is medium broad and medium low bridged; predominate among people of Asian descent.

NOSE: Profile classification: straight

Grecian / Greek characterized as straight from tip to root - MOST common.

NOSE: Profile classification: Convex

Roman, aquiline or hooked. Curved as the beak or an eagle, a nose that has a hook as seen from a profile; may exhibit a hump in the bridge.

NOSE: Profile classification: Concave

Snub, pug, infantine, or retrousse. Characterized by a dip in the bridge and turned up

Nasal bones

The paired nasal bone are inferior to the glabella, forming a dome over the superior portion of the nasal cavity.

Nasal cavity

The orifice in the bony face bounded by the margins of the nasal bones and the maxilla.

Nasal spine of the maxilla

The sharp, bony projection located medially at the inferior margin of the nasal cavity. This indicates the bony length of the nose.

Major cartilages

Septum and superior lateral cartilage.


The anterior protruding ridge of the nose extending from the root to the tip. It includes the bridge.


The apex, top, of the pyramidal mass of the nose, which lies directly inferior to the forehead. The concave dip inferior to the forehead.


Dome over the nasal cavity. Point of greatest projection. The ached portion of the nose supported by the nasal bones.


Lateral lobes of the nose. The widest part of the nose bordered by the nasal sulcus and the anterior nares.

Columna nasi

The fleshy termination of the nasal septum at the base of the nose located between the nostrils. The most inferior part of the nose.

Anterior nares

External nostril openings

Side of the nose

Lateral walls of the nose located between the wings of the nose and bridge. They recede laterally from the dorsum.

Protruding lobe of the nose

The rounded anterior projection of the tip of the nose.

Types o Prognathism

1. Maxillary
2. Mandibular
3. Dental
4. Alveolar

Shape of the Head

is influenced by it's bony structure.
It usually will use the following points of reference.
1. Bi-parietal width
2. Bi-zygomatic width
3. Bi-mandibular width
4. Length of head - vertex of chin base

Oval head

Most common shape of head
considered an ideal shape
Eye shaped

Round head

short, full cheeks
Round, fuller jaw line
Round crainum

Square head

appears short
forehead jaw line and cheeks are approximately the same width

Inverted Triangle Head

jaw line that is narrower than cheekbone or forehead

Diamond head

long and narrow
forehead and chin may be rounded or square
nose is usually long

Triangle head

is considered the LEAST common for testing purposes.
Appears wider at the jaw than cheeks and forehead.

Bilateral forms of the head & facial features - goal:

to compare two sides of the face and features and observe similarities and differences.

Features exhibiting Asymmetry

1. Eyelids and eyebrows
2. Ears
a. the ears exhibit the greatest difference in portion, form & size
b. they also show difference in how they protrudge laterally - away from head
3. Cheeks
4. Nose and mouth
a. line of closure of lips will/ be/can be different

Surfaces exhibiting a similarity of bilateral curvature

1. forehead
2. cheeks
3. superior intregumentary lip
4. chin

Bilateral silhouette

bilateral views from superior or inferior to compare both sides.

Internal bones of the Ear

have no effect on surface form. They can NOT be used as anatomical guides.
1. Malleus
2. Incus
3. Stapes

Ear Passage

external auditory meatus, generally not seen from the frontal view.


generally 1/3 the length of the face.


Forehead recedes - Chin protrudes


Forehead protrudes - Chin recedes


Forehead lines up vertically - Chin recedes

Vertical Concave

Forehead lines up vertically - Chin projects

Concave - Vertical

Forehead protrudes Chin lines up vertically

Convex - Vertical

Forehead recedes - Chin lines up vertically


most common* - forehead recedes, chin recedes


Least comon*, forehead protrudes, chin protrudes

Three Basic Forms

Convex, Concave, Vertical

Vertical Profiles

The standard forehead, upper lip and chin form vertical plans, nose not included. Forehead and chin are used for explaination. It is in vertical alignment? Does it recede? There are NINE - 9 - profile combinations TOTAL.

One Eye

Basic dimensional unit for width measurement; measured from one canthus; lateral, to the other [medial cathus].

Distance between eyes is one eye width

also base of nose is one eye width.

Distance from the corners of the eyes is

3 eyes wide.

5 eyes wide

The widest part of the face is ____ eyes wide.

Corner of the mouth are vertically aligned

with the middle of the eyes.


The width of the mouth is equal to ___ eye widths.

Use of Photographs

Secure a recent photograph
Snapshot will show natural facial markings
portraits will show extra light, less facial marking present.

Anatomic Structures for the Temporal Bone Using the Modeled Ear

1. External Auditory Meatus
2. Zygomatic Arch
3. Mandibular Fossa
4. Mastoid Process

External Facial Bones **

1. Nasal Bones - two
2. Zygomatic Bones - two
3. Maxilla - two
4. Mandible - one

Four surfaces that exhibt similar bilateral curvatures: **

1. Forehead
2. Cheeks
3. Superior intugumetary lip
4. Chin

Horizontally, the face is divided by 8 lines which creatd 6 special zones.

1. Divide face into 2 equal 1/2 by drawing a line at the: 1. vertex, top, of the cranium 2. The line of the eye closure, 3. Base of the chin
2. Divide the face into 3 equal part by drawing lines through the: 1. hairline 2. eyebrows 3. base of the nose 4. base of the chin
3. Divide the are between the base of the nose and the base of the chin into 3 equal part by drawing lines through: 1. base of the nose 2. line of the lip closure 3. top of the chin 4. base of the chin.

Vertical lines are used to determine the width of head feature by using the width of the eye as a standard of measurement.

1. Draw a line down from the medial corner of each eye. This line will extend to the corner of the wing of the nose.
2. Extend a line down from the lateral corner of each eye. This line will extend to the sides of the face.
3. Extend a line down from the middle of the eye. This line will extend to the corner of the mouth.


The face is ___ nose long.


The length of the nose is ___ to the length of the ear.


The width of the nose at the wings is ___ to the width of an eye.

5 eyes wide

The face is ___ eyes wide from zygomatic arch to zygomatic arch.

one eye

The distance between the eyes to the width of ___.

two eye wide

The mouth is _____ wide.

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