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In the thermal processing of semiconductor materials, annealing is accomplished by heating a silicon wafer according to a temperature-time recipe and then maintaining a fixed elevated temperature for a prescribed period of time. For the process tool arrangement, the wafer is in an evacuated chamber whose walls are maintained at and within which heating lamps maintain a radiant flux at its upper surface. The wafer is 0.78 mm thick, has a thermal conductivity of , and an emissivity that equals its absorptivity to the radiant flux . For , the temperature on its lower surface is measured by a radiation thermometer and found to have a value of . To avoid warping the wafer and inducing slip planes in the crystal structure, the temperature difference across the thickness of the wafer must be less than . Is this condition being met?
When moving on level ground, cross-country skiers slide their skis along the snow surface to stay moving. The coefficients of friction for a given set of skis and given snow conditions can be modified by various types of waxes. In order to move across the snow as fast as possible, (a) should you choose a wax that makes the coefficient of static friction between skis and snow as high as possible or as low as possible? (b) Should you choose a wax that makes the coefficient of kinetic friction between these two surfaces as high as possible or as low as possible?
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