Psychology Chapter 2
Terms in this set (117)
Communication between neurons occurs via chemical messengers called
What is the name of the tissue that passes information between the two cerebral hemispheres?
The _____ is the part of the brain that is closely linked to the control of sexual behavior.
Which of the following describe the body's physiological reaction to stress?
- The sympathetic nervous system kicks into high gear.
- Corticosteroids are released.
What is the function of Wernicke's area in the brain?
The understanding of language.
________ helps to control voluntary movement.
The nucleus of each human cell contains 46 __________, threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair originating from each parent.
What is the function of Broca's area in the brain?
The control of speech
The ______ is the part of the brain that is important for practiced movement.
The right hemisphere of the brain generally controls the __________ side of the body.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the nervous system?
Spatial location and motor control are the responsibility of the ________ lobes of the brain.
Motor areas in the cortex control
What is the name for the process by which axons of healthy neurons adjacent to damaged neuron grow new branches to make up for damage?
A _______ gene will not display its trait in the presence of a dominant gene.
An antagonist is:
A drug that blocks a neurotransmitter's effects
_____ breeding is a technique in which two specific organisms are chosen for reproduction to see what traits their offspring display.
Collateral sprouting, substitution of function, and neurogenesis are examples of brain _________.
What is the name of the field that uses advanced technology to actually manipulate genes in order to determine their effect on behavior?
Mood and energy regulation are the function of which of the following endocrine glands?
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system are the major divisions of the _____.
Neurons communicate by releasing chemical called _________ into a synapse.
Check all that apply. Which of the following structures are located in the hindbrain?
The peripheral nervous system is made up of the somatic and _______ nervous system.
The nervous system is composed of different subsystems that control different actions. Which of the following is NOT one of those subsystems?
Spinal nervous system
The __________ of the human brain are specialized where some functions are controlled by either left or right.
Flight and fight are controlled by the _____ division of the autonomic nervous system, a branch of the peripheral nervous system.
The parasympathetic and ________ nervous systems are components of the autonomic nervous system.
Which brain imaging technique can show what general region of the brain is active at a given moment by measure the amount of glucose in various areas on the brain then sending this information to a computer for analysis?
A positron emission tomography (PET) scan.
Nerves that carry information from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body are called
Your brain knows that you have stubbed your toe because
afferent nerves transfer that information to the brain
Why does chronic stress lower immune system functioning?
It keeps the sympathetic nervous system active, thus preventing the parasympathetic nervous system from doing its job.
Little Billy is terrified! He just heard a noise in his room, and he is sure that this means there are monsters coming to get him. Which part of Billy's nervous system will prepare him for fight or flight?
sympathetic nervous system
Which part of the neuron is responsible for receiving information?
Multiple sclerosis is caused by lesions on
The purpose of myelin is to
insulate axons to increase the speed of electrical impulses.
_____ allow ions to enter the neural cell.
When a neuron is resting, the inside of the cell membrane is _____ and the outside of the cell membrane is _____.
When a neuron is depolarized, the inside of the cell membrane is ____ and the outside of the cell membrane is ____.
The structures at the end of the axon are called
Which neurotransmitter is most associated with love and bonding?
What is the difference between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)?
MRI does not allow researchers to examine the brain in action, while fMRI does.
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex responds to visual stimuli?
Stem cells are unique because
they can develop into almost any type of cell.
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is associated with personality?
Which part of the brain acts as a central relay station?
The somatosensory cortex is located in which area of the brain?
Broca's area plays an important role in _____, while Wernicke's area plays an important role in _____.
speech production; speech comprehension
Which of the following is known as "the master gland"?
Eli is a researcher studying brain functioning. He takes a rat and destroys a portion of the rat's brain. Later, he examines the rat's behavior to see which functions are now impaired. Which method is Eli using to study the brain?
Individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) find it very difficult to focus their attention on any one thing. They are easily distracted by outside stimuli that most people could easily ignore. This is because people with ADHD have lower levels of activity in their
Chi-May has just given birth and is now holding her baby for the first time. She feels a powerful sense of bonding with her new son. Which hormone is likely responsible for this feeling?
Ari is participating in a research study. The researchers have asked him to complete some math problems; while he does this, the researchers are conducting a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. What is this test doing?
measuring the levels of glucose in various parts of Ari's brain
Which of the following is known as "the master gland"?
When Ephraim was very young, he suffered brain damage. Fortunately, his brain was able to adapt, and the axons of some of his functioning neurons grew new branches near the damaged cells. This process is known as
Dr. McCallum's class is learning about genes. He explains that not all of the information contained in our genes is used, either because the environment doesn't trigger certain tendencies, or because another genetic tendency took precedence. The genetic information that IS active in a particular person is expressed through observable characteristics. We call these characteristics
Liam's father has blue eyes, but Liam has brown eyes, like his mother. As an adult, Liam marries a woman with blue eyes, and now they are expecting their first baby. Is it possible for the child to be born with blue eyes?
Yes. Liam may carry the recessive gene for blue eyes.
Tahki and Waneta are identical twins, but they were separated at birth and raised in different countries. When they meet as adults, they talk about all the ways in which they are the same, but also the ways in which they are different. Compared to identical twins that have been raised together, Tahki and Waneta probably
have fewer characteristics in common than most twins because their environments were different while they were growing up.
Researchers have determined that bipolar disorder is more heritable than a major depressive disorder. They found that the more closely related family members are to someone with bipolar disorder, the more likely they are to have bipolar disorder themselves. The correlation is not as strong with major depressive disorders.These types of researchers are referred to as
You are listening to a lecture. Then the bell rings in the hallway. In order to hear this stimulus, ______ neurons must carry electrochemical messages from your ears to your brain.
The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system are components of the _____.
autonomic nervous system
You are walking to school when you encounter a strange barking dog. You tense up and contemplate whether you should run away. Which nervous system is responsible for this "fight or flight" reaction?
According to the all-or-nothing principle, _____.
once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity (its threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in ______.
motor function, learning, and memory
The reticular formation is primarily responsible for _____.
stereotyped patterns such as walking, sleeping, or turning to attend to a sudden noise
Sonal had a stroke. Doctors told her she sustained substantial damage to the occipital lobes. What type of deficiencies will Sonal likely experience as a result of this brain damage?
She may be blind or unable to see clearly.
The _____ is sometimes referred to as the "master gland" because it controls growth and it releases the hormones that regulate other glands in the endocrine system.
______are secreted by the adrenal glands.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Which of the following is NOT a division of the nervous system?
The _____________ nervous system increases the heartbeat and slows digestion.
The two main divisions of the nervous system are:
central and peripheral
The brain is part of the _______ nervous system
The peripheral nervous system is made up of the ______ and the _____ nervous systems.
Janet uses which part of her peripheral nervous system to tie her shoe?
- Increase in heart rate
- Increase in breathing rate
- Dilation of pupils
- Halt in digestion
- Release of epinephrine from adrenal glands
- Reduction in heart rate
- Reduction in breathing rate
- Constriction of pupils
- Stimulation of digestion
How do neurons communication information from involuntary movement?
by way of cranial and peripheral nerves
Which of the following is NOT an involuntary movement?
This summer, Dean took diving lessons. While learning to dive, Dean's brain sent a number of complex signals. Which of the following types of information was his brain sending when it told his body that it was the right time to breathe?
Reflexes, which are automatic and involuntary, use the ______ to transmit information back through interneurons to control muscle fibers.
How fast do neurons transmit information?
Cells of the nervous system are called
The human brain contains approximately ______ billion neurons.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major parts of the neuron?
The cell body
helps with cell maintenance.
A researcher is conducting an experiment where he tests a new drug to see its effect on neurons. As he monitors the brains of his test animals, he notices that their neurons have started to grow extra processes on the end of each axon. These extra cell growths are examples of:
Dr. Robertson is showing his class neurons under a microscope. He points out an area between two neurons. What is Dr. Robertson illustrating for his class?
Mirror neurons were first discovered in
________ discovered mirror neurons.
Mirror neurons give us information about others. When we are watching someone else, mirror neurons
fire in the same place that they normally fire when we are doing what the person we are watching is doing.
Without mirror neurons, we would have a hard time doing which of the following:
understanding someone else's emotions.
Suppose a neuropsychologist developed a theory about mirror neurons. Which of the following theories makes the most sense, given what we know about how mirror neurons work?
Mirror neurons probably evolved to help us function as social beings.
If we watch a movie where someone is laughing very hard, mirror neurons would likely cause us to feel like _____.
The little blips of electricity generated by neurons are called the
The __________ is the long thin structure which carries the electricity generated by neurons.
Each neuron is connected to about other neurons.
If you connect the neurons up properly, it is possible for them to represent the object in a distributed way, meaning that
many neurons represent a single object instead of representing a single object in a single location.
Marta was recently in an automobile accident and she suffered a traumatic brain injury. Since she is having a lot of trouble seeing, the neurologist suspects that she has damage in the _______________ and/or the _____________.
midbrain; occipital lobe
James is studying to be a neuropsychologist and is particularly interested in how the brain helps us move our arms and legs. He is probably very interested in the _____________ and _________________ areas of the brain.
basal ganglia; cerebellum
Keiko is trying to remember the names of the four lobes of the brain. Her _______ , a structure in the limbic system, will help her get these terms into her memory.
Randy wants to become a professional musician. He is already very proficient on the guitar and violin. Which brain structure allowed him to hear music?
The _________, a structure in the forebrain, tells you that you're hungry.
The _______ connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
The ______ lobe responds to visual stimuli and processes information about aspects of visual stimuli, such as color, shape, and motion.
Personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles are all directed by the
Which of the following is NOT one of the four lobes of the brain?
Researchers have determined that damage to the parietal lobe can cause deficits in a variety of areas related to
Rhonda has damage to her temporal lobe. Which of the following symptoms is she most likely to experience?
Difficulty storing information in long-term memory.
Mark was in a serious car accident and now lives in a rehabilitation facility. He is working on reducing his impulsive behavior and distractibility. What area of Mark's brain was most likely damaged during the accident?
Some interaction in the brain is lateral via a large bridge of connections called the
Who performed the first successful split brain surgery to prevent the spread of seizures in the brain?
What did Michael Gazzaniga do with split brain patients?
He tested the first split brain patient.
Which part of the brain is essential for speech?
Which part of the brain processes incoming sounds and recognizes them as language?
Which of the following correctly outlines the path that sounds take from the inner ear into the brain?
Your inner ear converts sound into electrical signals and the auditory nerves carry these signals through the brain stem and into the thalamus.
The parietal lobe
detects where objects are located in space.
Which area of the brain is responsible for planning out the motions your body will make to say words?
You are looking at a piece of modern art at a museum. As you look at the shapes on the painting, what part of the brain helps you understand if the lines are curvy or straight?
the visual cortex
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