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Induction (Inductive Reasoning)
Is reasoning with probability from examples or experiences to heneral rules
Species of a Term
A term that is more specific, narrow, or concrete than the orginal term and is included by it.
Shows relationships or reduces ambiguity by providing a single established meaning of a term.
a statement whose truth value depends on evidence or information from outside itself
implication (statements related by)
two statements are related by implication if the truth of one requires the truth of the other
the truth or falsity of one has no effect on the truth or falsity of the other
an actual inconsistancy between two statements: they cannot both be true at the same time
quantity of a statement
the scope of its claim about the extension of the subject: universal (entire extension) or particular (partial)
quality of a statement
is the positive or negative nature of its claim about the subject: affirmative (asserts something) or negative (denies something)
Requirements of Standard Categorical Form
1. Statements must begin w/ all, no, or some. 2. Verb must be a verb of being: is, are, etc. 3. Both subject and predicate must be a noun or a noun phrase.
square of opposition
a diagram of the basic relationships between statements with the same subject and predicate
two statements are in contradiction if and only if they always have opposite truth values
two statements are subcontraries if and only if both can be true but both cannot be false
the relationship between a universal and particular statement of the same quality, in which the truth of the universal necessitates the truth of the particular
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