Chapter 7: Key Terms
Terms in this set (38)
The material moved by erosion.
Occurs when the agents of erosion lay down sediment.
The process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another. Gravity, running water, glaciers, waves, and wind can cause this.
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
Works together in a cycle that wears down and builds up Earth's surface. They are constructive and destructive.
The force that moves rock and other materials downhill. Pulls everything toward the center of the Earth. Causes mass movement.
Caused by Gravity. The several processes that move sediment downhill. Can be rapid or slow. The different types include landslides, mudslides, slump, and creep.
The most destructive kind of mass movement. Occurs when rock and soil slide quickly down a steep slope. Some can include huge masses of rock, or small amounts of rock and soil.
Rapid downhill movement of a mixture of rock, water, and soil. Amount of water in it can be up to 60%. Can occur after heavy rains in a normally dry area. Can occur even on gentle slopes. Under certain conditions, clay soils suddenly turn to a liquid and flow.
A type of mass movement. A mass of rock and soil that suddenly slips down a slope. Moves down in 1 large mass. Often occurs when water soaks the base of a mass of soil that is rich in clay.
A type of mass movement. The very slow downhill movement of rock and soil that can occur on gentle slopes as well. VERY SLOW! Results from the freezing and thawing of water in cracked layers of rock beneath the soil.
All the remaining water that moves over Earth's surface. When water moves over the land, it carries particles with it. The moving water is this. When this flows in a thin layer over the land, it may cause a type of erosion called sheet erosion.
As runoff traveled, it forms time grooves in the soil. This is the tiny grooves in the soil. As these flow into one another, they grow larger, forming gullies.
Formed from rills.
A large groove, or channel, in the soil that carries runoff after a rainstorm. Gets larger through erosion. Flows only after it rains.
Gullies that form together to form a larger channel. This is the large channel. A channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope. Rarely dries up. Small ones are called: creeks and brooks.
A large stream. Forms when streams flow together, and they form larger and larger bodies of water. Often forms on steep mountain slopes. Fast-flowing and generally follows a straight, narrow course. Steep slopes along them erode rapidly.
A river receives water and sediment from a this. A smaller river or stream that flows into this. A stream that flows into a larger stream.
The land area from which a river and its tributaries collect their water.
The high ground between two drainage basins.
Near its source, a river often flows through the deep _-_____ _____. Many California rivers in the Sierra Nevada have steep, _-______ ______, except where glaciers have carved the valley walls. Examples: Merced and Tuolumme Rivers.
Waterfalls and Rapids
Common where the river passes over harder rock. Many California rivers have waterfalls and rapids. The waterfalls in Yosemite National Park are world famous. Rapids are common on fast-flowing rivers like the Trinity and American Rivers.
Forms when a river's power of erosion widens its valley rather than deepening it. The San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers both have vast flood plains. A river often covers its flood plain when it overflows its banks during floods.
A loop like bend in the course of a river. As the river widens from side to side, it tends to erode the outer bank and deposit sediment on the inner bank of a bend. Becomes more and more curved. Where a river flows across easily eroded sediment, it's channel bends from side to side in a series of these. The Sacramento Rover has both of these and oxbow lakes where it winds through California's Central Valley.
A meander cut off from a river by deposition and sediment. May form when a river floods. During the flood, high water finds a straighter route down a stream. As the floodwaters fall, sediments dam up the ends of a meander.
A wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range.
Where a river flows into a ocean, the river deposits sediment, forming this. In California, the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River join to form a large _____ with many channels.
The term geologists use for this underground water. Water that fills the openings in the soil and trickles into cracks and spaces in layers of rock. Affects the shape of the land. Can cause erosion (chemical weathering) by mixing with carbon dioxide and forms carbonic acid . Produces caves and caverns.
Sand carried downstream by rivers spreads along the coast to form this.
As a river approaches sea level, it may meander more and develop a wider valley and a broader flood plain.
A deposit of calcite that hangs like an icicle from the roof of a cave.
The snow dripping builds up a cone-shaped __________ from the cave floor.
A type of landscape in rainy regions where there is limestone near the surface, characterized by caverns, sinkholes, and valleys. If the roof of a cave collapses because of the erosion of the underlying limestone, the result is a depression (sinkhole).
The amount of sediment that a river carries. Gravity and the force of the moving water cause the sediment load to move downstream.
Slows a stream's flow. A type of movement of water in which, rather than moving downstream, the water moves every which way.
The energy an object has due to its motion.
The ability to do work or cause change. The two types of this: kinetic and potential. When this does work, it transfers from one object to another.
The force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface. It affects a river's speed. Low ________= faster flow. High ________= slower flow.
Another process by which a river obtains sediment. The wearing away of rock by a grinding action. Occurs when particles of sediment in flowing water bump into the stream bed again and again.
The type of energy that is stored and waiting to be used later. As gravity pulls water down a slope, the water's potential energy changes to kinetic energy that can do work.
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