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Principles of Physics Final
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Gravity
Terms in this set (58)
Force
a push or pull; needed to change an object's state of motion
Net Force
the combination of all forces acting on an object
Vector
an arrow that represents the magnitude and direction of a quantity
Vector Quantity
a quantity that needs both magnitude and direction for a complete description (ex. force)
Scalar Quantity
a quantity that can be described by a magnitude only and has no direction (ex. time, area, volume)
Mechanical Equilibrium
a state wherein no physical changes occur; it is a state of steadiness
Equilibrium Rule
whenever the net force on an object is zero; mathematically expressed as the sum of all forces equal 0
Support Force
the upward force that balances the weight of an object on a surface; often called the normal force
Resultant
the sum of two or more vectors
What is it called when an object is at rest and at constant speed in a straight-line path?
static equilibrium; dynamic equilibrium
How do you find the resultant of two nonparallel vectors?
construct a parallelogram where in the two vectors are adjacent sides. the diagonal shows the resultant
Friction
the force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other
Inertia
the property of a body to resist changes to its state of motion
Newton's First Law
usually called the law of inertia; states that every object continues in a state of rest, or of uniform speed in a straight line, unless acted on by a nonzero net force
Law of Inertia
Newton's first law; states that objects in motion stay in motion if no unbalanced forces act on them
Kilograms
mass is measured in this fundemantal unit
Mass
the quantity of matter in an object
Weight
the force of gravity on an object
Newton
the SI unit of force
Natural Motion
motion on Earth either straight up or straight down
Violent Motion
imposed motion
Relative
an object is moving if its position relative to a fixed point is changing
Speed
distance/time
Instantaneous Speed
the speed at any instant; (acceleration)(elapsed time) v=gt
Average Speed
the total distance covered/time
Velocity
speed given in direction
Acceleration
the rate at which the velocity is changing; change in velocity/time
Free Fall
an object moving under the influence of the gravitational force only
Elapsed Time
the time that has elapsed, or passed, since the beginning of any motion
What is the acceleration of an object in free fall?
10 m/s squared
On a speed-versus-time graph the slope represents what?
speed per time, or acceleration
Components
two vectors at right angles that add up to a given vector
Projectile
any object that moved through the air or space, acted on by only gravity
Resolution
the process of determining the components of a vector; the perpendicular components of a vector are independent of each other
Inversely
means that the two values change in opposite directions
Newton's Second Law
states that the acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, is in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object
Fluid
both liquids and gases
Air Resistance
the friction acting on something moving through the air
Free-Body Diagram
a diagram showing all the forces acting on an object
Presuure
the amount of force per unit of area
Pascal
newtons per square meter; what pressure is measures in; (Pa)
Terminal Speed
the speed at which the acceleration of a falling object is zero because friction blances the weight
Terminal Velocity
terminal speed together with the direction of motion
Interaction
a mutual action
Newton's Third Law
states that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction on the first object
Action Force
beginning force
Reaction Force
ending force
Momentum
the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity; mass x velocity
Impulse
the quantity force x time interval; Ft
Law of Conservation of Momentum
states that, in the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged
Elastic Collision
when objects collide without being permanently deformed and without generating heat
Inelastic Collision
a collision in which the colliding object become distorted and generate heat during the collision
Energy
the property of an object or system that enables it to do work
Mechanical Energy
the energy due to the position of something or the movement of something
Potential Energy
energy that is stored and held in readiness
Kinetic Energy
energy in motion
Thermal Energy
the energy of motion in the molecules of a substance
Conservation of Energy
states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. it can be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes
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