Lesson 15 Population Dilemmas in Europe
Terms in this set (25)
The study of human populations, including how they change due to births, deaths, aging, and migration.
The number of births in a year for every 1,000 people in a population
The number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people in a population
The process of moving from one region or country to another.
The make up of a country's population by sex and age groups
Total Fertility Rate
The average number of children a woman in a given population will have in her lifetime. This number varies by country.
The total fertility rate needed for a population to replace itself. This number varies by country.
The average age that a person in a given population can expect to live. Life expectancy varies from one country to another.
Demographic Transition Model
A model of how the size of a population changes as a country develops its economy
What is the replacement rate of most developed countries?
Rapid Population Growth
Wide base, narrow top.
Slow Population Growth
Looks like a coke bottle or more of a rectangle.
Negative Population Growth
Base is narrower than it's top.
What are some causes of a shrinking population?
Low birth rates because
-Family finances play a part in how many children people have.
-When parents work, they need help to care for their children during the day.
-Finally, many young women put off having babies while they focus on education or a career.
What problems are caused by negative population growth?
-Teachers and others who work with children may lose their jobs.
-As populations shrink, businesses may not be able find enough workers
-Negative growth also means fewer people to serve in military forces.
What are some ways to prevent negative population growth?
-Provide free childcare to working parents
-Allow parents to have paid time off when children are born
-Encourage parents to have children earlier in their lives.
-Pay parents a "birth bonus" for each child they have.
What are some causes of an aging population?
-Rise in life expectancy
-Drop in birth rate
-Europe will age even more rapidly in the years ahead because of an earlier baby boom.
An aging population can cause problems for a country because . . .
Pensions and health care are major problems for countries because the money to pay for both comes from taxes paid by working people. This system works as long as the dependency ratio is low.
What are some ways to cope with an aging population?
-Require people to save their own retirement.
-Give people over 65 a "pension bonus" for each extra year they work.
-Pay relatives who stay home to help older family members.
-Encourage companies to pay for health care.
What causes a workforce to decline?
-More workers retire each year than join the work force.
-Workforce decline leads to changes in the dependency ratio.
-In 200, 100 workers in Germany supported 87 dependents. By 2030, 100 workers will be supporting 121 dependents. A rise of 39%.
A declining workforce can cause problems for a country because . . .
-Faced with a workers shortage of 2 million by 2050.
-As a result Germany may lose companies to other countries.
-Other companies may shrink or close altogether
-Workforce decline is also a big problem for government. Workers pay most taxes that support government programs
What are some ways to cope with a declining workforce?
-Allow workers from other countries to take available jobs.
-Give mothers paid time off and flexible schedules.
-Require current workers to work more years before they retire.
-Move factories to other countries.
Why do developed countries have lower birth rates than developing ones?
-The cost of raising children is seen as an expense. Also, family-planning methods are more available to help couples to limit their families to what they want and can afford
Why do developing countries have higher birth rates than developed ones?
-In poorer countries, poverty plays a role in family size. Children are expected to help support their families.
How might high birth rates affect a country's future?
-They may not have enough schools to educate their children. They may not have enough jobs to employ their young adults