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Intermediate Nursing 2.3
Terms in this set (75)
a place where whole blood or blood plasma is drawn, typed, processed, and stored under refrigeration for future use.
the transfer of human blood or its components from a donor to a recipient
the classification of human blood cells to determine compatibility
when fluid output exceeds fluid intake causing a decrease in the amount of fluid in body tissues
a form of glucose found in human blood
when fluid intake exceeds fluid output causing body tissues to swell with fluid
a substance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electrical charge when in solution. (e.g., sodium, magnesium, potassium)
via the veins
introduction of fluid into a vein
a fine mesh filter in the drop chamber of an intravenous set used for blood transfusions. Prevents clots from entering the circulatory system
a blood product with an extremely high proportion of red blood cells
Packed red blood cells
the fluid part of blood
any of the minute, disc-like, colorless elements of the blood that are essential for normal clotting
producing, or produced by, heat or fever
to transfer or introduce blood, blood plasma, etc. into a vein
blood for transfusion from which none of the elements have been removed
a componet of an intraveous set used for blood transfusions
5% Dextrose in water
sodium chloride, normal saline
to give a specified amount rapidly, or all at once
the rate the solution will be infused; unit of measure is gtts/min
the manufacturer's certified flow rate of the tubing so that a cerain number of drops equal 1mL
the rate the solution will be infused; unit of measure is mL/hr or gtts/min
being open and unobstructed
drops per minute
a puncture resistant container used to dispose of contaminated neeles and other sharp medical objects
a clot of blood
keep vein open
milliliters per hour
What is the goal of IV fluid administration?
correct or prevent fluid and electrolyte disturbances.
What are the 5 ways fluids can be lost?
1. elimination 2. hemorrhage 3. severe or prolonged vomiting or diarrhea 4. moderate or excessive drainage from wounds 5. profuse sweating
How much fluid does the average adult need over a 24 hour period?
What is an advantage of an IV?
supplies patients with fluids/medications quickly
What is a disadvantage of an IV?
material cannot be retrieved if an error is made
What are the three types of IV solutions?
isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic
List 3 instances when an isotonic solution may need to be used.
1. excessive vomiting 2. diarrhea 3. blood loss
Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) may be used for ______ _______.
Hypertonic solutions are used to replace ______ and pull fluid from cells and surrounding tissue to the vascular compartment.
_______ occurs when fluid leaks out of the vein into the surrounding tissue
A cool, painful, swollen pale site with a decreased IV flow rate and edema indicates _________
_______ is irritation of the vessel by the needle, cannula, medication, or additives in the IV solution
List some signs of phlebitis
erythema, warmth, edema, pain
A ______ __________ occurs when infectious pathogens are introduced into the bloodstream
Fever, chills, pain, headaches, nausea, and extreme fatigue may indicate a ________ _________
_______ embolus occurs when a piece of cannula breaks off and travels in the vein until it lodges
_____ embolus occurs when air enters the vein, usually while changing bags
______ _______ occurs when fluids or meds given by bolus or infusion are administered too rapidly
What are the 3 principles of a blood transfusion?
1. Increasing circulating blood volume after surgery, trauma, or hemorrhage 2. Increasing the # of RBC's and maintaining hemoglobin levels in patients with severe anemia 3. Providing selected cellular components as replacement therapy
What is considered to be the universal blood donor?
What is considered a universal blood receiver?
Blood must be started within __ minutes after obtaining the bag from the blood bank
True/false: Blood may be stored in the ward refrigerator until it is ready for use.
False: ward refrigerators do not have sufficiently controlled temperatures
Blood must be returned to the _____ ______ if the transfusion is not started within 30 minutes
Patients must be observed constantly during the first ___ minutes of a blood transfusion
What are 3 reactions that may occur with a blood transfusion?
1. hemolytic 2. allergic 3. febrile
____ is an infusion of incompatible whole blood, RBC's or components.
What reaction may occur if a recipient has antibodies to the plasma proteins in the donated blood?
A ______ reaction is the most common. The recipient is sensitive to the donor's WBCs, platelets or plasma proteins
List some signs that a patient may exhibit during a blood transfusion reaction.
discomfort, anxiety, shortness of breath, chills, headache, and itching
What should you do if a patient develops a reaction to the transfusion?
Stop the transfusion IMMEDIATELY
Regarding IV solutions, doctor's orders must contain what 3 things?
1. type of solution 2. amount to be infused 3. rate by the number of hours it is to run or volume per hour
What type of IV set would you use to infuse medications such as antibiotics?
secondary/piggyback IV set
What type of IV set is used to administer blood products and contains 2 spikes?
Parallel IV set (Y type)
Infusion pumps deliver IV fluids _________ at a preset rate
What are 3 disadvantages of the pump?
1. Exert pressure on the vein 2. Expensive 3. Certain types of pumps require different types of administration sets
What device may used in order to support and immobilize the arm during IV therapy?
An arm board
You should measure an arm board to ensure coverage ______ the joint
You should cleanse your venipuncture site with an antiseptic swab moving in a circular motion out from the site, approximately ____ inches
You should place the tourniquet ___ to ____ inches above the selected IV site
You should insert the IV catheter with the bevel facing up at a ____ to ____ degree angle in the direction of the vein
After flash is seen in the chamber of the catheter, you should _____ the catheter and advance the needle approximately ___" further into the skin
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Intermediate Nursing 2.1
Intermediate Nursing 2.2
Intermediate Nursing 1.2
Intermediate Nursing 1.3
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