42 terms

Chapter 10 Text

The process of changing one steep field into a series of smaller, flatter fields.
A process by which softer, less weather-resistant rocks wear away and leave harder, more weather-resistant rocks behind.
Differential weathering.
Dropping a sugar cube into a glass of water, and the sugar cube dissoving after a few minutes. The process is an an example of...
Chemical weathering.
Ice, wind, water, gravity, plants, and animals are all agents of...
Mechanical weathering.
What is the organic material formed in soil from the decayed remains of plants and animals called?
Which soil conservation technique prevents erosion by providing cover that reduces water runoff?
No-till farming.
How do lichens slowly break down a rock?
By chemical weathering.
Soil quality based on the relative size of soil particles is called...
Soil texture.
The term for the arrangement of soil particles is...
Soil structure.
What is it called when a farmer plants different crops in order to use less nutrients or different nutrients from the soil?
Crop rotation.
What is it called when wind blows sand and silt against exposed rock, eventually wearing away the rock's surface?
What is most likely to experience oxidation?
Aluminum can.
The removal of substances that can be dissolved from rock or layers of soil due to the passing of water is called...
When oxygen in the air reacts with iron, the result is...
What is the breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by physical means called?
Mechanical weathering.
What is the soil's ability to hold nutrients and to supply nutrients to a plant called?
Soil fertility.
Mechanical weathering occurs at a greater rate in climates that are...
Cold and wet.
Which of the following types of chemical weathering causes a karst landscape, such as a cavern?
Acids in groundwater.
What do we call soil that is blown or washed away from its parent rock?
Transported soil.
Which rocks are exposed to more wind, rain and ice?
Rocks at a higher elevation.
Chemical weathering is most rapid in areas that are...
Warm and wet.
What is it called when you plow across the slope of hills?
Contour plowing.
Which soil conservation technique prevents erosion on steep hills by heavy rains?
The decayed plant and animal material in soil is called...
Which soil conservation technique helps restore nutrients to the soil?
Cover crop.
Chemical weathering is most rapid in areas that are...
Warm and wet.
Which climate has the most productive soil for raising crops?
Temperate forest and grassland.
The average weather condition in an area over a long period of time is called...
If you increase the surface area of a rock, how will it affect the rate at which it weathers?
It will weather more quickly.
Soil that has a pH of 9 would be considered...
The practice of leaving old stalks to provide cover from rain in order to reduce water runoff and soil erosion is called...
No-till farming.
Small rocks weather more quickly than large rocks because their surface area is...
Climates the experience frequent freezes and thaws have a higher rate of _________ weathering than do more temperate climates.
A common form of chemical weathering that causes rust is called _________.
The ability of soil to hold and supply nutrients is called ___________.
Soil fertility.
The series of layers in which soil forms are called __________.
Weathering is the process by which rock materials are broken down by the action of _________ or chemical processes.
Plants and trees protect the soil from _______ by acting as anchors to the soil.
The pH of a soil influences how ________ dissolve in the soil.
Ice, wind, water, gravity, plants, and animals are all agents of ___________ weathering.
Under the same climatic conditions, hard rocks weather more slowly than softer rocks. The phenomenon is called ______________________.
Differential weathering.
The rock formation that is the source of mineral fragments in the soil is called the ___________.
Parent rock.