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ISM 3011 FINAL

CHAPTER 9, 10, 11, 12 USING MIS KROENKE 3RD EDITION
STUDY
PLAY
An example of malicious human activity could include an employee who, in the course of backing up a database, inadvertently installs an old database on top of the current one.
A. True
B. False
B. False
Drive-by spoofers take computers with wireless connections through an area and search for unprotected wireless networks.
A. True
B. False
B. False
The IT department should set the security policy for an organization.
A. True
B. False
B. False
HIPAA sets limits on who can receive your health information.
A. True
B. False
A. True
Encryption is an example of a technical safeguard.
A. True
B. False
A. True
The ________ pretends to be a legitimate company and sends an email requesting confidential data, such as account numbers, Social Security numbers, account passwords, and so forth.
A. hawker
B. phisher
C. spoofer
D. sniffer
B. phisher
Which of the following usually happens in a malicious denial-of-service attack?
A. A hacker monitors and intercepts wireless traffic at will.
B. A hacker floods a Web server with millions of bogus service requests.
C. A hacker uses unauthorized programs to invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs.
D. A phisher pretends to be a legitimate company and sends an email requesting confidential data.
B. A hacker floods a Web server with millions of bogus service requests.
Which of the following is a critical security function of senior-management involvement?
A. safeguarding computer hardware and software
B. planning response to security incidents
C. establishing the security policy
D. managing the security program on a real-time basis
C. establishing the security policy
Which of the following is an example of a technical safeguard?
A. backup and recovery
B. encryption
C. procedure design
D. compliance
B. encryption
A security policy covering personal use of computers at work would be an example of a ________.
A. data policy
B. issue-specific policy
C. system-specific policy
D. personnel policy
B. issue-specific policy
Which of the following is used for biometric authentication?
A. smart cards
B. facial features
C. passwords
D. chromosome data
B. facial features
________ encryption uses the same key for both parties.
A. Symmetric
B. Asymmetric
C. SSL
D. TLS
A. Symmetric
You are doing an online fund transfer through the Web site of a reputed bank. Which of the following displayed in your browser's address bar will let you know that the bank is using the SSL protocol?
A. http://
B. www3
C. https://
D. .com
C. https://
Managing outsourcing relationships is one of the major functions of the information systems (IS) department.
A. True
B. False
A. True
The system analyst works with users to determine system requirements.
A. True
B. False
A. True
An organization should implement all good ideas that are in alignment with its strategy.
A. True
B. False
B. False
Legacy systems usually require special maintenance teams and activities to keep them running.
A. True
B. False
A. True
________ is another more common title given to the VP of information services.
A. CTO
B. CEO
C. CIO
D. CFO
C. CIO
The ________ group includes system and network administrators.
A. technology
B. operations
C. development
D. outsourcing relations
B. operations
If you are a senior manager in finance, it is possible that you may be asked to be a member of the ________ in order to help evaluate and prioritize new IS projects from a finance perspective.
A. steering committee
B. outsourcing relations group
C. project management group
D. enterprise application group
A. steering committee
Because the IS department essentially functions as a ________ organization, it must have a system to record user problems and monitor their resolution.
A. for profit
B. service
C. product
D. volunteer
B. service
A file which contains data definitions is called a ________.
A. data standard
B. data dictionary
C. data plan
D. data policy
B. data dictionary
Which of the following statements is true regarding outsourcing?
A. There is no guarantee that outsourcing will provide a certain level of quality.
B. Outsourcing leads to greater budgetary instability.
C. Outsourcing saves direct management time but increases indirect management time.
D. Outsourcing involves significant implementation risk.
A. There is no guarantee that outsourcing will provide a certain level of quality.
A major concern with outsourcing is that the company may lose ________ by being forced to reveal proprietary trade secrets.
A. market position
B. employees
C. market value
D. intellectual capital
D. intellectual capital
________ is the process whereby multiple operating systems share the same computer hardware, usually a server.
A. Virtualization
B. Green computing
C. System outsourcing
D. Application outsourcing
A. Virtualization
Information systems are never off-the-shelf.
A. True
B. False
A. True
The single most important criterion for information systems success is for users and the business to take ownership of their systems.
A. True
B. False
A. True
According to Brooks' Law, adding more people to a system development project will ________.
A. lower the total project cost
B. speed up the project
C. delay the project's completion
D. require less coordination
C. delay the project's completion
During requirements definition of a project, the team will be heavy with systems analysts.
A. True
B. False
A. True
Identify the most important phase in the systems development process.
A. determining requirements
B. component design
C. implementation
D. system maintenance
A. determining requirements
A ________ installation is the riskiest because the old system is turned off and the new system is turned on.
A. pilot
B. phased
C. parallel
D. plunge
D. plunge
Software vendors often bundle large bunches of fixes for low-priority problems into groups called ________.
A. technical fixes
B. patches
C. service packs
D. enterprise packs
C. service packs
In order to address the problems facing development forecasting, development methodologies other than the SDLC have emerged for developing systems through a series of small, manageable chunks. Which of the following is not one of them?
A. rapid application development
B. integrated development
C. extreme programming
D. object-oriented development
B. integrated development
Project decisions are based on the starting plan called ________ that stipulates the tasks to be accomplished, the labor and other resources assigned to those tasks, and the schedule for completion.
A. template
B. estimate
C. baseline
D. pre-report
C. baseline
Project teams create a(n) ________, which is a hierarchy of the tasks required to complete a project, to reduce the confusion of complex interrelated tasks.
A. enterprise task sheet
B. work-breakdown structure
C. Gantt chart
D. scope statement
B. work-breakdown structure
The ________ is the sequence of activities that determines the earliest date by which the project can be completed.
A. work-breakdown structure
B. Gantt chart
C. critical path
D. baseline WBS
C. critical path
Reporting tools are programs that read data from a variety of sources, process that data, format it into structured reports, and deliver those reports to the users who need them.
A. True
B. False
A. True
Which of the following is the most accurate description of business intelligence?
A. information used to organize routine business operations
B. information relating to key business processes
C. information containing patterns, relationships, and trends
D. information concerning key competitors in the industry
C. information containing patterns, relationships, and trends
Which of the following is an example of question that data-mining will help address?
A. Will a given customer default on a loan?
B. What has happened in the last two years?
C. What is the current situation?
D. How does the current situation compare to the situation one year ago?
A. Will a given customer default on a loan?
An RFM score of ________ probably means that this customer has taken their business elsewhere and is probably not worth spending too many marketing resources on.
A. 121
B. 231
C. 555
D. 111
C. 555
Focused differentiation occurs when ____
industry segmented relying on quality of products over another
Which of the following is a support activity in the value chain?
procurement, HR, Infrastructure, technology
Organizations can lock in suppliers by making it difficult to switch to another organization or by
Making it easy to connect or work with suppliers
MIS is best defined as
development and use of information systems that help a business achieve their goals and objectives
Which of the following accurately describes the five-component framework of information systems?
Model of components: hardware, software, data, procedures, people
Which of the following is true about the quality of information?
It's accurate, timely, just sufficient, and worth its cost
The operating system employs ___ so that users can run multiple applications and files at the same time
Memory Swap
A network of computers that appears to operate as an integrated whole is known as a ____
grid
A client-server application that requires nothing more than a browser is called a ____
thin client
A ___ is a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table.
key
Metadata are ___
data that describes data
A ___ is a computing device that prevents unauthorized network access
Firewall
Information silos arise as a consequence of an organization's ___
Growth and increasing use of information systems
Information silos are not a problem until they ___
Begin to share data about the same entities/duplicate data
E-commerce leads to ___, which is the elimination of middle layers of distributors and suppliers
disintermediation
Which one of the following characteristics is true for companies such as Google, Amazon.com, and eBay that exemplify Web 2.0?
They don't sell software licenses. They use SAAS software as a service.
- even faster
- advertising revenue models
- flexibility
- rise of user generated content
Which of the following is an example of a question that data-mining will help address?
Make predictions like... will a customer default on a loan? Will an employee respond positively to a promotion?
Which of the following statements is true about operational data?
- is designed to support fast transaction processing and might need to be reformatted to be useful for BI application
- most operational and purchased data have problems that inhibit their usefulness for business intelligence
A business process that crosses into multiple companies is known as a(n) ____ business process
interorganizational
In cross-functional business process management, ____
- business processes crosses into multiple departments within a single company
- Ex. CRM, ERP
- BPM authority shared across several departments. Problem resolution via committee and policy
In a BPMN process diagram, a ___ represents the start of a process
open circle with thinner outline
In BPMN notation, ___ represent decisions and usually contain a question that can be answered with yes or no.
diamonds
In a BPMN process diagram, dotted arrows depict the flow of
messages and data flows
In BPMN diagrams, a square with a plus sign means that
activity is considered to be independent of this process and that it is defined in greater detail in another diagram
Which of the following is NOT a way for process designers to increase the performance of a business process?
Three ways they CAN
1) add more resources to roles of a given process without changing its structure (add people, equipment or systems -- ADDS COST)
2) Change the structure of a process without resource allocation change
3) Change both the structure and adding resources
Which of the following is true for the relationship between business processes and information systems?
- IS elements are embedded within the BP but there are activities in the BP that are not part of the IS
- BP uses two separate IS, and can utilize 0, 1, or more IS
- A particular IS may be bused by one or more BP
What are the four dimensions of feasibility?
1) cost
2) schedule
3) technical
4) organizational
An element of ___ feasibility concerns whether the new system fits within legal requirements.
organizational
During the requirements definition stage of developing an information system, the project team will include mostly ___
Business and system analysis
The ___ stage of the information systems development process involves identifying what is to be procured, how frequently and how fast it is to be produced
Determining requirements
In a business process, a role is _____
a collection of procedures
In business process management, teams build a(n) ___ model that documents the current situation and then make adjustments necessary to solve the problems
as-is model
A functional business process ____
Resides with a single business function, authority belongs to a single manager Ex. accounts payable
Which of the following is true of business processes in nonprofit and governmental organizations?
- Have all three types of processes: functional, cross-functional, interorganizational
- Most processes are service-oriented, rather than revenue-oriented
The first step in the system definition phase of systems development is to ___
Define the goals and scope of the new IS
___ feasibility refers to whether existing information technology is able to meet the needs of the new system
Technical
Does the company have management policy that prohibits releasing customer data? Such a question is critical to understanding ___ feasibility.
organizational
Tasks in the ___ phase of the system development process are to build, test, and convert the users to the new system
Implementation
With ___ installation, the organization implements the entire system/business process on a limited portion of the business
Pilot
Fixing the system so that it works correctly or adapting it to changes in requirements occurs in the __ phase of the information system development process
maintenance
According to Brooks' Law, adding more people to a system development project will ___
make the project later
A ___ shows the tasks, start and finish dates, and dependencies for the tasks of a project.
Gant Chart (or possibly WBS)
___ is the process by which project managers compress the schedule by moving resources, typically people, from noncritical path tasks onto critical path tasks
Critical Path Analysis
The situation that occurs when adding more resources creates inefficiencies is known as ___
diseconomies of scale
The term ___ refers to a set of management policies, practices, and tools that developers use to maintain control over the project's resources
Configuration control
Which of the following is not a process modeling deliverable?
An entity relationship diagram
Data contained on a customer order form would be represented on a data-flow diagram as a:
data flow
Data in motion, moving from one place in a system to another, best describes a:
data flow
Data at rest, which may take the form of many different physical representations, best describes a:
data store
The calculation of an employee's salary would be represented on a data-flow diagram as a(n):
process
A supplier of auto parts to your company would be represented on a data-flow diagram as a:
source
The origin and/or destination of data, sometimes referred to as external entities defines:
source
An arrow on a data-flow diagram represents a(n):
data flow
A square on a data-flow diagram represents a:
source
On a data-flow diagram, a rectangle with rounded corners represents a(n):
process
On a data-flow diagram, a rectangle with the right vertical line missing represents a:
data store
Which of the following is most likely a source/sink for a manufacturing system?
know examples of a source/sink
Which of the following is true regarding the context diagram?
know that the process symbol is labeled 0 and has only one process
If two processes are connected by a data flow, they are said to:
be coupled to each other
By placing a data store between two processes, this:
decouples the processes
A miracle process is one that:
has only outputs
A black hole is a process that:
has only inputs
On a data-flow diagram, you may:
repeat both data stores and sources/sinks
The act of going from a single system to several component processes refers to:
decomposition
The conservation of inputs and outputs to a data-flow diagram process when that process is decomposed to a lower level defines:
balancing
Which of the following is a true statement?
An information system design based on a data orientation, rather than a process or logic orientation, should have a longer useful life
Conceptual data modeling is typically done in parallel with other requirements analysis and structuring steps during:
systems analysis
Process, logic, and data-model descriptions of a system must be consistent and complete since:
they each describe different but complementary views of the same information system
The most common format used for data modeling is:
entity-relationship diagramming
During systems analysis:
a conceptual data model (E-R with attributes) is prepared
During systems planning and selection:
an enterprise-wide data model is prepared
During systems design:
a logical model (relational) is prepared
During systems implementation and operation:
database and file definitions are prepared
The primary deliverable from the conceptual data-modeling step within the analysis phase is:
an entity-relationship diagram
The data modeling perspective that derives the business rules for a data model from an intimate understanding of the nature of the business, rather than from any specific information requirements in screens, reports, or business forms, is referred to as the:
top-down approach
Gathering the information you need for data modeling by reviewing specific business documents handled within the system describes the:
bottom-up approach
Reviewing computer screens, reports, and business forms for the purpose of gaining an understanding of data is indicative of the:
bottom-up approach
Asking system users and business managers "How many instances of each object might exist?" would help determine:
the data entities and their descriptions
A detailed, logical, and graphical representation of the entities, associations, and data elements for an organization or business area best describes a(n):
entity-relationship diagram or E-R diagram
A person, place, object, event, or concept in the user environment about which the organization wishes to maintain data refers to a(n):
entity
A collection of entities that share common properties or characteristics best defines:
entity type
A single occurrence of an entity type defines:
entity instance
A named property or characteristic of an entity that is of interest to the organization defines:
attribute
An attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies each instance of an entity type defines:
candidate key
When selecting an identifier, one should:
choose a candidate key that will not change its value over the life of each instance of the entity type
Human interface design is performed during:
systems design
Which of the following is the standard method of gathering and displaying information on the Internet?
Form interaction
Which of the following best describes a business document that contains only predefined data?
Report
Form and report design:
generally follows a prototyping approach
When designing a form or report, which of the following is a fundamental question?
know what are the fundamental questions
The major deliverables associated with the human interface design stage are:
design specifications
Designing usable forms and reports requires:
active interaction with end users
Which of the following is a guideline for designing forms and reports?
know the guidelines for designing forms and reports
Making sure that all data and entry fields are clearly labeled corresponds to the following form and report guideline:
balance the layout
Commonly used methods for highlighting include:
know commonly used methods for highlighting
Commonly used methods for highlighting include each of the following except:
spacing
Which of the following is a guideline for displaying text?
know the guidelines for displaying text
Which of the following focuses on how information is provided to and captured from users?
Interface and dialogue design
When designing interfaces and dialogues, you follow a:
prototyping approach
The way a user can move from one display to another best describes:
dialogue sequence
When designing the navigation procedures within your system, the primary concerns are:
flexibility and consistency
Movement to another screen corresponds to the functional requirement of:
exit capabilities
"Please wait while I open the file" is an example of:
status information
Using lists to break information into manageable pieces conforms to the SOS guideline of:
organize
The ability to provide field-level help is often referred to as:
context-sensitive help
Which of the following is not associated with logical and physical database design?
The preparation of a final conceptual model and the implementation of the database
The most common style for a logical database model is the:
relational database model
During logical database design, the work of all systems development team members is coordinated and shared through:
the project dictionary
Combining all normalized user views into one consolidated logical database model refers to:
view integration
The primary deliverable from logical database design is:
normalized relations
A data model that represents data in the form of tables or relations is called a(n):
relational database model
A named two-dimensional table of data is a(n):
relation
A relation that contains a minimum amount of redundancy and allows users to insert, modify, and delete the rows in a table without errors or inconsistencies is a(n):
well-structured relation
The process of converting complex data structures into simple, stable data structures is referred to as:
normalization
A particular relationship between two attributes best defines:
functional dependency
An attribute that appears as a nonkey attribute in one relation and as a primary key attribute (or part of a primary key) in another relation is a:
foreign key
If order number serves as the primary key in the order relation and also appears as a nonkey attribute in the invoice relation, then order number is said to be a:
foreign key
Which of the following statements is true regarding normalization?
Normalization produces a set of well-structured relations that contain all of the data mentioned in system inputs and outputs developed in human interface design
Which of the following properties should be satisfied when the identifier of the entity type becomes the primary key of the corresponding relation?
The value of the key must uniquely identify every row in the relation
Relationships between instances of a single entity type are referred to as:
recursive relationships
A foreign key in a relation that references the primary key values of that same relation is referred to as a(n):
recursive foreign key
Merging relations is also referred to as:
view integration
Two different names that are used to refer to the same data item best defines:
synonym
A single name that is used for two or more different attributes best defines:
homonym
Which of the following best describes a unique sequential number or random number assigned by the database management system (DBMS) whenever a new record is added to a table?
autonumber
The process whereby the physical design specifications created by the design team are turned into working computer code by the programming team is referred to as:
coding
The deliverables from the coding, testing, and installation processes include:
the code, program documentation, test scenarios and test data, results of program and system testing, user guides, user training plan, and an installation and conversion plan
A strategy for training users so they can quickly learn the new system is a(n):
training plan
Training on the use of the system begins during the early stages of:
implementation
This plan lays out a strategy for moving from the old system to the new.
Installation plan
Testing each module alone in an attempt to discover any errors that may exist in the module's code is referred to as:
unit testing
The bringing together of all the programs that comprise a system for testing describes:
system testing
The purpose of acceptance testing is to:
determine if the system meets user requirements
User testing of a completed information system using simulated data refers to:
alpha testing
User testing of a completed information system using real data in the real user environment refers to:
beta testing
The organizational process of changing over from the current information system to a new one best defines:
installation
Which of the following determines how the system performs on the range of possible environments in which it may be used?
Performance testing
Changing over from the old information system to a new one by turning off the old system as the new one is turned on best describes:
direct installation
Written or other visual information about an application system, how it works, and how to use it best defines:
user documentation
System documentation that includes the outcome of such structured diagramming techniques as data-flow and entity-relationship diagrams best defines:
a. embedded documentation external documentation
Which of the following consists of an exhaustive list of the system's functions and commands, usually in alphabetical order?
Reference guide
This type of user documentation is intended primarily for those who will install and administer a new system and contains information about the network on which the system will run, software interfaces for peripherals such as printers, troubleshooting, and setting up user accounts.
System administrator's guide
This type of user documentation allows users to test for proper system installation and then signify their acceptance of the new system and its documentation with their signatures.
Acceptance sign-off
Most user documentation is now delivered:
online, in hypertext format
Which of the following are common methods for computer training?
know the common methods of computer training
True or false. In a business process, activities are collections of related tasks that receive inputs and produce outputs.
True.
True or false. In business processes, resources are collections of procedures.
False; In business processes, roles are collections of procedures.
True or false. Roles are collections of related tasks that receive inputs and produce outputs.
False; Activities are collections of related tasks that receive inputs and produce outputs.
True or false. A data flow is the movement of data from one activity or another from an activity to a repository.
True.
True or false. Resources are people or computer applications that are assigned to roles.
True.
True or false. Only a single resource can be assigned to a role.
False;
True or false. A business process should be changed only when there is a change in an external situation, such as the market.
False; A business process should be changed only when it doesn't work.
True or false. Business process management is a one-time process for systematically creating, assessing, and altering business processes.
False; Business process management is a recurring process for systematically creating, assessing, and altering business processes.
True or false. The BPM cycle begins by creating models of business processes.
True
True or false. An as-is model documents the targeted situation for a business process.
False; An as-is model documents the current situation for a business process.
True or false. In a business process management scenario, teams make adjustments necessary to solve process problems before building an as-is model.
False; In a business process management scenario, business users who have expertise make adjustments necessary to solve process problems before building an as-is model.
True or false. The creation of system components can be a manual as well as an automated process.
True.
True or false. Business process management applies only to commercial, profit-making organizations.
False; Business process management applies to commercial, profit-making, nonprofit-making, and governmental organizations.
True or false. Functional business processes involve activities across several business functions.
False; Functional business processes involve activities across a single business functions.
True or false. In functional business process management, BPM authority belongs a single departmental manager who has authority to resolve BPM issues.
True.
True or false. In cross-functional business management processes, problem resolution takes place via negotiation and contract.
False; In interorganizational business management processes, problem resolution takes place via negotiation and contract.
True or false. In interorganizational business process management, BPM authority is shared by multiple companies.
True
True or false. The Object Management Group created a standard det of terms and graphical notations for documenting business processes.
True.
True or false. Business Process Modeling Notation is a standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business procedures.
False; Object Management Group is a standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business procedures.
True or false. In a BPMN process diagram, the swim-lane layout is used to simplify process diagrams and to draw attention to interactions among components of the diagram.
True.
True or false. In the swim-layout, each resource in the business process is given its own swim lane.
False; In the swim-layout, each role in the business process is given its own swim lane.
True or false. In BPMN, all activities for a given role are shown in that role's swim lane.
True.
True or false. In BPMN, dotted arrows depict the flow or sequence of the activities in the process.
False; In BPMN, dotted arrows depict the flow of messages.
True or false. Diamonds represent decisions usually contain a question that can be answered with a yes or a no.
True.
True or false. Adding more resources to the roles of a given process without changing its structure is the brute-force approach to increasing the performance of a business process.
True.
True or false. The brute-force approach to improving business processes requires a change in the structure of a process without adding resources.
False; The brute-force approach to improving business processes requires adding more resources without changing its structure.
True or false. When trying to improve the performance of a business process, designers cannot change the structure of a process without changing the resource allocations.
False; When trying to improve the performance of a business process, designers can change the structure of a process without changing the resource allocations.
True or false. All activities in business processes are part of the information system.
False;
True or false. Business processes must include one or more information systems.
False; Business processes can include zero, one or more information systems.
True or false. Designing information systems first and working toward processes will cause problems for future processes that use the information systems.
False; Designing business systems first and working toward information systems will cause problems for future processes that use the information systems.
True or false. The most common technique for developing information systems is the systems development life cycle.
True.
True or false. It is not possible to buy an information off-the-shelf.
True.
True or false. The process of assessing feasibility occurs during the components design phase of the system development process.
False; The process of assessing feasibility occurs during the defining of the system development process.
True or false. The four dimensions of feasibility are cost, schedule, technical and organizational feasibility.
True.
True or false. Technical feasibility refers to whether existing information technology is likely to be able to meet the needs of the new system.
True.
True or false. Organizational feasibility concerns whether a new system fits within an organization's customs, culture, charter, or legal requirements.
True.
True or false. A systems analyst is someone who is well versed in Porter's models, organizational strategy, and systems alignment theory.
False; A business analyst is someone who is well versed in Porter's models, organizational strategy, and systems alignment theory.
True or false. In a project team, programmers are IS professionals who understand both business and technology.
True.
True or false. During the requirements definition stage of systems development, the team will be heavy with business and systems analysts.
True.
True or false. User involvement is critical throughout the systems development process.
True.
True or false. With phased installation, the new system/business processes run in parallel with the old one until the new system is tested and fully operational.
False; With parallel installation, the new system/business processes run in parallel with the old one until the new system is tested and fully operational.
True or false. Organizations should avoid the plunge installation style unless the new system is providing a new capability that will not disrupt the operation of the organization if it fails.
True.
True or false. According to Brooke's Law, adding more people to a late project makes the project later.
True.
True or false. Brooke's Law is true because a larger staff requires increased coordination.
True.
True or false. A work-breakdown structure is a hierarchy of the tasks requiredd to complete a project.
True.
True or false. A Gantt chart shows the sequence of the activities that determine the earliest date by which the project can be completed.
False; A critical path shows the sequence of the activities that determine the earliest date by which the project can be completed.
True or false. The critical path is the sequence of the activities that determine the earliest date by which the project can be completed.
True.
True or false. You can trade off project requirements against both time and cost.
True.
True or false. Diseconomies of scale is the process by which users agree to one set of requirements, then add a bit more, then add a bit more, until, over time, they have described a completely new project.
False; Diseconomies of scale is a principle that states as development teams become larger, the average contribution per worker decreases.
True or false. Configuration control refers to a set of management policies, practices, and tools that developers use to maintain control over the project's resources.
True.
A _________ is a network of activities, repositories, roles, resources, and data flows that interact to accomplish a business function.
Business process
Activities are _________.

A. People or computer applications that are assigned to roles.
B. Collections of procedures or processes
C. Collections of related tasks that receive inputs and produce outputs.
D. Physical repositories or data repositories.
C. Collections of related tasks that receive inputs and produce outputs.
A(n) ________ is a physical repository.
Inventory
In a business process, a role is _______.

A. Movement of data
B. A physical repository
C. A collection of procedures
D. A collection of data
C. A collection of procedures
Resources are _________.

A. Movement of data from an activity to a repository.
B. Collections of related tasks that receive inputs and produce outputs.
C. People or computer applications that are assigned to roles.
D. Collections of procedures
C. People or computer applications that are assigned to roles
Which of the following statements is true for business processes?

A. A number of resources can be defined to a single role.
B. A data flow is a collection of tasks that receives inputs and produces outputs.
C. A role determines the earliest date by which a project can be completed.
D. A database is a physical repository, while an inventory is tangible.
A. A number of resources can be assigned to a single role.
In business process management, teams build a(n) _________ model that documents the current situation and then make the adjustments necessary to solve problems.
As-is
An as-is model __________.
Documents the current situation of a business process
In business process management, once the as-is model is created the team must ____________.
Create system components
Which of the following is an accurate representation of the steps in the business process management cycle?
Model processes; create components; model processes; asses results.
The BPM process begins with the _________ stage.
Model processes
A business process that crosses into multiple companies is known as a(n) ____________ business process.
Interorganizational
Accounts payable is an example of the ____________ scope of business processes addressed by business process management.
Functional
A functional business process ______________.
Resides within a single business function in a single company.
In cross-functional business process management, ___________.
BPM authority is shared across several departments in a single company
Which of the following is not a functional process in an organization?

A. Human resources
B. Sales forecasting
C. Customer relationship management
D. Accounting
C. Customer relationship management
Which of the following is true of business processes in nonprofit and governmental organizations?

A. Only the functional and interorganizational scope apply in these organizations.
B. Business processes in these organizations are service-oriented.
C. Interorganizational processes are not possible owing to policies and regulations.
D. Authority and responsibility for processes are not clearly defined.
B. Business processes in these organizations are service-oriented.
The ___________ is a software-industry standards organization that created a standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business processes.
OMG
___________ is a standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business processes.
Business Process Modeling Notation
In BPMN process diagram, data is represented by ___________.
Square with one folded corner
In a BPMN process diagram, a _________ represents the start of a process.
circle
In a BPMN process diagram, a _________ represents an activity.
Rectangle with rounded corners
In BPMN notation, ___________ represents decisions and usually contain a question that can be answered with a yes or no.
Diamonds
In a BPMN process diagram, dotted arrows depict the flow of ___________.
Messages and data flows
In BPMN, __________ depict the flow or sequence of the activities in the process.
Solid arrows
In BPMN diagrams, a square with a plus sign means that ___________.
The activity is independent of the process and is defined in detail in another diagram.
Which of the following is NOT a way for prcoess designers to increase the performance of a business process?

A. Changing the structure and resource allocations
B. Adding steps to the process without changing structure or resources
C. Changing the structure without changing resource allocations.
D. Adding more resources to the roles of a given process without changing the structure.
A. Changing the structure and resource allocations
Which of the following is true for the relationship between business processes and information systems?

A. Starting from processes and working toward information systems is the best option to anticipate future demands and new business processes.
B. Information systems incorporate all business process activities, and hence should be developed before business processes.
C. Starting with processes and working toward systems is more likely to result in processes and systems that are aligned with the organization's strategy and direction.
D. Developing information systems before business processes ensures that all activities are considered in the development process.
Starting with processes and working toward systems is more likely to result in processes and systems that are aligned with the organization's strategy and direction.
Which of the following terms relies on the process of treating and maintaining information systems?
Systems development
Which of the following is true of information systems?

A. Information systems include all business process activities.
B. Every business process must include at least one information system.
C. Database data for information systems is provided in-house.
D. They can be bought off the shelf.
C. Database data for information systems is provided in-house.
An organization will be able to buy an information system using all of the following options, EXCEPT __________.
Off the shelf
The first step in the system definition phase of systems development is to _________.
Define the goals and scope
Once we have defined the project's goals and scope, the next step is to _________.
Access feasibility
What are the four dimensions of feasibility?
Cost, schedule, technical, and organizational feasibility
__________ feasibility refer to whether existing information technology is likely to able to meet the needs of the new system.
Technical
Organizational feasibility ____________.
Concerns whether the new system fits within the company's customs and culture.
An element of _________ feasibility concerns whether the new system fits within legal requirements.
Organizational
Does the company have a management policy that prohibits releasing customer data? Such a question is important to understanding __________ feasibility.
Organizational
If the defined project is determined to be feasible, the next step is to ________.
Form the project team
During the requirements stage of developing a new information system, the project team will include mostly ___________.
Business and systems analysts
The ___________ stage of the information systems development process involves identifying what is to be produced, how frequently, and how fast it is to be produced.
Requirement analysis
Tasks in the _______ phase of the systems development process are to build, test and convert the new users to the system.
Implementation
A ________ is a formal description of the system's response to use or misuse scenarios.
Test plan
Once the system has passed integrated testing, the organization installs the new system. Which term is used to refer to this activity?
System conversion
With _________ installation, the organization implements the entire system/business processes on a limited portion of the business.
Pilot
In a _________ installation, the new system runs alongside of the old system until it has been tested and is fully operational.
Phased
A _____ installation is the riskiest because the old system is turned off and the new system is turned on.
Plunge
Plunge installation is sometimes called ______ installation.
Direct
In the __________ installation style of system conversion style, the organization shuts off the old system/business processes and starts the new one directly.
Plunge
Fixing the system so that it works correctly or adapting it to changes in requirements occurrs in the _________ phase of the information systems development process.
Maintenance
Which of the following is not one of the five components of an information system?
Policies
To which of the following does Brooke's Law apply?
Diseconomies of scale
According to Brooke's Law, adding more people to a systems development project will ________.
Delay the projects completion
In systems development, documents, designs, prototypes, data models, database designs, working data entry screens and the likes are examples of ___________.
Deliverables
Project teams create a ________ which is a hierarchy of the tasks required to complete a project to reduce the confusion of complex in a related task.
Work-breakdown structure
A _________ shows the tasks start and finished states in the dependencies of the tasks in a project.
Gantt chart
The __________ is a sequence of activities that determine the earliest date by which the project can be completed.
Critical path
__________ is the process by which project managers compress the schedule by moving resources, typically people, from noncritical path tasks onto critical path tasks.
Critical path analysis
A situation that occurs when adding more resources creates inefficiencies is known as __________
Diseconomies of scale
The term ___________ refers to a set of managment policies, practices, and tools that developers use to maintain control over the projects resources.
Configuration control
Explain why process management is necessary for an organization.
Processes are dynamic and need to be changed.
What is systems development? What are the main activities in systems development?
Systems development is the process of creating and maintaining an information system. The main activities in systems development are defining the system, determine requirements, design system components, implement system and maintain system.
What are the dimensions of feasibility?
The four dimensions of feasibility are: cost, schedule, technical, and organizational feasibility.
Describe the composition of a development team for an information system.
Systems analysts are in the development team and they integrate the work of programmers, testers, and users. Depending on the nature of the project, the team may include hardware and communications specialists, database designers and administrators, and other possible IT specialists.
What is system conversion. What are the types of conversions?
System conversion is often used for this activity because it implies the process of converting business activity from the old system to the new system. Four types of conversions are possible: Pilot, phased, parallel, and plunge.
Briefly describe the five major challenges to systems development.
1. Requirements are difficult to determine
2. Changes in requirements
3. Difficulties involving scheduling and budgeting
4. Changing technology
5. Diseconomies of scale
True or false. As problems caused by human errors are not malicious, they are not security threats.
True
True or false. An example of malicious human activity could include an employee who inadvertently installs an old database on top of the current one.
False; An example of human error could include an employee who inadvertently installs an old database on top of the current one.
True or false. Unauthorized data disclosures can occur from malicious human activity.
True
True or false. Phishing is a technique for intercepting computer communications.
False; Sniffing is a technique for intercepting computer communications.
True or false. Pretexting occurs when a person receives a confidential SMS by mistake.
False; Pretexting occurs when a person pretends to be someone else.
True or false. Sniffing occurs when an intruder uses another site's IP address as if it were that other site.
False; IP spoofing occurs when an intruder uses another site's IP address as if it were that other site.
True or false. Email spoofing is a synonym for phishing.
True
True or false. Drive-by spoofers take computers with wireless connections through an area and search for unprotected wireless networks.
True
True or false. Drive-by sniffers can access wireless computer networks.
True
True or false. People who intentionally gain unauthorized access to computer systems are called hackers.
True
True or false. Faulty service includes incorrectly billing customers or sending the wrong information to employees, but not incorrect data modification.
False; Faulty service includes incorrectly billing customers or sending the wrong information to employees, as well as incorrect data modification.
True or false. When a hacker floods a Web server with millions of bogus service requests so that it cannot service legitimate requests, this is called a denial-of-service attack.
True
True or false. A denial-of-service situation is always the result of a malicious attack.
False;
True or false. According to the NIST Handbook, responsibility for information security in a particular department rests with the manager of that department.
True
True or false. According to the NIST Handbook, defining a security policy and managing computer-security risk are the responsibilities of a company's IT department.
False; According to the NIST Handbook, defining a security policy and managing computer-security risk are the responsibilities of the manager of that department.
True or false. According to the elements of company security outlined in the NIST Handbook, computer security cannot be constrained by societal factors.
False; According to the elements of company security outlined in the NIST Handbook, computer security is constrained by societal factors.
True or false. Uncertainty is the liklihood of an adverse occurrence.
False; Risk is the liklihood of an adverse occurrence.
True or false. Uncertainty is different from risk.
True
True or false. Risk management can only be approximated because of uncertainty.
True
True or false. According to the NIST handbook, there is always a residual risk that the safeguard will not protect the assets in all circumstances.
True
True or false. Intangible consequences are those whose financial impact can be measured.
False; Tangible consequences are those whose financial impact can be measured.
True or false. Tangible consequences when an asset is compromised include such things as loss of customer goodwill.
False; Intangible consequences when an asset is compromised include such things as loss of customer goodwill.
True or false. Probable loss is the probability that a given asset will be compromised by a given threat, despite the safeguards.
False; Likelihood is the probability that a given asset will be compromised by a given threat, despite the safeguards.
True or false. Probable loss is concerned only with tangible consequences; it does not include intangible consequences.
False; Probable loss is concerned both with tangible and intangible consequences.
True or false. The Privacy Act of 1974 gives individuals the right to acces health data.
False; HIPAA gives individuals the right to acces health data.
True of false. HIPAA sets limits on who can receive your health information.
True
True or false. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act set limits on how health care providers use your medical information.
False; The Privacy Act of 1974 sets limits on how health care providers use your medical information.
True or false. Technical safeguards involve the hardware and software components of an information system.
True
True or false. Smart cards are convenient and easy to use since they don't require any PIN numbers for authentication.
False; Smart cards do require as PIN number.
True or false. A magentic strip holds far more data than a microchip.
False; A microchop holds far more data than a magnetic strip.
True or false. A retina scan would be considered as a biometric authentication technique.
True
True or false. Encryption is an example of a technical safeguard.
True
True or false. Windows, Linus, Unix, and other operatin systems employ Kerberos and can authenticate user requests across networks of computers using a mixture of those operating systems.
True
True or false. Wireless networks are more secure than wired networks.
False; Wireless networks are less secure than wired networks.
True or false. To gain access to a wired network, a potential intruder must obtain physical access to the network.
True
True or false. It is not possible to protect wireless networks.
False; It is possible to protect wireless networks through the use of a password.
True or false. WEP is the newest and most advanced wireless security standard.
False; WEP has tons of flaws.
True or false. With symmetric encryption, both the sender and receiver use the same key to transmit messages.
True
True or false. Digital signatures use public keys to encrypt the message digest.
False; Digital signatures use private keys to encrypt the message digest.
True or false. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is a protocol that is restricted to assymmetric encryption.
False; Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is a protocol that is restricted to symmetric encryption.
True or false. The letters "http://" in the browser's address bar indicate that it is safe to send data over the Internet.
False; The letters "https://" in the browser's address bar indicate that it is safe to send data over the Internet.
True or false. When a message is hashed to produce a message digest, the message digest can be unhashed to produce the original message.
False; When a message is hashed to produce a message digest, the message digest cannot be unhashed to produce the original message.
True or false. Public keys are supplied by third parties called certificate authorities.
True
True or false. A certificate authority verifies the legitimacy of the business sending the digital certificate.
False; A certificate authority does not verify the legitimacy of the business sending the digital certificate.
True or false. A Trojan horse is a virus that masquerades as a useful program or file.
True
True or false. Viruses and worms are examples of malware.
True
True or false. Most spyware is benign in that it does not perform malicious acts or steal data.
False; Most spyware is malicious in that it does perform malicious acts or steal data.
True or false. The term bot is a new catch-all term that refers to any type of virus, worm, Trojan horse, spyware, adware, or other program not installed and controlled by the computer's owner or manager.
True
True or false. A botnet is a network of bots that is created and managed by the individual or organization that infected the network with the bot program.
True
True or false. Data safeguards are measures used to protect computer hardware from external threat.
False; Data safeguards are measures used to protect databases and other organizational data from external threat.
True or false. Employee termination may lead to a security threat for an organization.
True
True or false. Business requirements may necessitate opening information systems to the public that can threaten its security. The best safeguard from such threats is to harden the website.
True
True or false. The different systems procedure types are:normal operations, review, control and recovery.
False; The different systems procedure types are:normal operations, backup, and recovery.
True or false. Cold sites are cheaper to lease than hot sites.
True
True or false. Following a disaster, hot sites provide office space, but customers must themselves provide and install the equipment needed to continue operations.
False; Following a disaster, cold sites provide office space, but customers must themselves provide and install the equipment needed to continue operations.
Which of the following is considered malicious human activity?
Hacking of information systems
The ________ pretends to be a legitimate company and sends an email requesting confidential data, such as account numbers, Social Security numbers, account passwords, and so forth.
Phisher
________ is a technique for intercepting computer communications, either through a physical connection to the network or, in the case of wireless networks, with no physical connection.
Sniffing
________ occurs when someone deceives by pretending to be someone else.
Pretexting
Email spoofing is a synonym for __________.
Phishing
_________ take computers with wireless connections through an area and search for unprotected wireless networks and then monitor and intercept wireless traffic at will.
Drive-by sniffers
Which of the following is an example of a sniffing technique?
Adware
When referring to security threats, pretexting, sniffing, IP spoofing, and phishing are all examples of what?
Unauthorized data disclosure
_______ occurs when a person gains unauthorized access to a computer system, invading a network to obtain critical data or to manipulate the system for financial gain.
Hacking
Which of the following could most likely be the result of hacking?
An unexplained reduction in your account balance
_________ occurs when unauthorized programs invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs, shutting down the legitimate system and substituting their own process.
Usurpation
Which of the following usually happens in a malicious denial-of-service attack.
A hacker floods a Web server with millions of bogus service requests.
Which of the following is an example of a human safeguard?

A. firewalls
B. Application design
C. Database backups
D. Procedure design
D. Procedure design
Customers often object to thorough physical searches at airports. Which aspect of a computer security described in the NIST Handbook is reflected here?
Computer security is constrained by societal factors.
Which of the following is a critical security function of senior-management involvement?

A. Establishing the security policy and managing risk.
B. Managing the security program on a real-time basis.
C. Planning responses to specific security incidents
D. Safeguarding computer hardware and software.
A. Establishing the security policy and managing risk.
Which of the following is the responsibility of the senior management organization?

A. Protecting the computer network from sneak attacks by installing safeguards.
B. Training junior employees about the organization's security policy.
C. Implementing disaster recovery safeguards in individual department systems.
D. Manage risk by balancing the costs and other benefits of the security program.
D. Manage risk by balancing the costs and other benefits of the security program.
Which of the following is NOT an element of organizational security policy?

A. Resource-specific policy
B. A general statement of the security program
C. Issue-specific policy
D. System-specific policy
A. Resource-specific policy
A security policy covering personal use of computers at work would be an example of a(n) __________.
Issue-specific
An example of a system-specific security policy would be ___________.

A. Limiting personal use of an organization's computer systems
B. A general statement about the goals of the organization's overall security program.
C. Deciding what customer data from the order-entry system will be shared with other organizations.
D. Inspection of an employee's personal email for compliance with company policy.
C. Deciding what customer data from the order-entry system will be shared with other organizations.
Which element of the security policy specifies how the organization will ensure the enforcement of security programs and policies?
The general statement of the security program.
_______ refers to things we do not know, while _______ is the liklihood of an adverse occurrence.
Uncertainty; risk
Which of the following is the first step in risk management?
Assess what the threats are
Which factor of risk assessment refers to the probability that a given asset will be compromised by a given threat, despite the safeguards?
Likelihood
Which of the following is an example of an intangible consequence?
A loss of customer goodwill due to an outage
A weakness in a security system is known as _______.
Vulnerability
To obtain a measure of probable loss, companies _________.
Multiply the likelihood by the cost of the consequences
Which of the following is covered by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999?
Consumer financial data stored by financial institutions.
Which of the following was passed to give individuals the right to access their own health data created by doctors and other health-care providers?
HIPAA
The Privacy Act of 1974 covers ______.
Records held by the U.S. government
Which of the following is an example of a technical safeguard?
Firewall
A(n) ________ card has a microchip on it to hold the data,
Smart
Which of the following is used for biometric authentication?
Facial features
Which of the following cards does NOT use a magnetic strip to hold data?
Smart
Which of the following statements is true for biometric identification?

A. A major advantage of biometric identification is that it is a relatively cheap mode of authentication.
B. One drawback of biometric methods is their unreliability; they provide only weak authentication.
C. Users of biometric authentication systems need to enter a PIN for authentication.
D. Biometric authentication often faces resistance from users for its invasive nature.
D. Biometric authentication often faces resistance from users for its invasive nature.
A system called ________ authenticates users without sending their passwords across the computer network.
Kerberos
The IEEE 802.11 Committee, the group that develops and maintains wireless standards, first developed a wireless security standard called the _________.
Wired Equivalent Privacy
_______ eliminate(s) spoofing of public keys and requires browser to have a CA's public key.
Digital certificates
With ________encryption, the sender and receiver transmit a message using the same key.
Symmetric
Which of the following observations concerning Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is true?

A. It is a useful hybrid of symmetric and assymmetric excryption techniques.
B. It works between Levels 2 and 3 of the TCP-OSI architecture.
C. It was originally developed by Microsoft
D. It uses only assymetric encryption
A. It is a useful hybrid of symmetric and assymmetric excryption techniques.
You are doing an online fund transfer through the Web site of a reputed bank. Which of the following displayed in your browser's address bar will let you know that the bank is using the SSL protocol?
Https
__________ is a method of mathematically manipulating the message to create a string of bits that characterize the message.
Hashing
Which of the following is a technique used to ensure that plaintext messages are received without alteration?
Digital signatures
A program that asks a sender to transmit its public key could be fooled. To solve this problem, trusted, independent third-party companies called __________ supply public keys.
Certificate authorities
_______ is the term used to denote Trojan horses, spyware, and adware.
Malware
A virus is a computer program that replicates itself. The program code that causes unwanted activity is called the ________.
Payload
A(n) __________ is a type of virus that propogates itself using the Internet or other computer networks.
Worm
_______ are viruses that masquerade as useful programs or files.
Trojan horse
What is a major difference between spyware and adware?
Unlike spyware, adware does not perform malicious acts.
The term ______ refers to any type of program that is surreptitiously installed and that takes actions unknown and uncontrolled by the computer's owner or administrator.
Bot
Which of the following is not an example of a data safeguard?
Storing all backups on organization premises.
Because encryption keys can be lost or destroyed, a copy of the key should be stored with a trusted third party. This procedure is called __________.
Key escrow
Maintaining the DBMS on computers in a locked room is part of _________.
Physical security procedures
Which of the following statements about human safeguards for employees is true?

A. There are only two main aspects to security enforcement; responsibility and accountability.
B. Given appropriate job descriptions, user's computer accounts should give users the least possible privilege necessary to perform their jobs.
C. Companies should provide user accounts and passwords to employees prior to their security training.
D. Security screening in an organization applies only to new employees.
B. Given appropriate job descriptions, user's computer accounts should give users the least possible privilege necessary to perform their jobs.
When an employee is terminated, IS administration should receive advance notice so they can __________.
Remove accounts and passwords
_________ a site means to take extraordinary measures to reduce a system's vulnerability, using special versions of the operating system, and eliminating features and functions that are not required by the application.
Hardening
The three main systems procedure types are ________.
Normal operation, backup, and recovery
Activity log analyses, security testing, and investigating and learning from security incidents are activites included in _________.
Security monitoring
In disaster-preparedness terminology, a ________ is a utility company that can take over another company's processing with no forewarning.
Hot site
Which of the following observations is true of a cold site?

A. The total cost is always less than that of a hot site.
B. Customers will have to install and manage the systems themselves.
C. It is more expensive to lease than a hot site.
B. Customers will have to install and manage the systems themselves.
When an employee notices a virus on his or her machine, the _________ plan should specify what to do.
Incident-response.
What is a security threat? What are the three general sources of security threats?
A security threat is a challenge to the integrity of information systems that arises from one of three sources: human error and mistakes, malicious human activity, and natural events and disasters.
What is a denial-of-service security problem? How does this result from actions by the various sources of security threats?
A denial-of-service is a security problem in which users are not able to access an information system; can be caused by human errors, natural disaster, or human activity.
What are the three components of a security program?
A security program has three components: Senior-management involvement, safeguards of various kinds, and incident response.
What are the key elements of a security program?
1. Computer security should support the mission of the organization.
2. Computer security is an integral element of sound management.
3. Computer security should be cost-effective
4. Computer security responsibilities and accountability should be made explicit.
5. System owners have computer security responsibilities outside their own organizations.
6. Computer security requires a comprehensive and integrated approach.
7. Computer security should be periodically reassessed.
8. Computer security is constrained by societal factors.
Explain encryption and the various types of encryption for computer systems.
Encryption is the process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication. The various types of encryption are: Symmetric, asymmetric, SSL/TLS, Digital signatures, and digital certificates.
Differentiate between Trojan horses and worms.
Trojan horses are viruses that masquerade as useful programs or files. A worm is a virus that propogates using the Internet or other computer network.
What are spyware and adware programs?
Spyware and adware programs are installed on the user's computer without the user's knowledge or permission.
What is key escrow?
Key escrow is a control procedure whereby a trusted party is given a copy of a key used to encrypt database data.
Discuss some human safeguards for employees that can ensure the security of information systems.
Some human safeguards include separate duties and authorities, documenting position sensitivity, hiring and screening, and dissemination and enforcement.
What is a hot site? How is it different from a cold site?
A hot site is a utility company that can take over another company's processing with no forewarning. A cold site, in contrast, provides computers and office space.
True or false. One of the major functions of the information systems department is to develop, operate, and maintain enterprise applications.
True
True or false. In IS departments, the technology office investigates new information systems technologies and determines how the organization can benefit from them.
True
True or false. In the IS department, the development group manages the computing infrastructure, including individual computers, computer centers, networks, and communications media.
False; In the IS department, the operations group manages the computing infrastructure, including individual computers, computer centers, networks, and communications media.
True or false. If the organization does not develop programs in-house, then the development group will include programmers, test engineers, technical writers, and other personnel.
True
True or false. All IS departments include a development group, an operational group, and an outsourcing relations group.
False; All IS departments CAN include a development group, an operational group, and an outsourcing relations group.
True or false. Information technology (IT) is simply technology. IT must be placed into the structure of an IS before an organization can use it.
True
True or false. Information systems operate independently of the organization's competitive strategy. They have little effect on a company's goals and objectives.
False;
True or false. Information system infrastructure is not malleable as changing a network requires time and resources.
True
True or false. The chief information officer is the representative for information system and information technology issues within the executive staff.
True
True or false. When considering a merger, it is important that the company consider integration of information systems in the merged entities.
True
True or false. It is the CIO's responsibility to establish and communicate priorities, while the responsibility for enforcement rests with others.
False; It is the CIO's responsibility to establish and communicate priorities and enforce them.
True or false. Every organization must implement every good idea. The objective of everyone in the information system department must be to develop the most appropriate systems possible, without constraints on time and money.
False;
True or false. A steering committee is a group of senior managers from the major business functions that works with the CIO to set the information system (IS) priorities and decide among major IS projects and alternatives.
True
True or false. The steering committee provides a forum for users to express their needs, frustrations, and other issues they have with the IS department.
True
True or false. The steering committee serves an important communication function between department managers and users of IS systems.
False; The steering committee serves an important communication function between IS and users.
True or false. A highly controlled and centralized organization and needs decentralized information systems.
False; A highly controlled and centralized organization and needs centralized information systems.
True or false. A decentralized organization needs decentralized information systems.
True
True or false. One of the tasks in managing the computing infrastructure is to create and maintain infrastructure for ender-user computing.
True
True or false. The IS department has to create, operate, and maintain the computers, software, and personnel in the data warehouse and all of the data and marts.
True
True or false. The IS department cannot afford to allow every computer user to have his or her own personal configuration.
True
True or false. A user's computing needs vary according to the work they do, most IS departments have developed a number of different standard configurations.
True
True or false. The IS department needs to work solely with the steering committee to ensure the standards are effective for most of the users.
False; The IS department needs to work with the steering committee and other user groups to ensure the standards are effective for most of the users.
True or false. When the Is department provides the computing infrastructure to users, a system must exist to record user problems and monitor their resolutions.
True
True or false.Problems are prioritized on the basis of how easy they are for the IS department to solve.
False; Problems are prioritized on the basis of how critical they are to users work.
True or false. In addition to its other functions , the IS department also must manage the computing infrastructure staff.
True
True or false. Green computing is environmentally conscious computing consisting of three major components: power management, visualization, and e-waste management.
False; Green computing is environmentally conscious computing consisting of three major components: power management, virtualization, and e-waste management.
True or false. In addition to managing the computing infrastructure, the IS department aligns its priorities with the departments strategy but not the organizations strategy.
True
True or false. Maintenance, under the IS department, means to fix the system to do what it was supposed to do in the first place, as well as to adapt the system to changed requirements.
True
True or false. Maintenance work for legacy systems is always conducted in-house.
False; Maintenance work for legacy systems is conducted in-house or outsourced.
True or false. Companies need special maintenance activities to support legacy systems.
True
True or false. A legacy information system is one that has outdated technologies and techniques but is still used by an organization.
True
True or false. The IS department must have a means to track user issues and problems. Although such a tracking system is similar that provided for infrastructure management, the department usually uses different systems for those two functions.
True
True or false. In large organizations, there is a single problem-tracking and resolution system for each enterprise application.
False;
True or false. To integrate disparate systems, companies usually outsource the development of enterprise application integration, a special-purpose IS.
False; Companies work in-house
True or false. Sustaining-application developers work on existing applications.
True
True or false. The term database administration describes a function that pertains to all of an organization's data assets.
False; The term data administration describes a function that pertains to all of an organization's data assets.
True or false. The term data administration describes a function that pertains to a particular database.
False; The term database administration describes a function that pertains to a particular database.
True or false. Data standards describe the format, and other features of data items that are shared across the organization.
False; Data standards describe the definitions.
True or false. A data dictionary contains an entry for each standard data item.
True
True or false. Data administration is concerned with the creation and dissemination of data policies. These policies vary in scope and are created independently by the data administration.
False; Data administration is concerned with the creation and dissemination of data policies. These policies vary in scope and the data administration as well as other people created it.
True or false. Once created, data policies remain static throughout the lifetime of the organization; they rarely change for any reason.
False; Once created, data policies need to be changed
True or false. Outsourcing is the process of hiring another organization to perform a service. It is done to save costs, to gain expertise, and to free management time.
True
True or false. Outsourcing saves direct management time, but not indirect management.
False; Outsourcing saves direct management time as well as indirect management.
True or false. Once a company has chosen a vendor, further risk management is up to that vendor.
True
True or false. Acquiring licensed software is a form of outsourcing.
True
True or false. One of the advantages of outsourcing is that the company retains control of all technology and procedures used by the vendor.
False; Vendor has control
True or false. When a company outsources a system, it no longer has control over prioritizing fixes for software failures and problems.
True
True or false. Users have a right to a secure computing environment; they should not have to worry about security.
True
True or false. Users have a responsibility to follow security and backup procedures.
True
Developing, operating, and maintaining the organization's computing infrastructure is a major function of the _________ department.
Information systems
Which of the following is NOT a function of the information systems department?

A. Protecting information assets
B. Conducting external audits
C. Managing outsourcing relationships
D. Maintaining computing infrastructure
B. Conducting external audits
In organizations that operate significant non-accounting information systems, the chief information officer reports to the __________.
Cheif executive officer
If the primary information systems in an organization support only accounting and finance activities, the CIO should report to the ____________.
CFO
In the IS department, the __________ group manages the computing infrastructure, including individual computers, computer centers, networks, and communications media. This group includes system and network administrators.
operations
Which of the following is a function of the technology group in an organization's IS department?

A. Maintaining existing information systems
B. Creating new information systems
C. Managing the computing infrastructure
D. Investigating new IS technologies
D. Investigating new IS technologies
An important function of the __________ group in an IS department is to monitor the user experience and respond to user problems.
Operations
Which of the following is true for the various groups in an IS department?

A. The development group manages the process of creating new information systems.
B. The development group monitors the user experience and responds to user problems.
C. The operations group investigates new information systems technologies and determines how the organization can benefit from them.
D. The technology group manages individual computers, computer centers, networks, and communications media.
A. The development group manages the process of creating new information systems.
In the information systems department, the ___________ group manages the process of creating new information systems as well as maintaining existing information systems.
Development
Which of the following is true for the function of maintaining information systems?

A. Maintenance means fixing problems or adapting existing information systems.
B. The maintenance process is undertaken by the technology group.
C. Maintenance is performed by operations, as it involves fixing problems with with existing software.
D. Maintenance is only performed by the IS department if programs are developed in-house.
A. Maintenance means fixing problems or adapting existing information systems.
If the organization does not develop programs in-house, then the development group of the information systems department will include __________.
System analysts
The purpose of the __________ group is to protect data and information assets by establishing data standards and data management practices and policies.
Data administration
Developing test plans, designing and writing automated test strips, and performing testing are the responsibilities of a ____________.
PQA test engineer
Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of a systems analyst?
Writing programs
A _______ must work with users to determine system requirements and must also help determine system test plans.
System analyst
The responsibilities of a __________ include advising the CIO, executive group, and project managers on emerging technologies.
Chief technology officer
The responsibilities of a computer technician include _______.
Installing software and repairing computer networks
Which of the following is true for changes in IS infrastructure.

A. IS applications are easily changed to meet requirements.
B. Changing IS systems is expensive and time-consuming.
C. Information systems change only when organizations merge.
D. Once it is developed, it is not possible to change IS infrstructure.
B. Changing IS systems is expensive and time-consuming
Which of the following is NOT true for information systems?

A. Information systems change only when organizations merge.
B. IS infrstructure is not malleable.
C. IS must be aligned with the organization's competitive strategy.
D. Integrating disparate information systems is time consuming.
A. Information systems change only when organizations merge.
The _________ is the representative for IS and IT issues within the executive staff, providing the IS perspective during discussions of problem solutions, proposals, and new initiatives.
CIO
The ________ must ensure that priorities consistent with the overall organizational strategy are developed, communicate them to the IS department and enforce them.
CIO
A(n) ____________ is a group of senior managers from the major business functions that works with the CIO to test the IS priorities and decide among major IS projects and alternatives.
Steering committee
Which of the following is a function of the steering committee for an IS department?

A. Network maintenance
B. Adapting software
C. Setting IS priorities
D. Technology sales
C. Setting IS priorities
User's computing needs vary according to the work they do. In response, most IS departments ___________.

A. Install the configuration suitable for software development personnel for all employees.
B. Allow employees to choose their preferred configurations
C. Have developed a set of three or four different standard configurations
D. Have uniform configurations for all employees.
C. Have developed a set of three or four different standard configurations
The IS department needs to work with the steering committee and __________ to ensure the standards are effective for most of the users.
CIO
In a well-run IS department, when a user reports a problem the department assigns a tracking number and the problem enters a queue for service. Which of the following statements is true in this case?

A. If a problem is not resolved even after an attempt, it reenters the queue at a lower priority.
B. Lower- priority items in the queue are serviced first.
C. Problems are prioritized on the basis of how critical they are to the user's work.
D. Problems are prioritized depending on the available resources of the IS department.
C. Problems are prioritized on the basis of how critical they are to the user's work.
In a typical IS operations department, the network manager and the computer center manager will report to the _________.
Operations manager
Customer support personnel and the help desk will be managed by the ________.
User support manager
Green computing is environmentally conscious computing consisting of the three major components; power management, virtualization, and __________.
E-waste management
In addition to managing the computing infrastructure, the __________ manager enterprise applications as well.
IS department
In organizations in which individuals and workgroups manage their own applications, with support from the IS department, enterprise applications include ___________.
Some functional applications and all cross functional applications
The process of creating a new application begins when the IS department aligns its priorities with the _________.
Organization's strategy
A(n) _________ is a system that has outdated technologies and techniques but is still used, despite its age.
Legacy information system
EAI is used to enable the _________.
Integration of disparate systems
A computer programmer or developer works both as a _________ as well as a programmer.
Software designer
Sustaining-application developers work on __________ applications.
Existing
__________ specialize in the testing of software.
Product quality assurance engineers
___________ develop product installation instructions, help text, and other support documentation.
Technical writers
Data administration describes a function that pertains to ________.
All of an organization's data assets
Sometimes data standards include the __________, which is department within the organization that is most concerned with the data item and that controls changes of the definition of that data item.
Data owner
__________ describe(s) the name, official definition, usage, relationship to other data items, processing restrictions, versions, security restrictions, format, and other features of data items that are shared across the organization.
Data standards
A data ________ is a file or database that contains data definitions.
Dictionary
A __________ contains an entry for each standard data item.
Data dictionary
The _________ must maintain the data dictionary to keep it current. Obsolete entries must be removed, new items inserted, and changes recorded.
Data administrator
_________ also is concerned with the creation and dissemination of data policies.
Data administration
Outsourcing is the process of hiring another organization to perform a service. Outsourcing is undertaken in order to ___________.
Cap an organization's financial exposure
In the case of management time, outsourcing __________.
Saves both direct and indirect management time
Outsourcing gathers all of the possible risks into the risk of choosing the right _________.
Vendor
________ is a form of outsourcing.
Acquiring licensed software
Sites like Amazon.com provide _________ for product vendors and distributors who choose not to develop their own online presence.
Web storefronts
In 2005 Marriott International chose Hewitt Associates to handle its human resource needs for the next 7 years. This is an example of _________ outsourcing.
Business function
___________ is a form of hardware outsourcing.
Cloud hosting
When a company outsources a system, control over prioritizing fixes for software failures and problems belongs to the ___________.
Vendor
Which of the following is a negative consequence of outsourcing IS/IT functions?

A. The vendor can benefit from the economies of scale.
B. Outsourcing can cap financial risk for an organization.
C. The vendor can replace the CIO of the organization.
D. Outsourcing reduces indirect management activity.
C. The vendor can replace the CIO of the organization
Which of the following is a right for users of information systems?

A. Making hardware modifications when desired.
B. Effective training according to their requirements
C. Installing programs and applications of their choice.
D. Obtaining the configuration of their choice.
B. Effective training according to their requirements
As an IS user, you have a right to secure computing environment, this means that __________.
The organization should protect your computer and its files
Which of the following is generally a responsibility of users?

A. Upgrading data standards.
B. Undertaking hardware modifications
C. Replacing legacy systems with improved ones.
D. Following security and backup procedures.
D. Following security and backup procedures.
Which of the following is true for users of information systems?

A. They should install hardware and software themselves, without bothering the IS department.
B. They must learn standard techniques and procedures for the applications they use.
C. They have a responsibility to protect their computers from viruses by installing protection software.
D. They must ensure the availability of reliable and secure Internet connections.
B. They must learn standard techniques and procedures for the applications they use.
Users should not bother IS personnel for trivial reasons, so they have a responsibility to __________.
Learn basic computer skills
List the major functions of an IS department.
-Plan the use of IS to accomplish organizational goal's and strategies
-Develop, operate, and maintain the organization's computing infrastructure
-Devolop, operate, and maintain enterprise applications
-Protect information assets
-Manage outsourcing relationships
List and explain the major IS/IT planning functions.
They must align information systems with organizational strategy, communicate IS issues to the executive group, develop priorities and enforce them within the IS department, and sponsor the steering committee.
Is it necessary to align infrastructure design with organizational structure? Explain you answer.
Yes; a highly controlled and centralized organization needs highly controlled and centrallized information systems. A decentralized organization with autonomous operating units requires decentralized information systems that facilitate autonomous activity.
What tasks are necessary for managing computing infrastructure?
1. Create and maintain infrastructure for ender-user computing.
2. Create, operate, and maintain networks.
3. Create, operate, and maintain data centers, data warehouses, and data marts.
How are problems tracked and solutions monitored in a well-run IS department?
In a well run IS department, when a user reports a problem the department assigns a tracking number and the problem enters a queue for service.
List and briefly explain the activites that are included in data administration.
The activities included in data administration are: Define data standards, maintain data dictionary, define data policies, and establish disaster-recovery plan.
What is a legacy information system? What are the differences between data standards and a data dictionary?
A legacy information system is one that has outdated technologies and techniques but is still used, despite its age. Data standards are definitions, or metadata, for data items shared across the organization. A data dictionary is a file or database that contains data definitions.
List the advantages of outsourcing and briefly explain any three of them.
The three advantages of outsourcing are management advantages, cost reduction and risk reduction. Management advantages include obtaining expertise, avoiding management problems, and free management time. Cost reduction includes obtaining part-time services and gain economies of scale. Risk reduction includes cap financial exposure, improve quality, and reduce implementation risk.
List the risks of outsourcing and briefly explain three of them
The risks of outsourcing are loss of control, benefits outweighed by long-term costs, and no easy exit. Loss of control includes the vendor being in the driver's seat, technology direction, potential loss of intellectual capital, product fixes, enhancements in wrong priority, vendor management, direction, or identity changes, and CIO superfluous. Benefits outweighed by long-term costs include: High unit cost, forever, Paying for someone else's mismanagement, In time, outsource vendor is de facto sole source, and may not get what you pay for but you didn't know. No easy exit includes: Critical knowledge in minds of vendors, not employees, and expensive and risky to change vendors.
List any four rights and four responsibilities of users of information systems.
Four rights of users of information systems: Effective training, Reliable network and internet connections, A secure computing environment, and Protection from viruses, worms, and other threats. Four responsibilities of users of information systems include: Learn basic computer skills, Protect your password(s), Install only authorized programs, and Avoid reporting trivial problems.
What is defined as information containing patterns, relationships, and trends?
Business Intelligence
Data-mining tools are used to make what?
Predictions
RFM analysis ranks customers by considering recency, frequency, and _____ of their orders?
Dollar Amount
What is the application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data for classification and prediction?
Data mining
Analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis with ________________ data mining.
unsupervised
In this type of analysis, statistical techniques identify groups of entities that have similar characteristics.
Cluster analysis
A ____ ____ is a data collection, smaller than the datawarehouse, that addresses a particular component or functional area of the business.
Data mart
What is used to show the products that customers tend to buy together?
Market-based analysis
In market-based terminology, the ratio of confidence to the base probability of buying an item is called the _____
Lift
Real Simple Syndication is standard for what?
Subscribing to content sources
An alert sent to you is an example of _____ technology
Push
E-Commerce leads to ____, which is the elimination of middle layers of distributors.
Disintermediation
Price elasticity measures the....
Amount that demand rises or falls with changes in price
Software as a service clashes with the software model used by traditional software vendors, such as Microsoft. Traditional software vendors depend on ...
Software License Fees
When you attend a business function for the purpose of meeting people and reinforcing relationships, you are investing in your _______ capital.
Social
_______ is a Web 2.0 application that allows users to publish 140-character descriptions of anything.
Twitter
One of the applications of microblogging in business is _______.
PR
________ is the process by which users provide services to or on behalf of a vendor.
CROWDSOURCING
If the problematic content posted on a social networking site represents reasonable criticism of the organization's products of services, the best response would be to ______________
LEAVE IT
Web 2.0 applications are ______ clients.
thin
What is a thin client?
Web servers download the programs as code within HTML
A characteristic of Web 2.0 is that the value of a Web site increases with the ________ and ______
Users and Use
__________ _________(s) induce people to share your message in Web 2.0 world
Viral hook
____ connect computers located in more than one geographic location.
WANS
A private internet that is used exclusively within an organization is called a(n) ______
Intranet
___________ is a set of rules that two communicating devices follow
PROTOCOL
The hardware component that connects with a printer's circuitry to the network is called a(n) ____
NIC
Wireless devices connect to a wireless LAN using a(n) ________
Access point
___________ is a wireless protocol used to communicate over short distances.
Bluetooth
The signals from ________ modems do not interfere with TV signals
Cable
The protocols used on the Internet are arranged according to a structure known as the ____ protocol architecture
TCP/IP
While sending a file using the FTP, a user is using the Internet but not the ________
WEB
A _________ is a piece of a message that is handled by programs that implement IP.
Packet
A firewall has a(n) _______, which encodes the rules stating which addresses are to be allowed and which are to be prohibited.
Access Control LIST
Security threats arise from 3 sources:
Human error/mistakes, malicious human activity (spear phishing) and natural events and disasters
What are the 5 types of security problems?
Unauthorized data disclosure, incorrect data modification, faulty service, denial of service, and loss of infrastructure
What are the 3 components of a security program?
Senior-management involvement, safeguards of various kinds, and incident response
What are the 2 critical security functions for senior management?
Establish security policy, manage risk by balancing costs and benefits of security program
Hardware and software are ______ safeguards and include encryption, firewalls, and authorization.
Technical
Procedures and people are ____ safeguards and include training, education, and accountability.
Human
Data is a ______ safeguard and includes backup and recovery, passwords, and encryption.
Data
What are the elements of a security policy?
General statement of organization's security program, issue-specific policy, and system-specific policy
What is an example of issue-specific policy?
Personal use of computers at work and email privacy.
_________ is the likelihood of an adverse occurence.
Risk
________ is the lack of knowledge especially about chance of occurrence or risk of an outcome of even.
Uncertainty
What are some risk assessment factors?
Assets, consequences, threats, likelihood, safeguards, probable loss, and vulnerability
________ loss is the "bottom line" of risk assessment- contains intangible consequences.
Probable
What are some authentication methods?
Password, smart card, biometric
What are some examples of biometric authentication?
fingerprints, retina scans
Symmetric encryption is when....
sender and receiver transmit a message using the same key
Some other types of encryption are...
asymmetric, SSL/TLS (HTTPS), digital signatures, and digital certificates
____________ contains things such as viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, and adware
Malware
A _________ causes a computer program to replicate itself and take unwanted and harmful actions.
Virus
a _______ _______ attaches to word, excel or other types of documents and infects every file that the application creates.
Macro Virus
a _____ is a virus that propagates using the internet or other computer network and can choke a network.
Worm
_______ can capture keystrokes to obtain user names, passwords, account numbers, and other information--some supports marketing analyses. (pop-ups)
Spyware
__________ can slow computer performance (pop-ups)
Adware
A way to safeguard from malware is to install __________ and _______ programs on your computer.
antispyware and antivirus programs
A ______ is a computer program surreptitiously install and takes actions unknown and uncontrolled by comps. owner.-- some steal important data and create pop-ups
BOT
A ______ is a network of bots created and managed by individual or organization
BotNet
A ______ _______ is an organization that controls the botnet Botnets and bot herders.
Bot Herder
a _____ Site is a backup site where a utility company can take over another company's processing in disaster recovery
Hot Site
A ______ Site provide computers and office space
Cold
IS vary by 4 scopes...
Personal, workgroup, enterprise, and interenterprise
An enterprise has _______ of users, procedures formalized, and charges membership fees.
100-1000s
Interenterprises have ______ of users
1000s
SAP is an example of _______ resource management
enterprise
Purpose of customer life cycle:
marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management and loss/chum
True or false. A terabyte is larger than a petabyte in terms of computer storage.
False; A terabyte is smaller than a petabyte in terms of computer storage.
True or false. Data mining tools process data using statistical techniques.
True.
True or false. Reporting tools are programs that read data from a variety of sources, process that data, format it into structured reports, and deliver those reports to the users who need them.
True.
True or false. Data compression involves searching for patterns and relationships among data.
False; Data mining involves searching for patterns and relationships among data.
True or false. In most cases, data-mining tools are used to make assessments.
False; In most cases, data mining tools are used to make predictions.
True or false. Reporting tools tend to use simpler operations while data-mining tends to use more sophisticated statistical techniques.
True.
True or false. Knowledge-management tools differ from reporting and data-mining tools because the source of the data is recorded facts and figures.
False; Knowledge management tools differ from reporting and data-mining tools because the source of the data is human knowledge.
True or false. Reporting tools produce information from data using five basic operations: sorting, grouping, calculating, filtering, and formatting.
True.
True or false. RFM analysis, a technique readily implemented using reporting tools, us used to analyze and rank customers according to their purchase patterns.
True.
True or false. RFM analysis considers how recently (R) a customer ordered, how frequently (F) they ordered, and how much margin (M) the company made on the orders.
False; RFM analysis considers how recently (R) a customer ordered, how frequently (F) they ordered, and how much money they've spent (M on the orders.
True or false. An OLAP cube and an OLAP report are the same thing.
True.
True or false. OLAP stands for Organizational Lead Analysis Program and is used extensively to generate reports for marketing and sales.
False; OLAP stands for Online Analytical Processing and is used extensivel to generate reports for marketing and sales.
True or false. OLAP provides the ability to sum, count, average, and perform other simple arithmetic operations on groups of data.
True.
True or false. In an OLAP report, a measure is the data item of interest.
True.
True or false. Total sales, average sales, and average cost are examples of dimensions used in an OLAP report.
False; Total sales, average sales, and average cost are examples of measures used in an OLAP report.
True or false. A drawback associated with OLAP reports is their inability to let users drill down into the data.
False;
True or false. Normally, for performance and security reasons the OLAP server and DBMS run on separate servers.
True.
True or false. Data mining is the application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data for classification and prediction.
True.
True or false. Knowledge discovery in database (KDD) is used as a synonym for data mining.
True.
True or false. With unsupervised data mining, analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis.
True.
True or false. Cluster analysis is used to identify groups of entities that have similar characteristics.
True.
True or false. In supervised data mining, a model is developed after the analysis.
In supervised data mining, a model is developed prior to the analysis.
True or false. Neural networks are a popular unsupervised data-mining technique.
Neural networks are a popular supervised data-mining technique.
True or false. A market-basket analysis is a data-mining technique used for determining sales patterns.
True.
True or false. In marketing transactions, the fact that customers who buy the product X also buy product Y creates a cross-selling opportunity.
True.
True or false. In market basket terminology, a conditional probability estimate is called a lift.
False; In market basket terminology, a conditional probability estimate is called the confidence.
True or false. Decision-tree analyses are an unsupervised data-mining technique because data miners develop a model prior to the analysis.
False; Decision-tree analyses are an unsupervised data-mining technique because data miners develop a model after the analysis.
True or false. Market-basket analysis is based on an "If....then..." analysis.
False; Decision-tree analysis is based on an "If.....then..." analysis.
True or false. CurrentLTV is the current ratio of outstanding balance of a loan to the value of the loan's collateral.
True.
True or false. Operational data is designed to support fast transaction processing and might need to be reformatted to be useful for BI applications.
True.
True or false. Data marts are also referred to as data houses.
False
True or false. A value 999-999-9999 for a U.S. phone number is an example of dirty data.
True.
True or false. Problematic data are termed dirty data.
True.
True or false. Wrong granularity implies that data is either too fine or too coarse.
True.
True or false. A file of order totals cannot be used for a market-basket analysis. This is a problem associated with the data being too fine.
False; A file of order totals cannot be used for a market-basket analysis. This is a problem associated with the data being too coarse.
True or false. It is possible to capture the customer's clicking behavior using a clickstream data.
True.
True or false. It is better to have data that is too coarse than data that is too fine.
False; It is better to have data that is too fine than data that is too coarse.
True or false. A data warehouse, is a data collection, smaller than the data mart, that addresses a particular component or functional area of the business.
False; A data mart, is a data collection, smaller than the data warehouse, that addresses a particular component or functional area of the business.
True or false. Knowledge management enables employees to leverage organizational knowledge to work more efficiently.
True
True or false. Knowledge management applications are concerned with minimizing content use.
False; Knowledge management applications are concerned with maximizing content use.
True or false. Indexing is the single most important content function in KM applications.
True.
True or false. Real Simple Syndication (RSS) is a special case of a BI application server that serves only reports.
False;
True or false. Knowledge management applications are concerned with minimizing content use.
True.
True or false. Expert systems attempt to capture human expertise and put it into a format that can be used by non-experts.
True.
True or false. Expert systems are rule-based systems that use "If....then" rules similar to those created by decision-tree analysis.
True.
True or false. Expert systems are difficult to develop but are easy to maintain.
False; Expert systems are difficult to develop and difficult to maintain.
True or false. In a generic business intelligence system, applications results are processed by a BI tool to produce a data source.
False; In a generic business intelligence system, a data source is processed by a BI tool to produce application results.
True or false. Portal servers are like Web servers except that they do not have a customizable user interface.
False; Portal servers are like Web servers except that they do have a customizable user interface.
True or false. Report servers are messages transmitted via e-mail or phone that notify a user that a particular condition has occurred.
False; Alerts are messages transmitted via e-mail or phone that notify a user that a particular condition has occurred.
True or false. The credit card reform law passed by U.S. Congress in May 2009 requires the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to investigate data mining by credit card employees.
True.
__________ is defined as information containing patterns, relationships, and trends.
Business intelligence
1 petabyte is made up of __________ bytes.
10^15
Which of the following can store the maximum amount of data?
1 exabyte (EB)
How big is 1 gigabyte?
10^9 bytes
______ tools are programs that read data from a variety of sources, process that data, format it into structured reports, and deliver those reports to the users who need them.
Reporting
Which of the following is an example of a question that a reporting tool will help address?
How does the current situation compare to the past?
What are reporting tools primarily used for?
Assessment
In most cases, data-mining tools are used to make __________.
Predictions
Which of the following is an example of a question that data-mining will help address?
Will a given customer default on a loan?
Among the following, which is the best way to distinguish between reporting tools and data-mining tools?
Complexity of techniques used
Knowledge management tools differ from reporting and data-mining tools because the source of their data is _________.
Human knowledge
Which of the following is a description of a business intelligence (BI) application?

A. It is an information system that employs BI tools to deliver information.
B. It implements the logic of a particular procedure or process.
C. It stores employee knowledge and makes it available to those who need it.
D. It is the use of a tool on a particular type of data for a particular type of purpose.
D. It is the use of a tool on a particular type of data for a particular purpose.
Which of the following is a basic operation used by reporting tools to produce information from data?
Calculating
Which basic operation structures a report so that it is easier to understand?
Formatting
__________ analysis is a way of analyzing and ranking customers according to their purchasing patterns.
RFM
An RFM score of ________ most likely means that a customer has taken its business elsewhere and is probably not worth spending too many marketing resources on.
555
RFM analysis ranks customers by considering the recency, frequency, and __________ of their orders.
dollar amount
Ajax is one of the customers of a well-known linen manufacturing company. Ajax has not ordered linen in some time, but when it did order in the past, it ordered frequently, and its orders were of the highest monetary value. Under the given circumstances, Ajax's RFM score is most likely ___________.
511
A sales team should attemp to up-sell more expensive products to a customer who has an RFM score of __________.
113
How should a sales team respond to a customer who has an RFM score of 545?
The sales team should let go of this customer; the loss will be minimal.
Rubber trees is a well known manufacturing company. Bloominghams, one of the customers of Rubber trees holds an RFM score of 111. Which of the following characteristics relates Bloominghams with its RFM score?
Bloominghams has ordered recently and orders frequently, and it orders the most expensive goods.
OLAP stands for ________.
Online Analytical Processing
The viewer of an OLAP report can change its format. Which term implies this capability?
Dimension
An OLAP report has measures and dimensions. Which of the following is an example of a dimension?
Sales region
Which of the following describes a dimension in an OLAP report?
It is a characteristic of a measure
An OLAP report has measures and dimensions. Which of the following is an example of a measure?
Average cost
Because they are online, OLAP reports are ____________ reports.
Dynamic
An _______ and an OLAP report are the same thing.
OLAP cube
Which of the following observations is true?

A. RFM reports have measures and dimensions.
B. RFM is more generic than OLAP
C. OLAP reports are more dynamic then RFM reports.
D. RFM reports can drill down into the data.
C. OLAP reports are more dynamic than RFM reports.
_________ reports allow users to drill down into the data and divide it into more detail.
OLAP
________ is the application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data for classification and prediction.
Data mining
Which term is used as a synonym for data mining?
Knowledge discovery in databases
Which of the following is true of unsupervised data mining?

A. Analysts use tools such as regression analysis.
B. Analysts apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of a model.
C. Analysts fit data to suggested hypotheses.
D. Analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis.
D. Analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis.
In ________, statistical techniques identify groups of entities that have similar characteristics.
Cluster analysis
Which of the following is an example of an unsupervised data-mining technique?

A. Regression analysis
B. Data streaming
C. Cluster analysis
D. Neural networks
C. Cluster analysis
Which of the following is an example of an supervised data-mining technique?

A. Regression analysis
B. A decision tree
C. Market-basket analysis
D. Neural networks
A. Regression analysis
Which of the following is used to show the products that customers tend to buy together?
Market-basket analysis
In marketing transactions, the fact that customers who buy product X also buy from product Y creates a(n) __________ opportunity. That is, "If they're buying X, sell them Y," or "If they're buying Y, sell them X."
Cross-selling
In market-basket terminology, _______ is the term that describes the probability that two items will be purchased together.
Support
In market-basket terminology, the ratio of confidence to the base probability of buying an item is the ________.
Lift
Which of the following is a hierarchal arrangement of criteria that predict a classification or a value?
A decision-tree
Because of problems with operational data, many organizations choose to extract operational data into a(n) ___________.
Data warehouse
A data warehouse contains a special database that stores the __________, which records the source, format, assumptions and constraints, and other facts about the data.
Metadata
Problematic operational data are termed _________.
Dirty data
Which of the following statements is true about operational data?

A. Problematic operational data are termed rough data.
B. If the data granularity is too fine, there is no way to separate the data into constituent parts.
C.It is always better to have data with too coarse granularity than data with too fine a granularity.
D. Purchased operational data often contains missing elements.
D. Purchased operational data often contains missing elements.
Because of a phenomenon called the _________, the more attributes there are, the easier it is to build a model that fits the sample data but that is worthless as a predictor.
Curse of dimensionality
A ________ takes data from data manufacturers, cleans and processes the data, and then stores it.
Data warehouse
Which of the following statements of data mart is true?

A. It addresses a particular component of a functional area of a business.
B. Its users possess the data management expertise that data warehouse employees have.
C. It is larger than the data warehouse.
D. It is like a distributor supply chain.
A. It addresses a particular component or functional area of business.
A ________ is a data collection, smaller than the datawarehouse, that addresses a particular component or functional area of the business.
Data mart
_________ is the process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers, customers, and others who need it.
Knowledge management
Which of the following is a major category of knowledge assets?
Employees
__________ is the single most important content function in knowledge management applications.
Indexing
The world's best-known indexing engine is operated by __________.
Google
Which of the following is a standard for subscribing to content sources?
Real Simple Syndication
With a(n) __________ you can subscribe to content sources and be notified when they have been changed.
RSS reader
__________ attempt to capture human expertise and put it into a format that can be used by nonexperts.
Expert systems
Which of the following observations concerning expert systems is true?

A. The "If....then" rules used in these systems are created by mining data.
B. They are easy to maintain
C. They are difficult and expensive to develop
D. They have lived up to the high expectations set by their name.
C. They are difficult and expensive to develop
Portal servers are like Web servers except that they __________.
Have a customizable user interface.
An alert sent to you is an example of ________ technology.
push
A(n) __________ notifies the user of an exceptional event, such as a dramatic fall is a stock price.
Exception alert
How are BI tools categorized?
We can categorize BI tools in one of three ways: as reporting tools, as data mining tools, and as knowledge management tools.
What is an RFM analysis?
RFM analysis is a technique readily implemented using reporting tools and is used to analyze and rank customers according to their purchase patterns.
What is OLAP? What are some of its features?
Online analytical processing is a second type of reporting tool and is more generic than RFM. An OLAP provides the ability to sum, count, average, and perform other simple arithmetic operations on groups of data.
Differentiate between unsupervised and supervised data-mining.
With supervised data mining, data miners develop a model prior to the analysis and apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of the model. With unsupervised data mining, analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis.
What is the objective of performing a market-basket analysis?
The objective of market-basket analysis is to determine sales patterns.
What are the problems with using operational data for data-mining applications? How do organizations overcome these issues?
The problems associated with using operational data for data-mining applications are: Dirty data, missing values, inconsistent data, data not integrated, wrong granularity, and too much data. The curse of dimesionality is a way they overcome some of these issues.
What is knowledge management? What are its primary benefits?
Knowledge management is the process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing the knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers, customers and others who need it. KM applications enable employees and others to leverage organizational knowledge to work smarter.
What are some of the technologies that are used for sharing content?
Indexing, RSS, RSS reader, RSS feed.
What are the expert systems? What are their primary disadvantages?
Expert systems attempt to capture human expertise and put it into a format that can be used by nonexperts. Expert systems are rule based systems that use If...then rules similar to those created by decision tree analysis. Expert systems can have hundred of thousands of rules.
Describe the management functions of a business intelligent server.
The two management functions of a BI server are management and delivery. The management function maintains metadata about the authorized allocation of BI results to users. BI servers use metadata to determine what to send to users and it can be sent on a computer, PDAs, phones, applications such as Microsoft Office and as an SOA service.
The organizational role most responsible for the analysis and design of information systems best describes a
systems analyst
The process of developing and maintaining an information system best describes
information systems analysis and design
Software designed to support the payroll function would best be classified as
application software
A sequence of step-by-step approaches that help develop the information system best describes
methodologies
A group of interrelated procedures used for a business function, with an identifiable boundary, working together for some purpose, best defines
system
Which of the following is not a system characteristic:
Scope
An aggregation of parts is also called a(n)
Subsystem
The point of contact where a system meets its environment or where subsystems meet each other best describes
Interfaces
Which of the following is not a function of decomposition:
Know the functions of decomposition
Which of the following is a direct result of decomposition:
Modularity
Today, systems development focuses on
systems integration
Transaction processing systems
automate the handling of data about business activities or transactions
Management information systems
take raw data that have been previously captured and convert them into a meaningful aggregated form that managers need to conduct their responsibilities
Decision support systems
are designed to help organizational decision makers make decisions
Which of the following is an IS characteristic for a transaction processing system?
Has a high-volume, data capture focus
Which of the following is an IS characteristic for a decision support system?
Often involves semistructured problems and the need to access data at different levels of detail
Which of the following is an IS characteristic for a management information system?
Draws on diverse yet predictable data resources to aggregate and summarize data
The need for a new or enhanced system is identified during
systems planning and selection
In which SDLC phase will the analyst study the organization's current procedures and the information systems used to perform tasks?
Systems analysis
In which phase will the systems analyst convert the description of the recommended alternative solution into logical and then physical system specifications?
Systems design
A description of the alternative solution recommended by the analysis team is provided during the
systems analysis phase
In which SDLC phase is the information system coded, tested, and installed in the organization?
Systems implementation and operation
Priorities for systems and projects are deliverables for the
systems planning and selection phase
Which of the following is not an approach to systems development?
Reengineering analysis
An individual with a diverse set of skills-management, leadership, technical, conflict management, and customer relationship-who is responsible for initiating, planning, executing, and closing down a project best defines
project manager
Which of the following is not a project planning activity?
Establishing management procedures
During which of the following project planning activities do you use the information regarding tasks and resource availability to assign time estimates to each activity in the work breakdown structure?
Develop a preliminary schedule
Indicating when and how written and oral reports will be provided by the team, how team members will coordinate work, what messages will be sent to announce the project to interested parties, and what kinds of information will be shared with vendors and external contractors involved with the project describes
developing a communication plan
The third phase of the project management process in which the plans created in the prior phases are put into action is
project execution
Which of the following occurs during project execution?
Monitoring project progress against the Baseline Project Plan
A technique that uses optimistic, pessimistic, and realistic time to calculate the expected time for a particular task best defines
Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
Optimistic time refers to
the minimum period of time for an activity to be completed
Pessimistic time refers to
the maximum period of time for an activity to be completed
Realistic time refers to
the planner's "best guess" of the amount of time the activity actually will require for completion
The amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the project refers to
slack time
Which of the following possible project sources most often reflects the broader needs of the organization?
Top management
The extent to which the project is viewed as improving profits, customer service, etc., and the duration of these benefits best defines which of the following evaluation criteria?
Potential benefits
The extent to which the project is viewed as helping the organization achieve its strategic objectives and long-term goals describes
strategic alignment
Analyzing an organization's activities to determine where value is added to products and/or services and the costs incurred best describes
value chain analysis
The primary deliverable from the project identification and selection phase is
schedule of specific IS development projects
As a rule of thumb estimate, what percentage of the entire development effort should be devoted to the project initiation and planning process?
Between 10 and 20 percent
The objective of the project planning process is the development of
Baseline Project Plan and Project Scope Statement
A major outcome and deliverable from project initiation and planning that reflects the best estimate of the project's scope, benefits, costs, risks, and resource requirements defines the
Baseline Project Plan
A major outcome and deliverable from the project initiation and planning phase that contains an estimate of the project's scope, benefits, costs, risks, and resource requirements best defines
Business Case
A benefit derived from the creation of an information system that can be measured in dollars and with certainty is a(n)
tangible benefit
The reduction of waste creation is an example of a(n)
intangible benefit
A cost associated with project start-up and development or system start-up refers to a(n)
one-time cost
A cost resulting from the ongoing evolution and use of a system best defines a(an)
recurring cost
Application software maintenance, new software and hardware leases, and incremental communications are examples of
recurring costs
The concept of comparing present cash outlays to future expected returns best defines
time value of money
The interest rate used to compute the present value of future cash flows refers to
discount rate
The current value of a future cash flow is referred to as
present value
The analysis technique that uses a discount rate determined from the company's cost of capital to establish the present value of a project is commonly called
net present value (NPV)
The ratio of the net cash receipts of the project divided by the cash outlays of the project, enabling trade-off analysis to be made between competing projects, is often referred to as
return on investment (ROI)
The analysis technique that finds the amount of time required for the cumulative cash flow from a project to equal its initial and ongoing investment is referred to as
break-even analysis (BEA)
A document prepared for the customer during project initiation and planning that describes what the project will deliver and outlines generally at a high level all work required to complete the project is the
Project Scope Statement
An Internet-based communication that supports business-to-business activities best describes
Extranet
The use of telecommunications technologies to transfer business documents directly between organizations best defines
electronic data interchange (EDI)
Which of the following is a subphase of analysis?
Requirements determination
Analysts gathering information from as many sources as possible about what the new system should do is indicative of
requirements determination
The primary deliverables from requirements determination include
observation notes; interview transcripts; analysis from documents
The purpose of requirements structuring is to
enable the large amount of information gathered during requirements determination to be organized
Techniques developed to keep the analysis effort minimal, yet still effective include
JAD
Traditional methods of collecting systems requirements include
Interviews
The analysis of documents can help you identify
Problems with existing systems; special info processing circumstances that occur irregularly; the reason why current systems are designed the way they are; the organizational direction that can influence info system requirements
If your analysis of several written procedures reveals a duplication of effort in two jobs, you should
call the duplication to the attention of management as an issue to be resolved before system design can proceed
The official way a system works as described in organizational documentation is referred to as a(n)
formal system
The way a system actually works is referred to as a(n)
informal system
Forms are important for understanding a business because they
indicate what data flow in or out of a system and which are necessary for the system to function
Forms are most useful
when they contain actual organizational data
A report
enables you to work backward from the information on the document and identify the data that must have been necessary to generate it
When reviewing job procedures, you may find
a missing procedure; duplicate procedures; out of date procedures; a contradiction between a formal procedure and interview or observation results
Which of the following is a modern method for collecting system requirements?
Joint Application Design
Drawbacks to prototyping include
Know the drawbacks to prototyping
Prototyping is most useful for requirements determination when
communication problems have existed in the past between users and analysts
The search for, and implementation of, radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services best defines
business process reengineering
The structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market best defines
key business processes
Which of the following system requirement determination techniques can be applied to discovering and understanding key business processes?
JAD; document analysis; observation; interview
Technologies that enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes best defines
disruptive technologies
Which of the following technologies disrupted the business rule that information can appear only in one place at a time?
Distributed databases
Which of the following technologies disrupted the business rule of you having to find out where things are?
Automatic identification and tracking technology
Disruptive technologies include
Distributed databases; expert systems; decision support tools; automatic identification and tracking technology
The types of customers to be supported by Pine Valley Furniture's new WebStore include
Corporate customers; home office customers; student customers
The practice of turning over responsibility of some or all of an organization's information systems applications and operations to an outside firm is referred to as
Outsourcing
When developing information systems, an organization could use
Info tech services firm; open-source software; enterprise-wide solution software; in-house development
A system that integrates individual traditional business functions into a series of modules so that a single transaction occurs seamlessly within a single information system rather than several separate systems best describes
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
All of the following are benefits of enterprise solutions, EXCEPT
shifting toward enterprise solutions means changing business processes
One key difference between application service providers (ASPs) and managed service providers (MSPs) is that
MSPs offer network-based services
Open-source software is developed by
communities of interested people
An organization should acquire software from in-house developers when
the resources and staff are available and the system must be built from scratch
Which of the following describes the internal staffing requirements when software components are acquired from packaged software producers?
Some information systems (IS) and user staff to define requirements and evaluate packages are needed
Which of the following describes the internal staffing requirements when software components are acquired from enterprise-wide solutions providers?
Some internal staff are necessary, but mostly consultants are needed.
Which of the following are common criteria to consider when selecting off-the-shelf software
Flexibility; vendor viability; functionality; cost
Two criteria that are always among the most important when choosing software are
ease of installation & flexibility
In terms of criteria to consider when choosing off-the-shelf software, ease of customization is also referred to as
flexibility
In terms of criteria to consider when choosing off-the-shelf software, documentation refers to all of the following EXCEPT
the baseline project plan
The document sent to vendors asking them to propose hardware and software that will meet the requirements of your new system is called a
request for proposal (RFP)
Reuse typically refers to using previously written
objects; components
Reusing software can
decrease development time
Technologies that enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes best defines
disruptive technologies
________ refers to the ability to model system components and show how the component inputs and outputs relate to one another.
Systems thinking
________ is the activity of two or more people working together to achieve a common goal, result, or work product.
Collaboration
The single most important skill for effective collaboration is ....
to give and receive critical feedback.
What are the five-component framework of information systems?
computer hardware, software, data, procedures, and people
An operating system like Windows or Linux is an example of the ________ component of an information system.
Software
What component of an IS is the easiest to change and causes the least amount of organizational disruption?
Hardware
Information can be defined as ________.
Knowledge derived from data
Data is defined as ________.
Recorded facts or figures
The return on investment of an advertising campaign is an example of...
information, and is not mere data
As production manager at a bottling plant for a cola manufacturer, you receive reports containing figures for raw materials from last year, but stated as the current year's. This information would qualify as bad information because it is ________.
Inaccurate
What is a component of an IS but not of IT?
People
In a business process, a role is ________.
a collection of procedures
An as-is model ________.
documents the current situation of a business process
A business process that crosses into multiple companies is known as a(n) ________ business process.
Interorganizational
Starting with processes and working toward systems is more likely to result in processes and systems that are aligned with the organization's strategy and direction is T or F for the relationship between business processes and information systems?
TRUE
The process of creating and maintaining information systems is referred to as....
systems development
Once we have defined the project's goals and scope, the next step is to ________.
Assess feasibility
________ feasibility refers to whether existing information technology is likely to be able to meet the needs of the new system.
Technical
During the requirements definition stage of developing an information system, the project team will include mostly ________.
Business and systems analysts
Tasks in the ________ phase of the system development process are to build, test, and convert the users to the new system.
Implementation
In a ________ installation, the new system runs alongside the old one until it has been tested and is fully operational.
Parallel
According to Brooks' Law, adding more people to a system development project will ________.
Delay the project's completion
An organization's goals and objectives are determined by its ________.
Competitive strategy
Porter's five forces model is used to assess ________.
Industry structure
A new drug that has shown promise in curing lung cancer has been discovered by a famous chemical laboratory. This is the only drug effective for treatment of this disease. The laboratory obtains a patent for the product and decides to sell it. This situation is characterized by a ________.
Low threat of substitutions
The automobile industry is characterized by many manufacturers and intense competition among them. This statement represents ________.
High levels of rivalry
This is defined as an organization's response to the structure of its industry...
Competitive strategy
Porter defined value as the ________.
amount of money that a customer is willing to pay for a resource
Lynn is going through this week's delivery schedule. She calls her team and assigns territories for each executive. She contacts the fleet supervisor to arrange trucks for transportation. Which activity of the value chain is Lynn executing?
Outbound logistics
A ________ is a network of activities that generate value by transforming inputs into outputs.
Business process
A(n) ________ is a collection of something, such as data and raw materials.
Repository
What is true of business process designs?
Most process designs require people to work in new ways.
Locking in customers by making it difficult or expensive for customers to move to another product is called establishing high ________.
Switching costs
The ________ is called the "brain" of the computer.
CPU
A ____________is an input hardware device
Bar-code scanner
To run a program or process data, the computer first transfers the program or data from disk to the ________.
Main memory
Cloud computing refers to ________.
A computing network on the internet
Microsoft Word is an example of a(n)...
application program
A(n) _______ _________ is a program that controls the computer's resources.
Operating system
________ consist of programs that perform business functions such as general ledger and accounting.
Application softwares
When you buy an operating system for your personal computer, you are actually buying a software ________.
License
Software developed in-house is most likely to be the ______ ________ ______ when deciding to acquire an application software
last-choice alternative
________ is installed in special, read-only memory in devices like printers or communication devices.
Firmware
The term "open source" means that the source code of the program is ________.
Available to the public
A collection of similar records is called a(n)________.
File
In a relational database, a collection of similar records is called a(n) ________.
Table
A ________ is a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table.
Key
A _______ is a program used to create, process, and administer a database.
DBMS
SQL is a(n) ________.
Query language
A hospital is using a software to analyze treatment regimen and recovery times. The software relates the dosages, regularity, and therapeutic procedures to the time taken by patients segmented across age- and illness-groups. This software is an example of a(n) ________.
Application program
A(n) ________ DBMS is designed to process large organizational and workgroup databases.
Enterprise
A ________ describes the data and relationships that will be stored in the database.
Data model
A person, place, or object would be represented in a database application as a(n) ________.
Entity
If a student is allowed to have multiple majors and advisors are assigned to handle multiple students, it would be an example of a ________ relationship.
N:M
________ is the process of converting a poorly structured table into two or more well-structured tables.
Normalization
________ Law makes cost of data storage and data communications essentially zero
Moore's Law
Abstract reasoning, collaboration, systems thinking and the ability to experiment are examples of ______ _______ cognitive skills.
Non-routine
MIS is defined as...
The development and use of information systems
Information systems exist to help business ___________
PEOPLE (aka users)
Characteristics of GOOD information are...
Accurate, timely, relevant, just sufficient, worth its cost
The components of a collaboration system are:
Hardware, software, data, procedures, and people
What are Porter's 5 forces?
Bargaining power of customers, threat of substitutions, Bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, and rivalry
The structure of business processes determines...
The design of supporting information systems
The difference between value and the activity generated that determines its cost is called __________
Margin
Out-bound logistics is ...
Collecting, storing and physically distributing the product to customers
Operations/Manufacturing refers to ...
Transforming inputs into the final product
Inbound logistics is the ---
receiving, storing and disseminating inputs to the product
Industry structure--> ________________--> Value Chains--> ________________ --> Information systems
Competitive strategy; Business processes
When a business process resides within a single business function the scope is ____
Functional
Cross-functional is when
Business processes cross into different fields within the same company
Interorganizational scope is when
Business processes involve multiple companies
The steps of a business process are ...
Model processes, create components, Implement processes, assess results
The 5 step system in developing a product are..
Define system, determine requirements, design system components, Implement system, maintain system
The purpose of a database is to..
organize and keep track of things
Spread sheets keep track of __-
a single theme
Databases keep track of _____ theme(s)
multiple
In a database, columns are called ____
Fields
IN a database, rows are called ____
Records
_____________ is the formal name for a table
Relation
___________ processes database tables for applications
DBMS (database management system)
The 4 DBMS roles are :
read, insert, modify and delete
A ____ transfers program or data from disk to main memory
CPU
Operating system contains
program that controls computer
True or false. The global economy has intensified rivalry by increasing product and vendor choices and by accelerating the flow of information about price, product, availability and service.
True
True or false. Unlike business processes, information systems procedures need not reflect local cultural values and norms.
False;
True or false. Distributed database processing refers to the process of multiple databases that reside in a single location.
False;
True or false. Although lack of integration is disadvantageous in many situations, it has advantages for international organizations and international systems.
True
True or false. A supply chain is a network of organizations and facilities that transform raw materials into products delivered to customers.
True
True or false. The bullwhip effect is a phenomenon in which the variability in the size and timing of orders decreases at each stage up the supply chain, from customer to supplier.
False; The bullwhip effect is a phenomenon in which the variability in the size and timing of orders increases at each stage up the supply chain, from customer to supplier.
True or false. The bullwhip effect increases the overall profitability of the supply chain.
False; The bullwhip effect decreases the overall profitability of the supply chain.
True or false. International organizations have more IS and IT assets, and those assets are exposed to more risk and greater uncertainty.
True
True or false. Regarding planning, the principle task is to align IT and IS resource's with the organizations competitive strategy. The task does not change character for international companies; it just becomes more complex and difficult.
True
True or false. Regarding safeguards, technical and data safeguards do not change for international information systems.
True
The global economy has changed the competitive environment in each of the following ways EXCEPT___________.

A. Making Market entry easier in all cases.
B. Allowing both suppliers and consumers to benefit from the greater size of the economy.
C. Customizing products to suit local preferences.
D. Enabling consumers to access a wider range of vendors.
A. Making market entry easier in all cases
Which of the following statements is true about the impact of globalization on value chains and business processes?

A. Increased globalization calls for greater attention to promotional aspects of the marketing mix as opposed to the product.
B. Companies prefer to perform all their processes in-house as it is much more feasible than outsourcing.
C. Manufacturing of a final product is frequently distributed throughout the world.
D. Companies must develop a standardized global strategy irrespective of where they are operating from.
C. Manufacturing of a final product is frequently distributed throughout the world.
Which of the following components of an international IS is least affected by internationalization?
Hardware
When localizing a computer program, which of the following must a firm NOT do?

A. Avoid redesigning labels in forms and reports.
B. Redraw and translate diagrams.
C. Adjusting sorting order for different character sets.
D. Translate the user interface.
A. Avoid redesigning labels in forms and reports.
The process of making a computer program work in a second language, which is surprisingly hard, is called ____________ software.
Localizing
Distributed data processing refers to the processing of _______________.
A single database that resides in multiple locations.
Because an order processing functional system located in, say, the United States is independent of the manufacturing systems located in, say, Taiwan, it implies that ____________.
Integration of the two systems is not required as long as there is sufficient interface between the two systems.
Which of the following statements is true about the supply chain?

A. The supply chain includes transportation companies, warehouses, and inventories.
B. All members of the supply chain of a firm must have geographical proximity.
C. Each organization in the chain includes is connected to just one company up the chain (toward the supplier) and down the chain (toward the customer).
D. Every supply chain must include suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and customers.
The supply chain includes transportation companies, warehouses, and inventories.
Cross functional, integrated systems, such as ERP, solve the problems of data isolation by integrating data into a database that provides a comprehensive and organization-wide view. However, this would require ____________.
The company to customize its product offerings.
Which of the following describes the bullwhip effect?

A. The variability in the size and timing of orders increases at each stage up the supplu chain, from the customer to supplier.
B. The performance improvement to be gained from using some faster mode of execution is limited by the fraction of the time the faster mode can be used.
C. New classes create new applications resulting in new markets and new industries.
D. The value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system.
A. The variability in the size and timing of orders increases at each stage up the supplu chain, from the customer to supplier.
The bullwhip effect __________.

A. Increases the overall profitability of of the supply chain.
B. Forces distributors, manufacturers, and suppliers to carry smaller inventories than necessary.
C. Is not related to erratic consumer demand.
D. Can be eliminated by not giving all participants in the supply chain access to consumer-demand information from the retailer.
C. Is not related to erratic consumer demand.
To overcome challenges in international IS, some organizations develop alternative versions of the system that support different processes in different countries. This results in __________.

A. Standardized development rates across countries.
B. A short term profit but long term losses.
C. High maintenance cost
D. Defining a set standard of business processes that meets all requirements.
C. High maintenance cost
One of the challenges for international IS project management is that the development rates vary among cultures and countries, because ____________.
Workers expectations vary among cultures and nations.
The four primary responsibilities of the IT department are: plan, operate, develop, and protect information systems and IT infrastructure. Regarding planning, the principle task is to _________________.
Align IT and IS resources with the organization's competitive strategy.
International outsourcing is most advantageous ____________.
For functions that need to be operational 24/7.
Briefly explain the two major ways in which thinking about competitive strategies has changed in today's global economy.
First, the sheer size and complexity of the global economy means that any organization that chooses a strategy allowing it to compete industry-wide is taking a very big bite! The second major way today's world economy changes competitive strategies is that its size, combined with the Internet, enables unprecedented product differentiation.
List the issues that need to be addressed when localizing a computer program.
-Translate the user interface, including menu bars and commands.
-Translate, and possibly redesign, labels in forms, reports, and query prompts.
- Translate all documentation and help text.
- Redraw and translate diagrams and examples in help text.
-Translate all error messages.
-Translate text in all message boxes.
-Adjust sorting order for different character set.
-Fix special problems in Asian character sets and in languages that read and write from right to left.
How are international business processes likely to be developed to overcome the present challenges of international cross-functional applications?
Cross-functional integrated systems solve the problems of data isolation by integrating data into a database that provides a comprehensive and organization-wide view.
How can information reduce/eliminate the bullwhip effect?
One way to eliminate the bullwhip effect is to give all participants in the supply chain access to consumer-demand information from the retailer.
Explain how managing a global IS development project will involve challenges in the areas of time, quality and costs.
Time-Development rates vary among cultures and countries.
Cost-Cost of development varies widely among countries.
Quality- Quality standards vary among cultures. Different expectations of quality may result in an inconsistent system.
The three primary activities in the BI (Business Intelligence) process are to acquire data, perform analysis, and publish results
True
Which of the following is a fundamental category of Business Analytics?
Data Mining
International outsourcing is most advantageous ________.
For functions that need to be operational 24/7
Rules of conduct describing what people ought and ought not to do in various situations are called:
Ethics
The Software Code of Ethics was developed by:
ACM
Which of the following is a risk of outsourcing IS/IT functions?
It involves the potential loss of intellectual capital
________ present the largest risk for an organization's infrastructure loss.
Natural disasters