If you have a bllod pressure of 140/180, what does the 80 represent?
diastolic- exact level the sound disappears
When the first sound is heard during measurement with a blood pressure cuff, what is measure-systolic or diastolic pressure?
Emotions have an affect on blood pressure. Predict the blood pressure of an individual who recently had a heated argument with a roommate about rent money.
Illness can also affect blood pressure. Illness tends to increase stress responses. Predict the bllod pressure of an individual with a sinus headache and postnasal drip.
150/90 or so
Nicotine and caffeine both elevate blood pressure. Explain how an increase in bllod pressure could have a negative effect on the cardiac output.
The substances would cause vasocanstiction which can cause elevated blood pressure; the heart has to pump harder
What is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart?
interventricular sulcus or groove
What three vessels take blood to the right atrium?
coronary sinus, superior vena cava, and inferior vena cava
Where fo the great cardiac vein and the small cardiac vein take blood?
to the coronary sinus and then drains into the right atrium
The bicuspid valve is located between what two chambers of the heart?
left atrium and left ventricle
What is the function of the aortic semilunar valve?
prevents backflow into the left ventricle; the shutting of the valve also produces the second heart sound in the (Lup-Dup) complex.
What cell type makes up most of the myocardium?
cardiac muscle cells with striations and interclatated disks
Waht adaptation do you see in the walls of the left ventricle being thicker than those of the right ventricle?
The left ventricle pushes the blood through out the body, so it is thicker because there is more force needed in the contraction.
In terms of function, how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle?
Skeletal muscles have numerous muscle fibers; tendons attach skeletal muscles to the bone; skeletal muscles are voluntary. Cardiac muscles consists of the heart and vertebrates; cardiac muscles are involuntary.
Which two chambers of the heart (atrian or ventricles) contract last in a normal cardiac cycle?
After the AV node depolarizes, what structures conduct the impulse to the myocardium of the ventricles?
atriocventricular bundle, right and left bundle branches, purkinje fibers
What are the main events recorded by an ECG?
P wave (deflection wave); Q-S complex (venticular depolarization); T wave (ventricular repolarization)
Why is the ECG event indicating atrial repolarization not seen in an ECG?
The atrial repolarization occurs during ventrical depolarization which is stronger or larger electrical event and is masked by the larger QRS complex.
What does a heart block do to impulse transmission in the heart?
Heart blocks slows impulse and lengthens the QRS complex of ECG; over all lowers the pulse