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Exercise 34

The letters bpm stand for what phrase in cardiac measurement?

beats per minute

What does a sphygmomanometer measure?

blood pressure

To measure blood pressure, what artery would you most commonly use?

brachial artery

If you have a bllod pressure of 140/180, what does the 80 represent?

diastolic- exact level the sound disappears

What is the clinical threshold for high blood pressure in yound adults?


When the first sound is heard during measurement with a blood pressure cuff, what is measure-systolic or diastolic pressure?


Emotions have an affect on blood pressure. Predict the blood pressure of an individual who recently had a heated argument with a roommate about rent money.


Illness can also affect blood pressure. Illness tends to increase stress responses. Predict the bllod pressure of an individual with a sinus headache and postnasal drip.

150/90 or so

Nicotine and caffeine both elevate blood pressure. Explain how an increase in bllod pressure could have a negative effect on the cardiac output.

The substances would cause vasocanstiction which can cause elevated blood pressure; the heart has to pump harder

The heart is located between the lungs in an area known as the ..... .


What is the name of the layer that is superficial to the pericardial cavity?

parietal pericardium

What is the innermost layer of the heart wall called?


If the apex of the heart superior or inferior to the rest of the heart?


What is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart?

interventricular sulcus or groove

Are auricles extensions of the atria or the ventricles?


What three vessels take blood to the right atrium?

coronary sinus, superior vena cava, and inferior vena cava

Where fo the great cardiac vein and the small cardiac vein take blood?

to the coronary sinus and then drains into the right atrium

What blood vessels nourish the heart tissue?

coronary arteries

What structure separates the left atrium from the right atrium?

interatrial septum

What is the name of the thin spot between the atria?

interatrial septum or fossa

The bicuspid valve is located between what two chambers of the heart?

left atrium and left ventricle

Name the structure between the atrioventricular vavle and the papillary muscle.

chordae tendineae

What is the function of the aortic semilunar valve?

prevents backflow into the left ventricle; the shutting of the valve also produces the second heart sound in the (Lup-Dup) complex.

What is another name for the tricuspid valve?

right atrioventricular valve

What cell type makes up most of the myocardium?

cardiac muscle cells with striations and interclatated disks

Waht adaptation do you see in the walls of the left ventricle being thicker than those of the right ventricle?

The left ventricle pushes the blood through out the body, so it is thicker because there is more force needed in the contraction.

How does cardiac muscle resemble skeletal muscle?

both are straited

In terms of function, how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle?

Skeletal muscles have numerous muscle fibers; tendons attach skeletal muscles to the bone; skeletal muscles are voluntary. Cardiac muscles consists of the heart and vertebrates; cardiac muscles are involuntary.

Know the details of the heart.

The sinoatrial node has a commone name. What is it?


Which two chambers of the heart (atrian or ventricles) contract last in a normal cardiac cycle?


What two chambers are stimulated immediately after the SA node depolarizes?


After the AV node depolarizes, what structures conduct the impulse to the myocardium of the ventricles?

atriocventricular bundle, right and left bundle branches, purkinje fibers

What are the main events recorded by an ECG?

P wave (deflection wave); Q-S complex (venticular depolarization); T wave (ventricular repolarization)

What electrical event in the heart does the QRS complex represent?

ventricular depolarization

Ventricular repolarization is represented by what part of an ECG?

T wave

What ECG wave is represented by the atrial depolarization?

P wave

Why is the ECG event indicating atrial repolarization not seen in an ECG?

The atrial repolarization occurs during ventrical depolarization which is stronger or larger electrical event and is masked by the larger QRS complex.

What does a heart block do to impulse transmission in the heart?

Heart blocks slows impulse and lengthens the QRS complex of ECG; over all lowers the pulse

If a myocaridal infarct (heart attach) destroyed a portion of the right or left bundle branches, what potential change might you see in an ECG?

right or left branch block (prolonged QRS complex)

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