Explain the Gestalt theory of personality.
The Gestalt theory of personality emphasizes the concepts of phenomenology, independence, and being integrated and centered in the now.
What is Gestalt Therapy?
The view is that people are self-determined, striving for self-actualization, and best understood from a phenomenological perspective.
-people are a whole compiled of interrelated parts of body, emotions, thoughts, sensations, and perceptions
What is the 1st key concept of Gestalt Therapy? Explain.
-therapy encourages clients to try something new to achieve genuine understanding
-goes beyond the status quo and involves thought and action versus mere behavioral change
What is the 2nd key concept of Gestalt Therapy? Explain.
-gestalt therapy views personality functioning in relational-contextual terms (the self in relation to others)
-the interpersonal perspective emphasizes the interrelationship between the individual and the environment
What is Existential Therapy?
Sees each person as a unique individual who is struggling to derive meaning in life and focuses on attempting to understand the human condition.
-contends that each person must ultimately define his or her own personal existence
What is the 1st key concept of Existential Therapy?
Uniqueness of the Individual
-to become aware of one's uniqueness, it is necessary to encounter one self as a separate and distinct individual
-an important part of this process is to have the experience of existential aloneness
What is the 2nd key concept of Existential Therapy?
Freedom and Responsibility
-freedom and responsibility are interrelated
-people are free to choose their own destiny, but they must also take responsibility for their actions
What is Person-Centered Therapy?
Emphasizes the phenomenological perspectives, suggesting that an individual's internal frame of reference is the best vantage point for understanding the person
What is the 1st key concept of Person-Centered Therapy?
-clients can be trusted to establish their own goals and monitor their progress toward these goals, and all individuals have inherent self-actualizing tendencies
What is the 2nd key concept of Person-Centered Therapy?
-counselors are congruent in what they are experiencing and what they communicate
What are the 5 Assessment Instruments in Career-Counseling?
Explain Aptitude tests.
Provide a measure of a particular skill or the ability to acquire a skill
-used to predict a person's success in career/education training
Explain Achievement tests.
Assess current level of functioning regarding abilities such as reading, arithmetic, and language use
-used to determine academic strengths and weaknesses to assist with educational and career planning and placement
Explain Interest inventories.
Used to assess personal and career interests to facilitate education/career planning and placement
What are the five stages of Super's Theory?
1. Growth (birth-14)
2. Exploration (14-24)
3. Establishment (24-44)
4. Maintenance (44-64)
5. Decline Stage (64+)
Explain Growth (birth-14).
-fantasy substage: involves the child role-playing various fantasies regarding the world of work
-interest substage: child's likes and dislikes have a major impact on career aspirations
-capacity substage: characterized by a more realistic view of the world of work as individuals consider their abilities and job requirements
Explain Exploration (14-24).
Period of self-examination in relation to the world of work
-individual also begins to directly experience work by involvement in part-time jobs
-tentative substage: involves identifying appropriate fields of work
-transition substage: pursue special education or vocational training related to a field of work
-trial-little commitment substage: begins a first job with tentative commitment
Explain Establishment (24-44).
Individuals have identified an appropriate field of work to which they want to make a long-term commitment
-trial commitment and stabilization: individual either settles down with a particular occupation or becomes dissatisfied and begins to explore other occupational possibilities
-advancement: time for stabilization, during which seniority is required
Explain Maintenance (44-64).
A time for the individual to enjoy the security of seniority while attempting to maintain status as a current and productive professional
Explain the Decline stage (64+).
The individual adjusts to retirement as well as declining mental and physical skills and abilities
Explain Holland's Theory.
Suggests that career choice is an attempt to obtain a satisfactory fit between the person and the environment
-job satisfaction results when there is congruence of personality type and work environment
Explain Holland's 6 Personality Types.
-Realistic: individuals take a logical, matter-of-fact approach to life
-Investigative: people use an investigative, analytic approach to problem solving
-Social: individuals tend to be social, cooperative, and people-oriented
-Artistic: people tend to be sensitive, creating, spontaneous, and nonconforming
-Conventional: individuals are conforming, inhibited, and have a preference for structured situations
-Enterprising: individuals tend to take an extroverted, aggressive approach to problem solving
Explain Roe's Theory.
Roe contends that unmet needs in childhood can have a major influence on career choice in adulthood.
-her theory suggests that people can fulfill basic and higher-order needs in their careers: needs related to physiology, safety, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization
Explain Cognitive Dissonance Theory.
It is important for counselors to identify factors that can increase occupational dissonance
-counselors should develop strategies
-counselors can help clients avoid making a premature choice
What are the main differences between personal counseling and career counseling?
-Career counseling appears to generate less interest among counseling professionals
-Career counseling and personal counseling need not necessarily be thought of in dichotomous terms
Mental Health Counseling: What are the 5 stages of change and their characteristics?
What are the Direct and Indirect Counseling Strategies?
What is the role and functions of mental health counselors?
Same tasks as marriage and family counselors, social workers, and psychologist
-mental health counselors adopt a, psychoeducational, developmental, and psychopathological point of view
Counselors must decide when to be an advocate and when to let the client take the initiative
-counselors should intervene when it becomes clear that the system is not working for the client or even appears to be working against the client
Counselors must have the support of the system to be capable of working effectively with that system
-it is important for counselors not to alienate themselves from coworkers
To maintain support from the system, counselors should be flexible and willing to compromise
-a give and take approach can yield creative solutions to complex problems
It is important to be able to listen and communicate an understanding of different points of view regarding the client
-occasionally, mental health counselors need to take an assertive position to obtain the desired results
What are the categories of mental health services?
Problems of Living
Treating Mental Disorders
What are the 5 myths of suicide?
Suicide is committed only by people with severe psychological problems
-(studies have shown that most individuals who commit suicide had not been diagnosed with a psychological disorder)
Suicide usually occurs without warning
-(most suicides are preceded by warning signs --> sudden change of behavior, self-destructive behavior, verbal threats of suicide, hopelessness and despair, depression)
People who are suicidal will always be prone to suicide
-(most people do not remain in a suicidal state forever, they may be struggling with a temporary personal crisis)
Discussing suicide may cause the client to want to carry out the act
-(the opposite is true, talking with a caring person can prevent suicide)
When a person has attempted suicide and pulls back from it, the danger is over
-(the greatest period of danger is usually during the upswing period, when the person becomes energized following a severe depression and has the energy to commit suicide)
What are the techniques of Structural Family Counseling?
creating boundaries and reframing
-counselor joins the family to alter the structure of the interaction between family members
What are the techniques of Strategic Family Counseling?
Focuses on resolving the presenting problem directly with:
-teaching new skills
What are the variables Gottman identified as predictors of divorce?
-Criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and emotional withdrawal during conflict resolution
-Lack of positive affect, such as humor, interest, and affection
-Husband rejects the wife's influence during a conflict
Explain the system theories and the role that actions play on the family dynamics.
Principle of circular causality
-actions caused by one family member influence the actions of all family members, affecting the functioning of the family system, including the person who was responsible for the initial action
Focus on the family system rather than the individual
-problematic individuals are viewed in terms of family interaction patterns and are therefore considered within the social context in which their problems occurred
What are the key concepts of Marriage and Family Therapy?
Organization (wholeness, hierarchies, and boundaries)
Communication (verbal and non-verbal)
Family Rules (overt and covert)
Family Homeostasis (tendency of family systems to maintain equilibrium, resist change)
Information Processing (exchange of info between family and outside world)
Change (1st order, 2nd order)
The functional Family System (one in which members feel valued, safe and supported. Will change culture to culture)
What are the 10 skills that are believed to contribute to effective marriages?
1. Individually accept responsibility for their behavior and self-esteem
2. Identify and align their personal and marital goals
3. Choose to encourage each other
4. Communicate their feelings with honesty and openness
5. Listen emphatically when feelings are expressed
6. Seek to understand the factors that influence their relationship
7. Demonstrate that they accept and value each other
8. Choose thoughts, words, and actions that support the positive goals of their marriage
9. Solve marital conflicts together
10. Commit themselves to the ongoing process of maintaining an equal marriage
What is the definition of resiliency?
A tendency to overcome adverse conditions as a result of having growth-facilitating characteristics that promote optimal development
What is the definition of optimal development?
A view of human development that focuses on positive, healthy development as opposed to a pathological view of development
What is the definition of Emotional intelligence?
A study of the role that social emotions play in psychological functioning
Explain the use of Play Therapy.
Through play, children and adolescents are able to enhance cognitive, physical, and psychosocial development
Play therapy is a counseling strategy that has been used primarily with children for a variety of purposes: to build relationships, conduct assessment, promote communication, provide psychological healing, and foster growth
What are the four types of child abuse and its warning signs?
-signs of bruises, burns, broken bones
-poor health and hygiene and excessive school absenteeism
-use of sexually explicit terminology, nightmares, genital injury, and sexually transmitted disease
Psychological (emotional) Abuse
-depression, self-deprecation, somatic (bodily) complaints such as headaches or stomachaches, and fear of adults
What are the Diversity Issues involved in Child and Adolescent Counseling?
-Erikson gender bias in favor of males
-African American males number one cause of death in the U.S. is assaultive gunshot by a friend or acquaintance
What are the four stages of group counseling?
1. Initial Stage
2. Transition Stage
3. Working Stage
4. Final Stage
Explain the Initial Stage.
Involves screening, orientation, and determining the structure of the group
-the group leader establishes ground rules and norms for the group, helps members express their fears and expectations, they are open and psychologically present, they assist group members in identifying concrete personal goals.
-members attempt to create trust, learn to express their feelings and thoughts, become involved in establishing group norms, and establish personal goals
Explain the Transition Stage.
Characterized as a time when group members experience anxiety and defensiveness as they begin to question the value of the group
-major functions of the group leader are encouraging members to express their anxiety, dealing openly with conflicts that occur in the group, and helping members become autonomous and independent
-it is common for members to become concerned about being accepted by the group
Explain the Working Stage.
Occurs when group members feel free to explore their thoughts and feelings and work on their concerns
-major functions of the group leader are encouraging members to translate insight into action and helping them make the necessary changes to achieve their goals
-group members introduce personal issues they are willing to work on, providing and receiving feedback, applying what they learn in the group to their daily lives, and offering support to others
Explain the Final Stage.
Should offer group members a smooth transition toward termination of the group
-major functions of the group leader are assisting clients in working toward termination, providing opportunities for them to receive additional counseling if necessary, and helping them gain a useful understanding of what they have learned
-group members are often sad and have anxiety regarding termination from the group, members may begin to decrease participation and they may evaluate how they experienced the group
What are the different types of groups
Counseling/interpersonal problem-solving groups
Psychotherapy/personality reconstruction groups
Life skills training groups
Explain Task/work groups.
encompass all different types of groups used in contemporary society to accomplish various tasks
Explain Guidance/psychoeducation groups.
focus on providing information that can be used to facilitate human grown and development and prevent problems from occurring
-widely used in schools
-explore a variety of topics
Explain Counseling/interpersonal problem-solving groups.
use interpersonal support and problem-solving methods to help individuals with problems of living
-learn how to use counseling strategies so they can work through or prevent future problems
Explain Psychotherapy/personality reconstruction groups.
designed to help individuals overcome in-depth personal or mental health problems such as anxiety or depression
Explain Life-skills training groups.
characterized by an emphasis on wellness versus sickness, systematic instruction, an experimental focus, and participant involvement
-promote skills relating to parenting, intellectual development, self-management, and physical development
Explain Mutual-sharing groups.
the goal is to provide support to members
-children of divorced parents
-adult children of alcoholics
-adults prone to engage in child abuse
Explain Growth groups.
help members increase their self-awareness
-goal is to assist members in improving their lives by clarifying their values, personal concerns, interpersonal relationships
Explain Discussion groups.
provide an opportunity to discuss a topic of interest rather than the personal concerns of group members
Explain group size.
-Play therapy should not exceed four children
-Average group size ranges from 4-10 members
Group Composition: Explain heterogeneous.
composed of individuals of different ages, gender, cultures, socioeconomic status, and so forth
-believed to foster greater individualization
Group Composition: Explain homogeneous.
composed of individuals who have something in common, such as parents who want to learn about parenting or clients who suffer from eating disorders
What are the advantages of group counseling?
Clients can learn from other group members as they explore their personal concerns.
The process is more economical in terms of time, since several clients can be seen during a session
Clients can have an opportunity to help others during the session, thereby minimizing tendencies to be overly concerned with their own problems
Problem solving can be enhanced by the ideas generated by other group members
The group can foster energy and enthusiasm, which can help motivate a client to pursue personal goals
What are the disadvantages of group counseling?
It may be inappropriate for some clients, especially for clients with serious mental disorders or low self-concept
What are common mistakes group leaders make?
Attempting to conduct therapy without a contract
Spending too much time on one person
Spending too little time with one person
Letting members rescue each other
Letting the session turn into advice giving
What are the Developmental Tasks, Counseling Goals, and Counseling Strategies for Elementary school?
Developmental Tasks: industry and initiative
Counseling Goals: to foster independence and self-autonomy
Counseling Strategies: consultation and individual and group counseling to promote self-concept development; encouragement to help students believe in their capabilities; self-control interventions
What are the Developmental Tasks, Counseling Goals, and Counseling Strategies for Middle school?
Developmental Tasks: identity formation
Counseling Goals: to help students gain a clear understanding of who they are as individuals
Counseling Strategies: consultation and individual and group counseling to promote self-awareness and value clarificiation
What are the Developmental Tasks, Counseling Goals, and Counseling Strategies for High school?
Developmental Tasks: intimacy
Counseling Goals: to promote social interest and interpersonal effectiveness
Counseling Strategies: consultation and individual, group, and family counseling to promote social interest and compassion for others; group counseling to foster interpersonal effectiveness; career counseling to relate to the world of work
Consultation begins with the consultant formulating a relationship with the consultee, determining the nature of the problem, and formulating a contract regarding the nature and scope of the consultation activities
Involves making an assessment of the problem and determining possible goals and objectives
Once a diagnosis is made, an action plan can be formulated, implemented, and evaluated
When the goals and objectives have been met, consultation processes can allow for a natural process of disengagement or "winding down" of services