psych 202 chapter 1
Terms in this set (29)
aspects of critical thinking
Ask Questions, Define Your Terms, Examine the Evidence, Analyze Assumptions and Biases, Avoid Emotional Reasoning, Don't Oversimplify, Consider Other Interpretations, Tolerate Uncertainty
beliefs we take for granted.
assumptions that keep us from considering the evidence fairly.
a natural process that causes us to look for evidence that supports our assumptions and ignore evidence that does not support our assumptions.
principle of falsifiability
scientific predictions are made in such a way that they and our assumptions can be easily refuted by the evidence.
a system of principles that tries to explain the phenomena and their interrelationships.
founded the first scientific psychology laboratory in 1879.
" Trained Introspection" used to analyze sensations into basic elements like a chemist analyzes water into the more basic elements of hydrogen and oxygen.
Introspection rejected because it was too subjective.
Analyzed the function or purpose of behavior.
Emphasis on causes and consequences of behavior influences the direction of psychology.
Inspired by evolutionary theory (Charles Darwin).
developed this perspective as a method of psychotherapy (psychoanalysis).
Believed his patients' problems had mental causes which could be traced to forgotten (repressed) early childhood conflicts or trauma.
Behavior, feelings, and thoughts are associated with bodily events.
Explanations of behavior should include the interaction between body and mind.
Behavior is best explained by learning and the influence of the environment.
Behavior is dependent upon mental processes like thinking, remembering, and problem solving.
Social and cultural forces can greatly influence human behavior.
Behavior is largely determined by unconscious motives, conflicts, or instinctive energy.
Focus on environmental conditions that maintain or discourage behavior. They only study what can be observed and measured directly.
Social-Cognitive Learning Theorists.
Combine behaviorism with cognition so that thinking, observation, and imitation are included in understanding how people adapt to their environment
knowledge for its own sake.
Practical use of psychology
Has a Ph.D., Ed.D., of Psy.D.
Trained in psychological theories and methods.
Deals with problems of everyday life.
Has specific training in psychoanalysis after an advanced degree (M.D. or Ph.D.
A medical doctor with a specialty in psychiatry.
Tends to focus on the biological causes of mental disorders.
someone who does psychotherapy. The term is not legally regulated.
A detailed description of a particular individual that gives us insight into that person's behavior.
include careful observations, interviews, and/or psychological testing.can produce a more detailed picture of principles and individuals than other methods.
Can be used as a source of hypotheses.
Good when practical or ethical considerations prevent collecting information in other ways.
Example: Feral Child Genie: Critical period for language development?
Best used as a source of hypotheses rather than a test of a hypothesis.
Like an accurate thermometer, the test must produce the same results from one time and place to another.
The test must measure what it is suppose to measure.
is often measured by its ability to predict other criteria, e.g. SAT scores predict college grades.
is the average, and it is often used to represent the scores for each of the experimental and control groups. It unfortunately doesn't tell us about the variability in the scores.
indicates how the scores are spread out around the mean. A wide spread means that the arithmetic mean does not represent the typical score.
allow the researcher to determine if the results were simply due to chance.
Statistically significant means that the result was extremely unlikely to have occurred by chance.