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Human Resource Management

Activities designed to provide for and coordinate the human resources of an organization

Human Resource Functions

Tasks and duties human ressource managers perform

Operating Manager

Person who manages people directly involved with the production of an organization's products or services

Human Resource Generalist

Person who devotes a majority of working time to human resource issues, but does not specialize in any specific areas

Human Resource Specialist

Person specially trained in one or more areas of human resource management


Laying off large numbers of managerial and other employees


Subcontracting work to an outside company that specializes in that particular type of work


Continuous and proactive assessment of mission-critical work and its staffing requirements

Equal Employment Opportunity

The right of all people to work and to advance on the basis of merit, ability, and potential

Reverse Discrimination

Condition under which there is alleged preferential treatment of one group (women or minority) over another group rather than equal opportunity


Unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice

Job Analysis

Process of determining and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job

Job Design

Process of structuring work and designating the specific work activities of an individual or group of individuals to achieve certain organizational objectives


Process of seeking and attracting a pool of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies can be chosen


Process of choosing from those available the individuals who are most likely to perform successfully in a job


Learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules, or attitudes to increase employee performance

Job Description

Written synopsis of the nature and requirements of a job

Job Specification

Description of the competency, educational, and experience qualifications the incumbent must possess to perform the job

Motion Study

Job analysis method that involves determining the motions and movements necessary for performing a task or job and then designating the most efficient methods for putting those motions and movements together

Time Study

Job analysis method that determines the elements of work required to perform the job, the order in which those elements occur, and the times required to perform them efficiently

Job Scope

Number and variety of tasks performed by the jobholder

Job Depth

Freedom of jobholders to plan and organize their own work, work at their own pace, and move around and communicate

Human Resource Planning

Process of determining the human resource needs of an organization and ensuring that the organization has the right number of qualified people in the right jobs at the right time

Succession Planning

Technique that identifies specific people to fill future openings in key positions throughout the organization

Temporary Help

People working for employment agencies who are subcontracted out to businesses at an hourly rate for a period of time specified by the businesses

Employment Leasing Companies

Provide permanent staffs at customer companies


Refers to how accurately a predictor actually predicts the criteria of job success

Predictive Validity

Validity established by identifying a predictor, administering it to applicants, hiring without regard to scores, and later correlating scores with job performance

Concurrent Validity

Validity established by identifying a predictor, administering it to current employees, and correlating the test data with the current employee's job performance

Content Validity

The extent to which the content of a selection procedure or instrument is representative of important aspects of job performance

Construct Validity

The extent to which a selection criterion measures the degree to which job candidates have identifiable characteristics determined to be important for successful job performance

Career Plateau

The point in an individual's career where the likelihood of an additional promotion is very low


Individuals in an organization who have a high potential for advancement but are currently performing below standard


Individuals in an organization who are presently doing outstanding work and have a high potential for continued advancement

Solid Citizens

Individuals in an organization who present performance is satisfactory but whose chance for future advancement is small


Individuals in an organization whose present performance has fallen to an unsatisfactory level and who have little potential for advancement


Rewards offered in addition to the base wage or salary and usually directly related to performance


Rewards employees receive as a result of their employment and position with the organization

Job Evaluation

Systematic determination of the value of each job in relation to other jobs in the organization

Job Ranking Method

Job evaluation method that ranks jobs in order of their difficulty from simplest to most complex

Job Classification Method

Job evaluation method that determines the relative worth of a job by comparing it to a predetermined scale of classes or grades of jobs

Qualified Stock Options

Stock options approved by the IRS for favorable tax treatment

Non Qualified Stock Options

Similar to qualified stock options, except they are subject to a less favorable tax rate and are not subject to the same restrictions

Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)

Health service organization that contracts with companies to provide certain basic medical services around the clock, seven days a week, for a fixed cost

Cafeteria Plan

Benefit plan that allows employees to select from a wide range of option how their direct compensation and benefits will be distributed

Occupational Safety and Health Act

Federal law enacted in 1970 to ensure safe and healthful working conditions for every working person

Employee Assistance Programs

Company-sponsored programs designed to help employees with personal problems such as alcohol and drug abuse, depression, anxiety, domestic trauma, financial problems, and other psychiatric/medical problems

Due Process

Right of an employee to be dealt with fairly and justly during the investigation of an alleged offense and the administration of any subsequent disciplinary action

Philadelphia Cordwainers (shoemakers) case of 1806

Case in which the jury ruled that groups of employees banded together to raise their wages constituted a conspiracy in restraint of trade

Commonwealth v. Hunt

Landmark court decision in 1842 that declared unions were not illegal per se

Yellow-Dog Contracts

Term coined by unions to describe an agreement between an employee and an employer stipulating that, as a condition of employment, the worker would not join a labor union.

Norris-La Guardia Act of 1932

Prolabor act that eliminated the use of yellow-dog contracts and severely restricted the use of injunctions

Wagner Act

Prolabor act of 1935 that gave workers the right to organize, obligated the management of organizations to bargain in good faith with unions, defined illegal management practices relating to unions, and created the National Labor Relations Board to administer the act

Nation Labor Relations Board

Five-member panel created by the national labor relations act and appointed by the president of the united states with the advice and consent of the senate and with the authority to administer the wagner act

Taft-Hartley Act

Legislation enacted in 1947 that placed the federal government in a watchdog position to ensure that union-management relations are conducted fairly by both parties

Landrum-Griffin Act

Legislation enacted in 1959 regulating labor unions and requiring disclosure of certain union finance information to the government

Craft Union

Unions having only skilled workers as members. Most craft unions have members from several related trades

Industrial Union

Unions having as members both skilled and unskilled workers in a particular industry or group of industries


Union merger that involves two or more unions, usually of approximately the same size, forming a new union


Union merger that involves the merger of one union into a considerably larger one

Collective Bargaining

Process that involves the negotiation, drafting, administration, and interpretation of of a written agreement between a union and an employer for a specific period of time

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