Exam 2 Sociology

What is Groupthink?
the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issues
What is a social network?
website that allows you to connect with friends and family, share photos, videos, music and other personal information with either a select group of friends or a wider group of people, depending on the settings your select
What is a formal organization?
large secondary groups organized to achieve their goals efficiently impersonal and formal atmosphere
What is an Oligarchy?
the rule of many by a few
What is a social group?
is two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
What is a dyad?
social group with 2 members
What is a triad?
social group with 3 members
What is a category?
category is not a group i.e. mothers, millionaires, graduates
What is a crowd?
A large number of people gathered together, typically in a disorganized or unruly way.
What is a Primary Group?
a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
What is a secondary group?
a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
What is every society's most important primary group?
What is democratic leadership like?
expressive and makes a point of including everyone in the decision-making process
What is laissez- faire leadership like?
allows the group to function more or less on its own
What is authoritarian leadership like?
focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge for decision making, demands the group members to obey orders
What type of leadership is appreciated in crisis?
Authoritarian Leadership
What type of leadership draws on ideas of all members for creative solutions?
Democratic Leadership
What type of leadership is least effective in promoting group goals?
Laissez- Faire
Describe the research done by Solomon Asch on conformity.
recruited students for a "study of visual perception"
He told everyone but one, to put pressure on the remaining student. At the beginning of the experiment everyone made the matches correctly, then slowly incorrectly leaving the unaware student uncomfortable and confused
Describe the research done by Stanley Milgram on obedience.
Recruited male students and made them believe they were taking part in in a study of how punishment affects learning. Placed on person as teacher and his accomplice as student. He pretended to hook the student to an electric chair and said to shock the student every time he got an answer wrong, and to increase the voltage until it got lethal
What is an in-group?
social group toward which a member feels respect or loyalty
What is an out-group?
social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition
What is an reference group?
social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluation and decisions
Describe dyads in terms of their stability, intensity, and meaningfulness.
Social interactions are more intense because each person's attention is directly focused on the othersare unstable and both people must work at them i.e. marriage.
What is a bureaucracy?
an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
What are the problems with bureaucracies?
Bureaucratic Alienation: dehumanized people
Formal organizations breed alienation: by reducing the human being to a small cog in a ceaselessly moving mechanism
Bureaucratic Inefficiency and Ritualism:Bureaucratic inefficiency, the failure of an organization to carry out the work that it exists to preform
Bureaucratic Inertia:Formal organizations tend to take on a life of their own beyond their formal objectives
What is the McDonaldization of society?
Efficiency, Predictability, Uniformity, and Control
What is a transsexual person?
people who feel they are one sex, even though biologically they're another
What categories of teenagers have the highest probability of pregnancy?
Weak families and low income
What type of crime is prostitution often considered to be?
Victim-less crime
Identify widespread, but false, ideas about rape.
it's done by a stranger
How does the structural-function approach view sexuality?
Society depends on sex for reproduction and uses the incest taboo and other norms to control sexuality and maintain society.
How does social-conflict approach sexuality?
Sexuality is linked to social inequality. U.S. society regulates women's sexuality more than me which shows dominance
How does the symbolic-interaction approach view sexuality?
Sexual practices vary among the many cultures of the world. Some societies allow individuals more freedom then others
What is crime?
the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal laws
What is deviance?
recognized violation of cultural norms
What are the functions of deviance?
Deviance affirms culture values and norms,Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries while bringing people together and Deviance encourages social change
Describe and recognize examples of Merton's strain theory.
claimed that society can be set up in a way where too much deviance is encouraged, also the type of deviance people engage in depends on if society provides them means i.e. a job Merton believed the strain between our cultures emphasis on wealth and the lack of opportunities to get rich may encourage some people, especially the poor, to engage in stealing, drug dealing, or other forms of street crime
Describe the categories in Merton's strain theory.
1. Innovation, using unconventional means (street crime) rather than conventional means (hard work at a straight job) to achieve a culturally approved goal (wealth).
2. The inability to reach wealth can also prompt ritualism i.e. some people might not want to be rich, but rigidly stick to the rules to at least feel respectable
3. Retreatism, rejecting both cultural goals and conventional means so that a person in effect drops out. The deviants of retreatists lies in their unconventional lifestyle i.e. drug addicts or alcoholics
4. Rebellion. Reject both the culture definition of success, and the conventional means of achieving it, also they form a counterculture
What is the idea behind labeling theory?
the idea that deviance and conformity results not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions
What is primary deviance?
some norm violations provoke slight reactions from other, and have little effect on a person's self-concept
What is Secondary Deviance?
After people define someone as a primary deviant , the individual may begin to change, taking on the deviant identity, rejecting people or are critical, and repeatedly break rules
What is a Stigma?
powerful negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
What is Retrospective labeling?
interpreting someone's past in light of someone's present deviance
Describe Sutherland's differential association theory.
a person's tendency toward conformity or deviance depends on the amount of contact with others who encourage or reject conventional behavior
Describe and apply Hirschi's control theory of deviance.
control theory, social control depends on people anticipating the consequences of their behavior
1. People who have a lot to lose by doing something deviant don't, people who have nothing to lose are deviant
How do conflict theorists view crime?
Deviance results from social inequality. Norms including laws reflect the interests of powerful members of society.
What is a White-Collar Crime?
crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations
Most people arrested for violent crime in the US are of what racial category?
What are the 4 Justifications of Punishment?
Retribution, Deterrence, Rehabilitation, and Societal Protection
What is Retribution?
The oldest justification for punishment. Punishment is society's revenge for a moral wrong. In principle, punishment should be equal in severity to the crime itself.
What is Deterrence?
An early modern approach. Crime is considered social disruption, which society acts to control. People are viewed as rational, and self-interested; deterrence works because the pain of punishment outweighs the pleasure of crime.
What is Societal Protection?
A modern approach easier to carry than rehabilitation. Even if society is unable or unwilling to rehabilitate offenders or reform social conditions, people are protected by the imprisonment or execution to the offender.
What is social stratification?
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
What is the caste system?
social stratification based on ascription, or birth
What is meritocracy?
Government or the holding of power by people selected on the basis of their ability.
What is status consistency?
the degree of uniformity in s person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
What is conspicuous consumption?
buying and using products because of the statement they make about social position
What is wealth?
the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debt
What is income?
earnings from work or investments
What is the feminization of poverty?
the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
Using the sociological perspective, what do we see about social stratification?
There is social stratification in every country
Why does kinship play a part in social stratification in all societies?
a family stays wealthy because they pass it down through the generations
Describe and recognize examples of the Davis-Moore thesis.
social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society
1. Davis and Moore explain the greater the functional importance of a position, the more rewards a society attaches to it.
a. This makes people work better, harder, and longer.
b. Thus unequal rewards benefit society as a whole
What did Marx mean when he said that capitalism reproduces the class structure?
Capitalist societies reproduces the class structure in new generations i.e. families gaining wealth and passing it down generation to generation.
According the Marx, what do differences in wealth and power between the capitalists and proletarians lead to?
Believed working class would revolt and call for socialism
What factors should you consider to understand your social position?
What class level contains the least racial and ethnic diversity?
The Upper Class
What is another term for the working class?
lower-middle class
In terms of class and education, who is most likely to be liberal on social issues?
The Upper class
In terms of social position, who is most likely to vote?
Upper-middle class
What is intergenerational social mobility?
upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
What is intragenerational social mobility?
a change in social position occurring during a person's lifetime
What is relative poverty? Where is it found?
that lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more, in the U.S.
In the US, which age category has the highest poverty rate?
The wealthiest 20% of the global population receives what percent of all global income?
74% of the world's income
What is absolute poverty? What continent has the highest rate of absolute poverty?
a lack of resources that is life threatening. Niger, Africa
What is colonialism?
the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations.
What is neocolonialism?
, a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control, but economic exploitation by multinational cooperation's
Describe modernization theory. What is seen as the greatest barrier to economic development
is a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations, tradition is the barrier
What are the stages involved in modernization according to Rostow?
Traditional Stage, Take-Off stage, Drive to Technological Maturity, and High mass consumption
What is the Traditional Stage?
i. People build their lives around family and community, giving little individual freedom
ii. Spiritually rich but lacking material goods
iii. Life was like this a century ago, but some nations choose to live this way still
What is the Take-Off Stage?
i. As tradition goes away people start using their talents and imagination
ii. A market emerges when people make goods to trade
iii. Greater desire for material goods
iv. This process is sped up by foreign aid, advanced technology, investment capital, and opportunities for schooling abroad
What is the Drive to Technological Maturity?
i. As this stage begins, growth is widely accepted and fuels society's pursuit of higher living
ii. People enjoy new technology but realize it's taking a toll on community and family life
iii. Absolute poverty is greatly reduced
iv. People move from farms
v. Specialization creates a wide range of jobs
vi. Relationships are less personal
vii. Movements for political rights emerge
viii. Basic schooling for everyone and specialized training for some
ix. Women's rights increases
What is High Mass Consumption Stage?
i. Mass production stimulates mass consumption
ii. People learn to "need" what is being made
How might rich nations aid the economic development of poor nations?
i. Controlling Population Increase because populations are greatest in poor countries. Rising pop can overtake economic advances. birth control is promoted because kids aren't economic assets
ii. Increasing Food Production, rich nations can give modern farming methods i.e. chemical fertilizers so poor nations can produce a greater yield
iii. Introducing Industrial Technology, can introduce machinery and information technology. skilled jobs emerge along with increased productivity
iv. Providing Foreign Aid invest capital from rich nations can boost poor ones
How does dependency theory differ from modernization theory?
1. Dependency theory, a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of historical exploitation of poor nations, by rich ones
2. Social -conflict approach
3. Puts responsibility for poverty on rich nations
According to dependency theory, why have poor countries become dependent on rich nations?
the colonial process that helped develop rich nations also underdeveloped poor societies
According the Wallerstein's theory of global capitalism, which nations are at the core of the world economy?
Northern America, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan
According to Wallerstein, what are the factors that cause dependency among low-income nations?
Narrow export-oriented economics , Lack of industrial capacity, and Foreign debt