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Final Exam Review Questions

What are the 5 steps in crime scene investigation?

Secure crime scene
Observe crime scene
Document crime scene
Search crime scene
Collection & preservation of evidence

Who should certify that the body is "dead"?

Medical examiner

What does observing a crime scene involve?

Initial walk through
Plan of action

What are the 4 search patterns for crime scenes?

Grid, quadrant or zone, spiral, line or strip

How do you decide what pattern to use?

Based on size/location of crime scene and number of investigators.

How do you package evidence at a crime scene?

Individually, allow wet objects to dry

What evidence cannot be packaged immediately? Why?

Wet evidence because it could be destroyed by mold or mildew

Describe anthropometry.

Taking body measurements as a way to distinguish one individual from another

What two scientists were known for devising experimentation for blood types?

Karl Landsteiner and Leon Lattes

Who was responsible for courts acceptance of documents as scientific evidence?

Albert Osborn


Determine skeletal remains through dental records


Determine whether drugs are in a human body


Determine if bones are human or animal


Determine competency of a suspect to stand trial


Determine time of death using insects


Investigate structural failure and investigate accidents


Perform autopsies to determine death

Computer Forensics

Recover data from digital media


Analyze and interpret physical evidence

Document Examiners

Analyze ink, paper, toner in questioned documents

What is a misdemeanor?

Minor Crime

What is a felony?

Major Crime

What court case in 1923 set the "general acceptance" of scientific evidence?

Frye vs. United States

What are the roles of an expert witness?

Establish credibility through credentials, background experience.
Evaluate evidence.
Render an opinion about the evidence.

What do forensic scientists use physical evidence for?

Identification and comparison.

What is identification used for?

To determine physical or chemical identity

What is comparison analysis used for?

To determine whether a common origin exists

What is the difference between individual characteristics and class characteristics?

Exact identity compared to a common origin

What are 2 examples of physical properties?

Density, color, texture, odor

What are 2 examples of chemical properties?

Flammability, reactivity

What is the SI unit for length?


What is the SI unit for volume?


What is the SI unit for mass?


What does kilo mean?


What does deci mean?


What does hecta mean?


What does milli mean?


What does centi mean?


What does deca mean?


What is the formula to calculate density?


What is refraction?

Bending of light as it moves from one medium to another
Example- air to water

What is the range for pH?


What can fracture patterns tell an investigator?

Sequence of events
Direction of impact
High or low velocity impact

What are the types of fracture patterns of glass?

Radial and concentric

If the refractive index of glass matches that of a liquid, what will you see when ou put the glass sample inside the liquid?

The glass will disappear

What are natural fibers?

Fibers made from animals or plants

What are some examples of natural fibers?

Cotton, wool, silk, hemp

What are synthetic fibers and what would be an example?

Manmade or altered fibers
Acetate, rayon, polyester

What type of fibers contain proteins?

Animal fibers

What three fibers dissolve in formic acid?

Nylon, silk, acetate

When performing the sulfur test, what color precipitate should show a positive outcome?

Black or dark grey

What is the only fabric to dissolve in acetone?


What are examples of mineral fibers?

Asbestos, rock wool, fiberglass

What are examples of cellulose fibers?

Cotton, rayon, cullulose acetate

What is the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic?

Hydrophilic-water absorbing
Hydrophobic-water repelling

How should you collect fiber evidence?

Make tape lifts, bag evidence individually, removed fibers should be folded into a sheet of paper and stored in a paper bag

How often does hair grow?

1 cm/month

What are the 3 layers of hair?

Cuticle, cortex, medulla

Which layer has pigment granules?


Which layer is resistant to chemical decomposition?


How can the medulla be classified?

Interrupted, fragmented, continous, stacked, absent

What type of medullas do animals usually have?

Stacked, continuous or interrupted

What type of medullas do humans usually have?

Continuous, fragmented or absent

What are th 3 stages of growth?

Anagen, catagen, telogen

How long does each stage of growth last?

Anagen- up to 5 years
Catagen- 2-3 weeks
Telogen- 2-6 months

Can scientists determine body area that hair came from comparison?


What is the best stage for DNA comparison of hair?

Anagen stage

If there is no nuclear DNA present, what type do scientists use?

Mitochondrial DNA

When taking reference samples from the head, how many hairs do you need?

50 full length hairs

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