-prominant woman of julio-claudius dynasty -gave birth to Nero, and was re-married Claudius. -During her marriage to Claudius, she became Rome's Empress (the most powerful women in Rome at the time). -1st Century -female emperor
Pliny the Younger
Masterful Roman letter writer who wrote to Emperor for advice with the "superstitious Christians." -1st/2nd Century -known for invaluable, surviving, historic letters -masterful writer in Rome - met Christians who did not submit themselves to Roman law and beliefs - supported Christians who openly rejected Christ - condemned Christians to death - christian celebration of the Eucharist - letters inform of persecution of Christians
-wrote the first New Testament canon. -He felt that the Hebrew/jewish part of bible was not true -His version included Luke's Gospel and Paul's letters. -The church declared him a heretic -2nd Century -unpopular beliefs
-early Frankish king; -converted Franks to Christianity -allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom -5th Century -first Catholic king to rule France -restructuring: untie all Frankish tribes under one ruler -founder of Merovingian dynasty -locally dominated the Romans in battle
-6th century -Eastern Roman emperor -tried to restore the unity of the old Roman Empire -attempt to re-establish Roman control -He issued the most famous compilation of Roman Law -Conquered kingdoms in North Africa, Sicily, Rome -It was the last effort to restore the Mediterranean unity.
-established a place where he put monks to work translating works from Greek to Latin -"useful labor" -insuring that both classical/sacred literature is preserved -Vivarium monastery and scriptorium -6th Century
-the journey of Muhammad and followers -from Mecca to Medina -to escape persecution -7th Century -regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.
Sunni v. Shiite
-80-90% v. 10-20% -Muslim denominations -split during 7th century with death of Muhammad -new ruler causes dispute -Sunni: father in law -Shiite: son in law -different views on dress-code, prayer, traditions, etc.
-the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. -won the battle -Charles the Hammer -He defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. -He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him. -8th Century -Merovingian king -foundation of Carolingian Empire
Pepin the Short
-Charles Martel's son. -He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. -Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. -Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States. -establishes Carolingian Dynasty; -defeats Lombars and gives the land to the pope/Church to have their support -foundation of Carolingian Empire
Battle of Tours
-8th Century -Franks vs. Muslims -Franks won led by Charles -Oct. 10, 732 -stopped the advance of Islam -preserved Christianity as the controlling faith in Europe -victorious Charles, charles the hammer -foundation of Carolingian Empire