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Agrippina the Younger

-prominant woman of julio-claudius dynasty
-gave birth to Nero, and was re-married Claudius.
-During her marriage to Claudius, she became Rome's Empress (the most powerful women in Rome at the time).
-1st Century
-female emperor

Pliny the Younger

Masterful Roman letter writer who wrote to Emperor for advice with the "superstitious Christians."
-1st/2nd Century
-known for invaluable, surviving, historic letters
-masterful writer in Rome
- met Christians who did not submit themselves to Roman law and beliefs
- supported Christians who openly rejected Christ
- condemned Christians to death
- christian celebration of the Eucharist
- letters inform of persecution of Christians


-wrote the first New Testament canon.
-He felt that the Hebrew/jewish part of bible was not true
-His version included Luke's Gospel and Paul's letters.
-The church declared him a heretic
-2nd Century
-unpopular beliefs


-early Frankish king;
-converted Franks to Christianity
-allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom
-5th Century
-first Catholic king to rule France
-restructuring: untie all Frankish tribes under one ruler
-founder of Merovingian dynasty
-locally dominated the Romans in battle


-6th century
-Eastern Roman emperor
-tried to restore the unity of the old Roman Empire
-attempt to re-establish Roman control
-He issued the most famous compilation of Roman Law
-Conquered kingdoms in North Africa, Sicily, Rome
-It was the last effort to restore the Mediterranean unity.


-established a place where he put monks to work translating works from Greek to Latin
-"useful labor"
-insuring that both classical/sacred literature is preserved
-Vivarium monastery and scriptorium
-6th Century


-the journey of Muhammad and followers
-from Mecca to Medina
-to escape persecution
-7th Century
-regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.

Sunni v. Shiite

-80-90% v. 10-20%
-Muslim denominations
-split during 7th century with death of Muhammad
-new ruler causes dispute
-Sunni: father in law
-Shiite: son in law
-different views on dress-code, prayer, traditions, etc.

Charles Martel

-the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours.
-won the battle
-Charles the Hammer
-He defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages.
-He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
-8th Century
-Merovingian king
-foundation of Carolingian Empire

Pepin the Short

-Charles Martel's son.
-He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading.
-Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks.
-Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
-establishes Carolingian Dynasty;
-defeats Lombars and gives the land to the pope/Church to have their support
-foundation of Carolingian Empire

Battle of Tours

-8th Century
-Franks vs. Muslims
-Franks won led by Charles
-Oct. 10, 732
-stopped the advance of Islam
-preserved Christianity as the controlling faith in Europe
-victorious Charles, charles the hammer
-foundation of Carolingian Empire

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