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Biology 101 Final Study Guide

After fertilization, the trophoblastic blastocyst produces ______ so that progesterone levels remain high enough to maintain the endometrium (uterine lining)

HCG, corpus luteum

All of the following contribute to genetic variation in the offspring EXCEPT:


All the genes in a cell are called the:


Between weeks 12-14 of a pregnancy, progesterone is no longer produced by the _____ but is produced by the _____ instead.

corpus luteum, placenta

Birth control pills contain

estrogen AND progesterone

A condition when a diploid organism has different allelic forms of a particular gene is the definition of a:

Heterozygous condition

Different forms of the same gene are referred to as:


The discharge of blood during menstruation of the human female indicates

Wall of the uterus is being shed

Early cell division in an embryo is called:


The embryo develops into a fetus while it is within the:


The failure of chromosome and/or chromatids to separate normally during m-something can cause:

Extra chromosomes in gametes AND gametes lacking chromosome AND Down's syndrome

Fertilization of the human egg occurs:

After the lining of the uterus is thicker and filled with blood AND after ovulation

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH):

Promotes spermatogenesis AND causes ovulation

Fraternal (dizygotic) twins:

Do not have the same DNA makeup

A gene found on the X chromosome is a:

Sex-linked gene

A gene that can be masked by another allelic form of the gene is called:


The genotype of an individual with a dominant phenotype can be determined by

Test cross AND cross with an individual with the recessive phenotype

A human male has:

22 pair of chromosomes and one X and one Y

If a sperm containing an X chromosome fertilizes an egg, the child will be:

A girl

In humans, normal skin color is dominant to albino skin; a cross between two albino people results in:

All albino offspring

In the normal ovarian cycle, the endometrium continues its growth and is maintained in its thickened condition by the presence of


The job of the placenta is primarily associated with:

Nourishment and waste removal

A locus is (are):

the spot on a chromosome where a gene is located

Oogenesis means:

Egg formation

The pill prevents conception most likely by:

altering the hormone level of the female and inhibiting ovulation

The placenta:

Connects the embryo to mother

The probability of parents with the genotypes (Mm) x (Mm) having an offspring with the genotype (mm) is:


Produce(s) testosterone (male sex hormone)

interstitial cells

The settling of an embryo into the lining of the uterus is called:


Site of maturation and storage of sperm immediately after formation:


The sperm-carrying fluid from the human male:

is described by two of the above

Sperm cells are produced in the:


Sperm cells move in what direction?

Epididymis to urethra AND vas deferens to urethra

The structure that carries the egg cell from where it is produced in the uterus is the:


The structure that is cut and tied off in male sterilization

vas deferens

The time of menstrual flow, or period, in a normal human female occurs:

Approximately two weeks after the egg is released from the ovary

Tubal ligation and vasectomies do not interfere with normal sex drive since:

hormone production is unchanged

Twins can occur when:

Two of the above are correct

The union of human sperm and egg is called:


When the egg leaves the oviduct, it normally passes directly into the:


When two dice are thrown, both dice will show the number three:

One in thirty-six times

Which of the following is NOT a part of the male human reproductive system?


Which of the following statements is correct for both spermatogenesis and oogenesis?

They produce haploid (n) cells

Which of these results in the production of only one functional gamete in humans?


The Y chromosome may be found in the:


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