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34 terms

Sociology Unit 2

STUDY
PLAY
culture
all the shared products of human group
society
a group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culure and feeling of unity
material culture
physical objects that people create and use eg automobiles, books, buildings, etc.
nonmaterial culture
abstract human creations eg beliefs, family patterns, ideas, languages, etc.
formal sanctions
a reward of punishment given by a formal organization or regulartory agency
informal sanctions
a spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group
socials movement
long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change
technology
the knowledge and tools that people use to manipulate their environment
language
the organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system
values
shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desireable or undesirable
symbols
anything that stands for something else
social control
enforcing of norms through either internal or external means
diffusion
the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another
norms
shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations
folkways
norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significance attached to them
laws
written rules of conduct enacted and enforced by the government
mores
norms that describe socially acceptable behavior and have great moral significance
culture trait
simplest level of culture - an individual tool, act or belief that is related to particular situation or need
culture complexes
cluster of interrelated culture traits
reformulation
the process of adapting borrowed cultural traits
culture pattern
combination of a number of culture complexes into an interrelated whole
cultural universals
features common to all cultures
ethnocentrism
tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior
cultural relativism
the belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another culture
subculture
group that share values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population
counterculture
group that rejects the major values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of culture patterns
ideology
system of beliefs or ideas that justifies the social, moral, religious, political, or economic interests through social movements
self-fulfillment
commitment to the full development of one's personality, talents and potential
narcissism
extreme self-centeredness
internalization
process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality and the conditioning that individual to conform to society's expectations
sanctions
rewards or punishments used to enforce comformity to norms
positive sanctions
an action that rewards a particular kind of behavior
negative sanctions
a punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformity
cultural lag
when some traits change rapidly, and the transformation of others may take considerable time