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86 terms

Anatomy Test #1

STUDY
PLAY
____ is not a characteristic of life
decomposition
___ is the study of life
biology
anatomy is to __ as physiology is to __
structure function
the central principle of physiology is
homeostasis
what level of organization does a protein belong to?
chemical level
what level of organization is the smallest living level of organization?
cellular level
This is not a major tissue type
glandular tissue
complex to most simple level of organization
organism, system, organ, tissue, cell, molecule
which organ provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage and blood formation?
skeletal
which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic waste, gases and defense cells?
cardiovascular
Elimination of excess water, salts and waste products are functions of the ___ system.
urinary
which organ removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream?
respiratory
protection from environmental hazards is a function of the ___ system
integumentary
the maintenance of a constant internal environment in an organism is called
homeostasis
When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of ___
negative feedback
The integrating center for the negative feedback loop that regulates body temperature is the ___
brain
A cell or organ that responds to commands of the control center in negative feedback is termed an
effector
This type of feedback exaggerates the effects of variations from normal
positive feedback
The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include all except
pelvic quadrant
A person lying on a bed gazing at the ceiling is in the ___ position.
supine
A person facing forward with hands at the sides and palms facing forward is in the ______ position.
anatomical
What region corresponds with the buttocks?
gluteal
What term refers to the foot?
pedal
The urinary bladder is found in the ___ quadrant and the ____ quadrant.
right lower left lower
The liver is primarily located in the ____ quadrant.
right upper
While standing erect, the direction of caudal is ____.
downward
While standing in the anatomical position, ____.
front refers to anterior and ventral. back refers to posterior and dorsal
Terms of anatomical direction are used to describe ____.
one body part in relation to another
An anatomical term that means the same as ventral is ___.
anterior
Which plane divides the body into right and left planes?
Sagittal
A midsagittal section would pass through the ___.
spleen
The heart is ___ to the lungs.
medial
The wrist is ___ to the elbow.
distal
The chin is ____ to the nose.
inferior
The muscle known as the diaphragm separates the ____ from the ____.
thoracic cavity abdominopelvic cavity
The thoracic cavity contains the
pleural cavities
The serous membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called the ____.
peritoneum
____ is a structure located within the mediastinum.
pericardial sac
This organ is not located within the abdominal cavity.
ovary
Visceral pericardium is located ____.
on the heart itself
The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the ____ and ____.
thoracic abdominopelvic
The molecule CO2 is known as ____.
carbon dioxide
The molecule O2 is known as ___.
oxide
____ is not an example of an inorganic compound.
proteins
A solution containing equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is ___.
neutral
What would be the most acidic?
stomach secretions pH of 1
If a substance has a pH higher than 7, it is ___.
alkaline
Which has a greater concentration of hydrogen ions, a substance with a pH of 5 or a substance with a pH of 4?
a pH of 4
A ___ removes hydrogen ions and an ___ releases hydrogen ions.
base acid
Carbohydrate molecules ___.
are the body's most readily available source of energy
The most important metabolic fuel in the body is ___.
glucose
The group of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a near 1:2:1 ratio is defined as a ___.
carbohydrate
Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are classified as ____.
organic molecules
What is the symbol for an amino acid?
-NH2
Lipids _____.
form essential structural components of the cells, provide roughly twice the energy as carbohydrates, help to maintain body temperature, and cushion organs against shock
A lipid made of a glycerol molecule with two fatty acids attached to one side and a phosphate group connecting a nonlipid group attached to the other is a ___.
triglyceride
You would expect a peptide bond to link ____.
two amino acids
Each amino acid differs from another in the ___.
nature of the side chain
The alpha-helix and pleated sheet are examples of ____ protein structure.
secondary
Interaction between individual polypeptide chains to form a protein complex is ____ structure.
quaternary
The most abundant high-energy compound in cells is ___.
adenosine triphosphate
Molecules that store and process genetic information are the ___.
nucleic acids
According to the rules of complementary base pairing in nucleic acids, cytosine would pair with the base ____.
guanine
The smallest living unit within the human body is ___.
a protein
The watery component of the cytoplasm is called ___.
cytosol
The plasma membrane is composed of ____.
a bilayer of of phospholipids
Microfilaments ___.
with myosin, produce cell movement
anchor the cytoskeleton to membrane proteins and control the consistency of cytoplasm
Microtubules have these functions: ___.
they form structural components of organelles, move chromosomes during cell division, provide a mechanism for moving organelles and provide strength
___ consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the __.
mitochondria
Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few to none. This suggests that ___.
cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand
The control center for cellular operations is the ___.
nucleus
mRNA is needed to synthesize ___ in the cytoplasm.
proteins
The functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are ___.
chromosomes
The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of ___.
diffusion
A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called __.
hypotonic
"'spikes" form on a blood cell when it is placed in a ___ solution.
hypertonic
Facilitated diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that ___.
the rate of molecular movement is limited by the number of available carrier molecules
Assume that the transport of a particular amino acid across the plasma membrane is observed (1) to occur only down its concentration gradient and (2) to slow when a similar amino acid is added to the extracellular fluid. The movement of the amino acid through the membrane is most likely by ___.
facilitated diffusion
The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called __.
endocytosis
A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates ___.
phagocytosis
The stage in a cell's life cycle in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called ___.
interphase
During mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during __.
anaphase
During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs.
telophase
If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to __.
form the mitotic spindle
During mitosis, two daughter cells form, each of which has ___.
the same number of chromosomes as the original cell