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•time and place the action occurs
•can affect characters by:
*determining jobs and living conditions
*influencing their values, attitudes, and emotions
•can create conflicts
*exposing characters to dangerous weather or natural disasters
*make characters live through difficult time periods, events, or situations such as poverty or war.
•can helps to create the mood

Point of View

•A writers choice of narrator
*First Person / Narrator
*Second Person
*Third Person

First Person

uses "I" - A character is telling the story.

Second Person

uses "you" - The author speaks directly to the reader. ______ Person is seldom used; it is found most often in nonfiction today.

Third Person

uses "he," "she," or "it" - The author is telling about the characters.

Limited Third Person

We are told the thoughts and feelings of only one character (sometimes, but very seldom, of two or three characters).

Omniscient Third Person

We are told everything about the story, including the thoughts and feelings of all the characters, and even information in the author's mind which no character knows.

Dramatic/Objective Third Person

We are told only what happens and what is said; we do not know any thoughts or feelings of the characters. It is called "dramatic" because it includes the words and actions, just what you would see and hear if it were in a play or film.

Major Character: Round

•three-dimensional characters.
•Have good and bad qualities.
•Their goals, ambitions and values change.
•A _____ character changes as a result of what happens to him or her.

Major Character: Dynamic

•A _______ Character changes as a result of the events of the story.
•A _______character grows or progresses to a higher level of understanding in the course of the story.
•Their understanding relates to theme


the main character in a story. The story often revolves around this character


the force or character who opposes the protagonist


A character who provides a contrast to the protagonist

Minor Characters: Flat or Static

•Minor characters are present, generally named and have a role that in some way highlights the protagonist.
•Have only one or two striking qualities.
•Their predominant quality is not balanced by an opposite quality.
•They are usually all good or all bad.
•Such characters can be interesting or amusing in their own right, but they lack depth.
•Flat characters are sometimes referred to as _____ characters because they do not change in the course of the story.


•the way a writer reveals the personality of a character.
•how the author develops and uses the characters to tell a story.
•often the most important aspect of a story.

Methods of Characterization

•Character's physical appearance
•Character's thoughts, speech, and action
•Other character's reaction
•Narrator direct comments.


A character's __________ is any force (i.e.: love, fear, jealousy) that drives the character to behave in a particular way


•the feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for readers.
•can be described as exciting, somber, terrifying, cheerful, carefree

Identify Mood

•Descriptions of setting (abandoned house, stormy night)
•Imagery (language that appeals to senses) can affect emotion & establish mood.
•Descriptions of Characters speech or feelings about setting and conflict


•an object, activity, place, or person that stands for something beyond itself.
•can convey theme because of what it means to the main character.
•To recognize ask
•What object appears repeatedly?
•How to characters react to object?
•What big ideas / universal theme does story address & how does object relate?


•message about life or human nature
•often communicated through characters (what they say/ how they change)
•Important statements
•Setting by how it affects the characters or what it represents
•Titles can hint these
•Plot and conflict resolution and lessons learned point to _____.
•Indirectly expressed insights


•An author's use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in the story.
•Two Purposes
*It builds suspense by raising questions that encourage the reader to go on and find out more about the event that is being foreshadowed.
*Makes a narrative more believable by partially preparing the reader for events which are to follow


interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past

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