1,580 terms

AP US History: From The Age of Exploration to Hurricane Katrina

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G.I. Bill of Rights, 1944
provided benefits for unemployment and disability for war veterans; provided college education for them as well; marked turning point during which going to college became mainstream; increase in male human capital
Bretton Woods Agreement, 1944
An agreement that set up a landmark system for monetary and exchange rate management established in 1944.
President Harry Truman
the 33rd President of the United States (1945-1953). As President Franklin D. Roosevelt's third vice president and the 34th Vice President of the United States (1945), he succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when President Roosevelt died less than three months after beginning his unprecedented fourth term.
During World War I, he served in combat in France as an artillery officer in his National Guard unit. After the war, he joined the Democratic Party political machine of Tom Pendergast in Kansas City, Missouri. He was elected a county official and in 1934 United States senator. After he had gained national prominence as head of the wartime (namesake) Committee, he replaced vice president Henry A. Wallace as Roosevelt's running mate in 1944.
Fair Deal
the term given to an ambitious set of proposals put forward by United States President Harry S. Truman to the United States Congress in his January 1949 State of the Union address. The term, however, has also been used to describe the domestic reform agenda of the Truman Administration, which governed the United States from 1945 to 1953. It marked a new stage in the history of Modern liberalism in the United States, but with the Conservative Coalition dominant in Congress, the major initiatives did not become law unless they had GOP support. As Neustadt concludes, the most important proposals were aid to education, universal health insurance, FEPC and repeal of the Taft-Hartley Act. They were all debated at length, then voted down. Nevertheless, enough smaller and less controversial (but still important) items passed that liberals could claim some success.
Committee on Civil Rights
established by Executive Order 9808, which Harry Truman, who was then President of the United States, issued on December 5, 1946. The committee was instructed to investigate the status of civil rights in the country and propose measures to strengthen and protect them. After the committee submitted a report of its findings to President Truman, it disbanded in December 1947.
Ex. Order 9981 (Desegregation of military) 1948
an executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial segregation in the armed forces.
Collective Security - U.N.
international safety obtained by the U.N...
Cold War
a continuing state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies. This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc with the eastern European countries it occupied, maintaining these as satellite states. The post-war recovery of Western Europe was facilitated by the United States' Marshall Plan, while the Soviet Union, wary of the conditions attached, declined and set up COMECON with its Eastern allies. The United States forged NATO, a military alliance using containment of communism as a main strategy through the Truman Doctrine, in 1949, while the Soviet bloc formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Some countries aligned with either of the two powers, whilst others chose to remain neutral with the Non-Aligned Movement.
Containment
a United States policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad. A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, and Vietnam. It represented a middle-ground position between détente and rollback. The basis of the doctrine was articulated in a 1946 cable by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan. As a description of U.S. foreign policy, the word originated in a report Kennan submitted to U.S. Defense Secretary James Forrestal in 1947, a report that was later used in a magazine article. It is a translation of the French cordon sanitaire, used to describe Western policy toward the Soviet Union in the 1920s.
George Kennan
an American adviser, diplomat, political scientist and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
In the late 1940s, his writings inspired the Truman Doctrine and the U.S. foreign policy of "containing" the Soviet Union, thrusting him into a lifelong role as a leading authority on the Cold War.
Long Telegram, 1946
a telegram in which Kennan described dealing with Soviet Communism as "undoubtedly greatest task our diplomacy has ever faced and probably greatest it will ever have to face". In the first two sections, he posited concepts that became the foundation of American Cold War policy:
The USSR perceived itself at perpetual war with capitalism;
The USSR viewed left-wing, but non-communist, groups in other countries as an even worse enemy of itself than the capitalist ones;
The USSR would use controllable Marxists in the capitalist world as allies;
Soviet aggression was fundamentally not aligned with the views of the Russian people or with economic reality, but rooted in historic Russian nationalism and neurosis;
The Soviet government's structure prohibited objective or accurate pictures of internal and external reality.
George Marshall
an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, he served as the United States Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. As Secretary of State, his name was given to the Marshall Plan, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953.
Winston Churchill
a British Conservative politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century, he served as Prime Minister twice (1940-45 and 1951-55). A noted statesman and orator, he was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. He is the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States.
Iron Curtain Speech, 1946
a speech in which Winston Churchill used the term "iron curtain" in the context of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe
Dean Acheson
an American statesman and lawyer. As United States Secretary of State in the administration of President Harry S. Truman from 1949 to 1953, he played a central role in defining American foreign policy during the Cold War. He helped design the Marshall Plan and played a central role in the development of the Truman Doctrine and creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
His most famous decision was convincing President Truman to intervene in the Korean War in June 1950. He also persuaded Truman to dispatch aid and advisors to French forces in Indochina, though in 1968 he finally counseled President Lyndon B. Johnson to negotiate for peace with North Vietnam. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, President John F. Kennedy called upon him for advice, bringing him into the executive committee (ExComm), a strategic advisory group.
Truman Doctrine, 1946
a policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry S Truman in a speech on March 12, 1947 stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere. Historians often consider it as the start of the Cold War.
Marshall Plan
the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet communism. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild a war-devastated region, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again. The initiative was named after Secretary of State George Marshall. The plan had bipartisan support in Washington, where the Republicans controlled Congress and the Democrats controlled the White House. The Plan was largely the creation of State Department officials, especially William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan.
Taft-Hartley Act, 1947
a United States federal law that monitors the activities and power of labor unions. The act, still effective, was sponsored by Senator Robert Taft and Representative Fred A. Hartley, Jr. and became law by overriding U.S. President Harry S. Truman's veto on June 23, 1947; labor leaders called it the "slave-labor bill"[1] while President Truman argued that it was a "dangerous intrusion on free speech,"[2] and that it would "conflict with important principles of our democratic society,"
National Security Act, 1947
an Act of Congress signed by President Harry S. Truman on 26 July 1947, and realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II. The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18, 1947, the day after the Senate confirmed James Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense. His power was extremely limited and it was difficult for him to exercise the authority to make his office effective. This was later changed in the amendment to the act in 1949, creating what was to be the Department of Defense.
The Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense. It was also responsible for the creation of a Department of the Air Force separate from the existing Army Air Forces. Initially, each of the three service secretaries maintained quasi-cabinet status, but the act was amended on August 10, 1949, to assure their subordination to the Secretary of Defense. At the same time, the NME was renamed as the Department of Defense. The purpose was to unify the Army, Navy, and what was soon to become the Air Force into a federated structure.
Aside from the military reorganization, the act established the National Security Council, a central place of coordination for national security policy in the executive branch, and the Central Intelligence Agency, the U.S.'s first peacetime intelligence agency. The function of the council was to advise the president on domestic, foreign, and military policies so that they may cooperate more tightly and efficiently. Departments in the government were encouraged to voice their opinions to the council in order to make a more sound decision.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff was officially established under Title II, Section 211 of the original National Security Act of 1947 before Sections 209-214 of Title II were repealed by the law enacting Title 10 and Title 32, United States Code (Act of August 10, 1956, 70A Stat. 676) to replace them.
Atomic (fission) bomb
a bomb in which nuclei are split...(?)
Hydrogen (fusion) bomb
a bomb in which namesake atoms are fused (?)
Berlin Blockade
one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post-World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.
Berlin Airlift
In response to the Berlin Blockade, the Western Allies organized this to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin. The recently independent United States Air Force and the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force flew over 200,000 flights in one year, providing up to 4700 tons of daily necessities such as fuel and food to the Berliners. Alongside US and British personnel, the airlift involved aircrews from the Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force, and South African Air Force
OAS, 1948
a regional international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. Its members are the thirty-five independent states of the Americas.
NATO, 1949
an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009.
Election of 1948
considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. Virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that incumbent President Harry S. Truman would be defeated by Republican Thomas E. Dewey. Truman won, overcoming a three-way split in his own party. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive win for the Democratic Party in a presidential election.
Strom Thurmond ran on the States' Rights Democratic (Dixiecrat) Party platform
Thomas Dewey ran on the Republican platform
NSC-68
a 58-page formerly-classified report issued by the United States National Security Council on April 14, 1950, during the presidency of Harry S. Truman. Written during the formative stage of the Cold War, it was top secret until the 1970s when it was made public. It was one of the most significant statements of American policy in the Cold War. NSC-68 largely shaped U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War for the next 20 years.
Perimeter Defense
Massive Retaliation
Korean Police Action
undeclared Proxy War with Korea
Limited Engagement
refers to limited action taken by the US during the Korean Police Action (?)
38th Parallel
popular name given to latitude 38° N that in East Asia roughly demarcates North Korea and South Korea. The line was chosen by U.S. military planners at the Potsdam Conference (July 1945) near the end of World War II as an army boundary, north of which the U.S.S.R. was to accept the surrender of the Japanese forces in Korea and south of which the Americans were to accept the Japanese surrender.
General Douglas MacArthur
an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign.
Involved in breaking up the Bonus Army
(Second) Red Scare
occurred after World War II (1939-45), and was popularly known as "McCarthyism" after its most famous supporter and namesake, Senator Joseph McCarthy. McCarthyism coincided with increased popular fear of communist espionage consequent to a Soviet Eastern Europe, the Berlin Blockade (1948-49), the Chinese Civil War, the confessions of spying for the Soviet Union given by several high-ranking U.S. government officials, and the Korean War.
Alger Hiss
an American lawyer, government official, author, and lecturer. He was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S. State Department and U.N. official. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950.
Whittaker Chambers
an American writer and editor. After being a Communist Party USA member and Soviet spy, he later renounced communism and became an outspoken opponent later testifying in the perjury and espionage trial of Alger Hiss. Both are described in his book published in 1952 entitled Witness.
Richard Nixon
the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. The only president to resign the office, he had previously served as a US representative and senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
His pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist, and elevated him to national prominence.
Klaus Fuchs
a German-British theoretical physicist and atomic spy who in 1950 was convicted of supplying information from the American, British and Canadian atomic bomb research (the Manhattan Project) to the USSR during and shortly after World War II. While at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, he was responsible for many significant theoretical calculations relating to the first fission weapons and later, the early models of the hydrogen bomb, the first fusion weapon.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
American communists who were convicted and executed on June 19, 1953 for conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war. Their charges were related to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history.
McCarran Internal Security Act, 1950
a United States federal law of the McCarthy era. It was passed over President Harry Truman's veto. The anti-communist fervor was bi-partisan and only seven Democratic senators voted to uphold the veto.
required Communist organizations to register with the United States Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons suspected of engaging in subversive activities or otherwise promoting the establishment of a "totalitarian dictatorship," either fascist or communist. Members of these groups could not become citizens and in some cases were prevented from entering or leaving the country. Citizens found in violation could lose their citizenship in five years. The act also contained an Emergency Detention statute, giving the President the authority to apprehend and detain "each person as to whom there is a reasonable ground to believe that such person probably will engage in, or probably will conspire with others to engage in, acts of espionage or sabotage."
Joseph McCarthy
an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion. He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere.
Wheeling Speech
a Lincoln Day speech given by McCarthy to the Republican Women's Club of Wheeling, West Virginia. His words in the speech are a matter of some debate, as no audio recording was saved. However, it is generally agreed that he produced a piece of paper that he claimed contained a list of known Communists working for the State Department. McCarthy is usually quoted to have said: "The State Department is infested with communists. I have here in my hand a list of 205—a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department."
Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954)
a series of hearings held by the United States Senate's Subcommittee on Investigations between April 1954 and June 1954. The hearings were held for the purpose of investigating conflicting accusations between the United States Army and Senator Joseph McCarthy. The Army accused chief committee counsel Roy Cohn of pressuring the Army to give preferential treatment to G. David Schine, a former McCarthy aide and a friend of Cohn's. McCarthy counter-charged that this accusation was made in bad faith and in retaliation for his recent aggressive investigations of suspected Communists and security risks in the Army.
HUAC (House Un-American Committee)
an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security". When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee.
The committee's anti-Communist investigations are often confused with those of Senator Joseph McCarthy. McCarthy, as a U.S. Senator, had no direct involvement with this House committee. McCarthy was the Chairman of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Government Operations Committee of the U.S. Senate, not the House.
Blacklisting
a list or register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition. As a verb, to _________ can mean to deny someone work in a particular field, or to ostracize a person from a certain social circle. (such as denying someone things because he/she is a Communist (?))
Steel Strike of 1952
a strike by the United Steelworkers of America against U.S. Steel and nine other steelmakers. The strike was scheduled to begin on April 9, 1952, but President Harry S. Truman nationalized the American steel industry hours before the workers walked out. The steel companies sued to regain control of their facilities. On June 2, 1952, in a landmark decision, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952), that the president lacked the authority to seize the steel mills. The Steelworkers struck to win a wage increase. The strike lasted 53 days, and ended on July 24, 1952, on essentially the same terms the union had proposed four months earlier.
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer
also commonly referred to as The Steel Seizure Case, was a United States Supreme Court decision that limited the power of the President of the United States to seize private property in the absence of either specifically enumerated authority under Article Two of the United States Constitution or statutory authority conferred on him by Congress. It was a "stinging rebuff" to President Harry Truman.
22nd Amendment
an Amendment of the Constitution that limited term limit to only 2 terms
Adlai Stevenson
an American politician, noted for his intellectual demeanor, eloquent oratory, and promotion of liberal causes in the Democratic Party. He served as the 31st Governor of Illinois, and received the Democratic Party's nomination for president in 1952 and 1956; both times he was defeated by Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower. He sought the Democratic presidential nomination for a third time in the election of 1960, but was defeated by Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts. After his election, President Kennedy appointed Stevenson as the Ambassador to the United Nations; he served from 1961 to 1965. He died on July 14, 1965 in London, England after suffering a heart attack.
President Dwight Eisenhower
the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II, and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942-43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45, from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.
"Dynamic Conservatism"
Eisenhower's economic philosophy which favored a continuation of the chief New Deal programs combined with an attempt to move the federal government out of some areas.
"Termination" (re: Native Americans)
the policy of the United States from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s. The belief was that Native Americans would be better off if assimilated as individuals into mainstream American society. To that end, Congress proposed to end the special relationship between tribes and the federal government. The intention was to grant Native Americans all the rights and privileges of citizenship, and to reduce their dependence on a bureaucracy whose mismanagement had been documented. In practical terms, the policy terminated the U.S. government's recognition of sovereignty of tribes, trusteeship of Indian reservations, and exclusion of Indians from state laws. Native Americans were to become subject to state and federal taxes as well as laws, from which they had previously been exempt.
"New Look"
the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. It reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments of the United States with the nation's financial resources and emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats, both conventional and nuclear, from the Eastern Bloc of nations headed by the Soviet Union.
John Foster Dulles
served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and it is widely believed that he refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954. He also played a major role in the Central Intelligence Agency operation to overthrow the democratic Mossadegh government of Iran in 1953 (Operation Ajax) and the democratic Arbenz government of Guatemala in 1954 (Operation PBSUCCESS).
Brinkmanship
the practice of pushing dangerous events to the verge of—or to the brink of—disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome. It occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labour relations, and (in contemporary settings) military strategy involving the threatened use of nuclear weapons.
This maneuver of pushing a situation with the opponent to the brink succeeds by forcing the opponent to back down and make concessions. This might be achieved through diplomatic maneuvers by creating the impression that one is willing to use extreme methods rather than concede. During the Cold War, the threat of nuclear force was often used as such an escalating measure. Adolf Hitler also used brinkmanship conspicuously during his rise to power.
First Strike Capability
a country's ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation while the opposing side is left unable to continue war. The preferred methodology is to attack the opponent's launch facilities and storage depots first. The strategy is called counterforce.
Covert Action
"an operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor." It is intended to create a political effect which can have implications in the military, intelligence or law enforcement arenas; these acts aim to fulfill their mission objectives without any parties knowing who sponsored or carried out the operation. It is normally financed by government revenues but in this age of super-empowered individuals and corporations they could become a common tool of power beyond traditional war and diplomacy.
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act, 1956
enacted on June 29, 1956, when Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law. With an original authorization of 25 billion dollars for the construction of 41,000 miles (66,000 km) of the Interstate Highway System supposedly over a 10-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history through that time.
"Duck and Cover"
a suggested method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear weapon which the United States government taught to generations of United States school children from the early 1950s into the 1980s. This was supposed to protect them in the event of an unexpected nuclear attack which, they were told, could come at any time without warning. Immediately after they saw a flash they had to stop what they were doing and get on the ground under some cover—such as a table, or at least next to a wall—and assume the fetal position, lying face-down and covering their heads with their hands.
Eisenhower Doctrine
refers to a speech by President Dwight David Eisenhower on 5 January 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East". Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat ____________ by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against covert armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism."
Suez Crisis, 1956
a diplomatic and military confrontation in late 1956 between Egypt on one side, and Britain, France and Israel on the other, with the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations playing major roles in forcing Britain, France and Israel to withdraw. Less than a day after Israel invaded Egypt, Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to Egypt and Israel, and then began to bomb Cairo. Despite the denials of the Israeli, British and French governments, evidence began to emerge that the invasion of Egypt had been planned beforehand by the three powers. Anglo-French forces withdrew before the end of the year, but Israeli forces remained until March 1957, prolonging the crisis. In April, the canal was fully reopened to shipping, but other repercussions followed.
Invasion of Hungary, 1956
occurred when the Soviet Union moved into Hungary after its defeat in WWII (?)
Sputnik, 1957
the first artificial satellite to be put into Earth's orbit. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957. The unanticipated announcement of its success precipitated a namesake crisis in the United States and ignited the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the ________ launch was a single event, it marked the start of the Space Age.
Missile Gap
the term used in the United States for the perceived disparity between the number and power of the weapons in the U.S.S.R. and U.S. ballistic missile arsenals during the Cold War. The ___ only existed in exaggerated estimates made by the Gaither Committee in 1957 and United States Air Force (USAF). Even the CIA figures that were much lower and gave the US a clear advantage were far above the actual count. Like the bomber gap of only a few years earlier, it is believed that the gap was known to be illusionary from the start, and was being used solely as a political tool, another example of policy by press release.
National Defense Education Act, 1958
signed into law on September 2, 1958, provided funding to United States education institutions at all levels. The act authorized funding for four years, increasing funding per year: for example, funding increased on eight program titles from 183 million dollars in 1959 to 222 million in 1960. While motivated by the increase in the number of students attending college and a growing national sense that U.S. scientists were falling behind scientists in the Soviet Union, it was arguably catalyzed by early Soviet success in the Space Race, notably the launch of the first-ever satellite, Sputnik, the year before.
Alaska & Hawaii Statehood
refers to the statehood of the 2 last United States, which occurred January 3 and August 21, 1959
Farewell Speech, 1961 - Military-Industrial Complex
the final public speech of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States, delivered in a television broadcast on January 17, 1961. Although the speech is best-known for its warning about the growing military-industrial complex, it also contained warnings about planning for the future and the dangers of massive spending, especially deficit spending. This speech and Eisenhower's Chance for Peace speech have been called the "bookends" of his administration.
Military-Industrial Complex
a concept commonly used to refer to policy and monetary relationships between legislators, national armed forces, and the defense industrial base that supports them. These relationships include political contributions, political approval for defense spending, lobbying to support bureaucracies, and beneficial legislation and oversight of the industry. It is a type of iron triangle.
Nikita Khrushchev
led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964. He was responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union, for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program, and for several relatively liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy. His party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier.
(did not get into Disneyland)
U2 Incident
occurred during the Cold War on 1 May 1960, during the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower and during the leadership of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, when a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down over the airspace of the Soviet Union.
Gary Powers
the pilot who survived the U2 incident
Guatemalan Coup, 1954
the CIA covert operation that deposed President Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán, with a paramilitary invasion by an anti-Communist "army of liberation". The politically liberal Árbenz Government had effected the socio-economics of Decree 900 (27 June 1952), such as the expropriation, for peasant use and ownership, of unused prime-farmlands that national and multinational corporations had earlier set aside, as reserved business assets. The land-reform of Decree 900 especially threatened the agricultural monopoly of the United Fruit Company, a multinational corporation that owned 42 percent of the arable land of Guatemala; which landholdings either had been bought by, or been ceded to, the UFC by the military dictatorships who preceded the Árbenz Government of Guatemala. In response to the expropriation of prime-farmland assets, the United Fruit Company asked the U.S. governments of presidents Harry Truman (1945-53) and Dwight Eisenhower (1953-61) to act diplomatically, economically, and militarily against Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán. In the geopolitical context of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Cold War (1945-1991), the secret intelligence agencies of the U.S. deemed such liberal land-reform nationalization as government communism, instigated by the U.S.S.R. The intelligence analyses led CIA director Allen Dulles to fear that the Republic of Guatemala would become a "Soviet beachhead in the Western Hemisphere", the "back yard" of U.S. hegemony. Moreover, in the context of the aggressive anti-Communism of the McCarthy era (1947-57), CIA Director Allen Dulles, the American people, the CIA, and the Eisenhower Administration (1953-61) shared the same fear — Soviet infiltration of the Western Hemisphere. Moreover, like his brother, John Foster Dulles, the U.S. Secretary of State, CIA Director Allen Dulles owned capital stock in the United Fruit Company, which conflict of interest they conflated to the Western-hemisphere geopolitics of the United States, the secret invasion of Guatemala, to change its national government.
Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro, 1959
an armed revolt by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement against the regime of Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista between 1953 and 1959. Batista was finally ousted on 1 January 1959, and was replaced by Castro's revolutionary government. This government later reformed along communist lines, becoming the present Communist Party of Cuba in October 1965.
Castro rose to power
De Jure Discrimination
discrimination based on law
De Facto Discrimination
discrimination based on fact
Color Line
originally used as a reference to the racial segregation that existed in the United States after the abolition of slavery. Frederick Douglass' article, "The _________," was published in the North American Review in 1881. The phrase gained fame after W. E. B. Du Bois' repeated use of it in his book The Souls of Black Folk.
Jackie Robinson, 1947
an American baseball player who became the first black Major League Baseball (MLB) player of the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line when he debuted with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. As the first black man to play in the major leagues since the 1880s, he was instrumental in bringing an end to racial segregation in professional baseball, which had relegated black players to the Negro leagues for six decades. The example of his character and unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation, which then marked many other aspects of American life, and contributed significantly to the Civil Rights Movement.
Red Lining
the practice of denying, or increasing the cost of services such as banking, insurance, access to jobs, access to health care, or even supermarkets to residents in certain, often racially determined, areas. The term "________" was coined in the late 1960s by John McKnight, a Northwestern University sociologist and community activist. It describes the practice of marking a red line on a map to delineate the area where banks would not invest; later the term was applied to discrimination against a particular group of people (usually by race or sex) no matter the geography.
Restrictive Covenants
a type of real covenant, a legal obligation imposed in a deed by the seller upon the buyer of real estate to do or not to do something. Such restrictions frequently "run with the land" and are enforceable on subsequent buyers of the property. In jurisdictions that use the Torrens system of land registration, restrictive covenants are generally registered against title.
White Flight
a term that originated in the United States, starting in the mid-20th century, and applied to the large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions. It was first seen as originating from fear and anxiety about increasing minority populations. The term has more recently been applied to other migrations by whites, from older, inner suburbs to rural areas, as well as from the US Northeast and Midwest to the milder climate in Southeast and Southwest, but this is a change from its original cause and meaning.
Chief Justice Earl Warren
an American jurist and politician who served as the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and the 30th Governor of California.
He is known for the sweeping decisions of his namesake Court, which ended school segregation and transformed many areas of American law, especially regarding the rights of the accused, ending public-school-sponsored prayer, and requiring "one-man-one vote" rules of apportionment. He made the Court a power center on a more even base with Congress and the presidency especially through four landmark decisions: Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Reynolds v. Sims (1964), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966).
Thurgood Marshall
an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. He was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.
Before becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education. He argued more cases before the United States Supreme Court than anyone else in history. He served on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit after being appointed by President John F. Kennedy and then served as the Solicitor General after being appointed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965. President Johnson nominated him to the United States Supreme Court in 1967.
Missouri in re Gaines v. Canada, 1938
a United States Supreme Court decision holding that states that provide a school to white students must provide in-state education to blacks as well. States can satisfy this requirement by allowing blacks and whites to attend the same school or creating a second school for blacks.
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed state-sponsored segregation. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This ruling paved the way for integration and the civil rights movement.
Emmett Till, 1941-1955
an African-American boy who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of 14 after reportedly flirting with a white woman. Till was from Chicago, Illinois, visiting his relatives in the Mississippi Delta region when he spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant, the married proprietor of a small grocery store. Several nights later, Bryant's husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam arrived at Till's great-uncle's house where they took Till, transported him to a barn, beat him and gouged out one of his eyes, before shooting him through the head and disposing of his body in the Tallahatchie River, weighting it with a 70-pound (32 kg) cotton gin fan tied around his neck with barbed wire. His body was discovered and retrieved from the river three days later.
"Southern Manifesto"
a document written in February and March 1956, in the United States Congress, in opposition to racial integration in public places. The manifesto was signed by 99 politicians (97 Democrats) from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. The document was largely drawn up to counter the landmark Supreme Court 1954 ruling Brown v. Board of Education.
White Citizens' Councils
an American white supremacist organization formed on July 11, 1954. After 1956, it was known as the Citizens' Councils of America. With about 60,000 members, mostly in the South, the group was well known for its opposition to racial integration during the 1950s and 1960s, when it retaliated with economic boycotts and other strong intimidation against black activists, including depriving them of jobs.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, United States, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. Many important figures in the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott, including Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph Abernathy, and others, as listed below. The boycott caused crippling financial deficit for the Montgomery public transit system, because the city's black population who were the principal boycotters were also the bulk of the system's paying customers. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.
Rosa Parks
an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights", and "the mother of the freedom movement".
On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger. her action was not the first of its kind to impact the civil rights issue. Others had taken similar steps, including Lizzie Jennings in 1854, Homer Plessy in 1892, Irene Morgan in 1946, Sarah Louise Keys in 1955, and Claudette Colvin on the same bus system nine months before her, but her civil disobedience had the effect of sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
an African-American civil rights organization. It was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. He has become a national icon in the history of modern American liberalism.
A Baptist minister, he became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. His efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history.
Little Rock Nine, 1957
a group of African-American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and then attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower, is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. On their first day of school, troops from the Arkansas National Guard would not let them enter the school and they were followed by mobs making threats to lynch.
Gov. Orval Faubus
the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
Lunch counter sit-ins
a series of nonviolent protests which led to the Woolworth's department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.
(African-American) Civil Rights Movement
refers to the social movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against African Americans and restoring voting rights to them. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1955 and 1968, particularly in the South. The emergence of the Black Power Movement, which lasted roughly from 1966 to 1975, enlarged the aims of the __________________ to include racial dignity, economic and political self-sufficiency, and freedom from oppression by white Americans.
CORE
a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Membership in ____ is still stated to be open to "anyone who believes that 'all people are created equal' and is willing to work towards the ultimate goal of true equality."
SNCC
one of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April 1960. It grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support its work in the South, allowing full-time ____ workers to have a $10 per week salary. Many unpaid volunteers also worked with ____ on projects in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Maryland.
It played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party over the next few years. Its major contribution was in its field work, organizing voter registration drives all over the South, especially in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.
(focused on black power)
Baby Boom
an increase in birth rate that occurred after WWII
Dr. Benjamin Spock
an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Its message to mothers is that "you know more than you think you do."
He was the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics. His ideas about childcare influenced several generations of parents to be more flexible and affectionate with their children, and to treat them as individuals. In addition to his pediatric work, he was an activist in the New Left and anti Vietnam War movements during the 1960s and early 1970s. At the time his books were criticized by Vietnam War supporters for allegedly propagating permissiveness and an expectation of instant gratifications that led young people to join these movements, a charge he denied. He also won an Olympic gold medal in rowing in 1924 while attending Yale University.
Beat Generation
a group of American post-World War II writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, as well as the cultural phenomena that they both documented and inspired. Central elements of ______ culture included experimentation with drugs, alternative forms of sexuality, an interest in Eastern religion, a rejection of materialism, and the idealizing of exuberant, unexpurgated means of expression and being.
Environmental Movement
a term that includes the conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.
(referred to a movement after WWII about conserving nature)
Rachel Carson
was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement;
wrote Silent Spring
Silent Spring, 1962
book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin on September 27, 1962. The book is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement; known for talking about the effects of DDT on birds
Consumer Movement
a movement in which people pushed for regulation of products...(?)
Ralph Nader
an American political activist, as well as an author, lecturer, and attorney. Areas of particular concern to him include consumer protection, humanitarianism, environmentalism, and democratic government.
Unsafe At Any Speed, 1965
published in 1965; a book by Ralph Nader detailing resistance by car manufacturers to the introduction of safety features, like seat belts, and their general reluctance to spend money on improving safety. It was a pioneering work, openly polemical but containing substantial references and material from industry insiders. It made Nader a household name.
Election of 1960
the 34th American presidential election, held on November 8, 1960, for the term beginning January 20, 1961, and ending January 20, 1965. The incumbent president, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, was not eligible to run again. The Republican Party nominated Richard Nixon, Eisenhower's Vice-President, while the Democrats nominated John F. Kennedy, Senator from Massachusetts. Kennedy was elected with a lead of 112,827 votes, or 0.16% of the popular vote, giving him a victory of 303 to 219 in the Electoral College, the closest since 1916.
Nixon-Kennedy Debate(s)
the first presidential debates held on television, and thus attracted enormous publicity. Nixon insisted on campaigning until just a few hours before the first debate started; he had not completely recovered from his hospital stay and thus looked pale, sickly, underweight, and tired. He also refused makeup for the first debate, and as a result his beard stubble showed prominently on the era's black-and-white TV screens. Nixon's poor appearance on television in the first debate is reflected by the fact that his mother called him immediately following the debate to ask if he was sick. Kennedy, by contrast, rested and prepared extensively beforehand, appearing tanned, confident, and relaxed during the debate. An estimated 70 million viewers watched the first debate. People who watched the debate on television overwhelmingly believed Kennedy had won, while radio listeners (a smaller audience) believed Nixon had won. After it had ended, polls showed Kennedy moving from a slight deficit into a slight lead over Nixon. For the remaining three debates Nixon regained his lost weight, wore television makeup, and appeared more forceful than his initial appearance. However, up to 20 million fewer viewers watched the three remaining debates than the first debate. Political observers at the time believed that Kennedy won the first debate, Nixon won the second and third debates, and that the fourth debate, which was seen as the strongest performance by both men, was a draw.
President Kennedy
often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
After military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boats PT-109 and PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, he represented Massachusetts's 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. He defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43, the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president. Kennedy is the only Catholic president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War.
Space Race
a mid-to-late 20th century competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US) for supremacy in space exploration. Between 1957 and 1975, the Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of technological and ideological superiority.
"New Frontier"
a term used by liberal Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him. The phrase developed into a label for his administration's domestic and foreign programs.
Camelot
refers to the Kennedy administration being like King Arthur and his knights (?)
Yuri Gagarin
a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to journey into outer space, when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth on 12 April 1961.
Peace Corps
an American volunteer program run by the United States Government, as well as a government agency of the same name. The stated mission of the _________________ includes three goals: providing technical assistance; helping people outside the United States to understand US culture; and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries. The work is generally related to social and economic development.
Berlin Wall
a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.
Bay of Pigs
an unsuccessful action by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, with support and encouragement from the US government, in an attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. The invasion was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the invading combatants within three days.
Cuban Missile Crisis
a thirteen-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other; the crisis occurred in October 1962, during the Cold War. In August 1962, after some unsuccessful operations by the US to overthrow the Cuban regime (Bay of Pigs, Operation Mongoose), the Cuban and Soviet governments secretly began to build bases in Cuba for a number of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles (MRBMs and IRBMs) with the ability to strike most of the continental United States. This action followed the 1958 deployment of Thor IRBMs in the UK (Project Emily) and Jupiter IRBMs to Italy and Turkey in 1961 - more than 100 US-built missiles having the capability to strike Moscow with nuclear warheads. On October 14, 1962, a United States Air Force U-2 plane on a photoreconnaissance mission captured photographic proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba.
13 Days
a memoir written by Kennedy about the Cuban Missile Crisis
Flexible Response
a defense strategy implemented by John F. Kennedy in 1961 to address the Kennedy administration's skepticism of Dwight Eisenhower's New Look and its policy of Massive Retaliation.
Nuclear Deterrence
the military doctrine that an enemy will be deterred from using nuclear weapons as long as he can be destroyed as a consequence
Alignment
no idea what this means. sorry
Mutual Assured Destruction
a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two opposing sides would effectively result in the complete, utter and irrevocable annihilation of both the attacker and the defender, becoming thus a war that has no victory nor any armistice but only effective reciprocal destruction. It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment, and implicit menace of use, of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use by said-enemy of the same weapons against oneself. The strategy is effectively a form of Nash equilibrium in which neither side, once armed, has any rational incentive either to initiate a conflict or to disarm (presuming neither side considers self-destruction an acceptable outcome).
Partial Test Ban Treaty 1963
a treaty prohibiting all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground. It was developed both to slow the arms race (nuclear testing was, at the time, necessary for continued nuclear weapon advancements), and to stop the excessive release of nuclear fallout into the planet's atmosphere.
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
an anti-nuclear organisation that advocates unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. It opposes military action that may result in the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and the building of nuclear power stations in the UK.
Robert Kennedy, Atty. Gen.
an American politician, a Democratic senator from New York, and a noted civil rights activist. An icon of modern American liberalism and member of the Kennedy family, he was a younger brother of President John F. Kennedy and acted as one of his advisors during his presidency. From 1961 to 1964, he was the U.S. Attorney General.
He began a campaign for the presidency, but he was shot by Sirhan Sirhan and died about 26 hours later
Freedom Riders
civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to test the United States Supreme Court decisions Boynton v. Virginia (1960) and Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946).
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attorneys.
1964 Civil Rights Act
a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including racial segregation. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations").
1965 Voting Rights Act
a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.
Loving v. Virginia
a landmark civil rights case in which the United States Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, declared Virginia's anti-miscegenation statute, the "Racial Integrity Act of 1924", unconstitutional, thereby overturning Pace v. Alabama (1883) and ending all race-based legal restrictions on marriage in the United States.
Nation of Islam
a syncretic new religious movement founded in Detroit, Michigan by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad in July 1930. Its stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity. Its critics accuse it of being black supremacist and antisemitic.
Malcolm X
an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. Detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, antisemitism, and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
George Wallace
an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama, having served four nonconsecutive terms: 1963-1967, 1971-1979 and 1983-1987. After four runs for U.S. president (three as a Democrat and one on the American Independent Party ticket), he earned the title, "the most influential loser" in 20th-century U.S. politics, according to biographers Dan T. Carter and Stephan Lesher.
A 1972 assassination attempt left him paralyzed, and he used a wheelchair for the remainder of his life. He is remembered for his Southern populist and segregationist attitudes during the desegregation period, convictions that he renounced later in life. He said that he did not wish to meet his Maker with unforgiven sin.
James Meredith
an American civil rights movement figure, a writer, and a political adviser. In 1962, he was the first African American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, an event that was a flashpoint in the American civil rights movement. Motivated by President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address, Meredith decided to exercise his constitutional rights and apply to the University of Mississippi. His goal was to put pressure on the Kennedy administration to enforce civil rights for African Americans.
Medgar Evers
an African American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi. He became active in the civil rights movement after returning from overseas service in World War II and completing secondary education; he became a field secretary for the NAACP.
He was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens' Council. As a veteran, Evers was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. His murder and the resulting trials inspired civil rights protests, as well as numerous works of art, music, and film.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
an open letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King, Jr., an American civil rights leader.
(written from a namesake jail)
response to a statement made by eight white Alabama clergymen on April 12, 1963, titled "A Call for Unity"
March on Washington
one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It took place in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march.
Edmund Pettus Bridge, Selma, AL
a bridge that carries U.S. Highway 80 across the Alabama River in Selma, Alabama. Built in 1940, it is named for Edmund Winston Pettus, a former Confederate brigadier general and U.S. Senator from Alabama. The bridge is a steel through arch bridge with a central span of 250 feet (76 m). It is famous as the site of the conflict of Bloody Sunday on March 7, 1965, when armed officers attacked peaceful civil rights demonstrators attempting to march to the state capital of Montgomery.
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
the bombing on Sunday, September 15, 1963 as an act of racially motivated terrorism. The explosion at the African-American church, which killed four girls, marked a turning point in the U.S. 1960s Civil Rights Movement and contributed to support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Freedom Summer
a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi which had historically excluded most blacks from voting. The project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools, Freedom Houses, and community centers in small towns throughout Mississippi to aid the local black population. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of the Mississippi branches of the four major civil rights organizations (SNCC, CORE, NAACP and SCLC). Most of the impetus, leadership, and financing for the Summer Project came from the SNCC. Robert Parris Moses, SNCC field secretary and co-director of COFO, directed this.
Selma, "Bloody Sunday"
occurred at the Pettus Bridge when peaceful protesters tried to cross; they met armed state troopers who used force; many were hospitalized
Watts Riot
a civil disturbance in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California from August 11 to August 15, 1965. The five-day riot resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992.
1967 Riots
refers to the Detroit and Newark Riots
Black Power movement
grew out of the Civil Rights Movement that had steadily gained momentum through the 1950s and 1960s. Although not a formal movement, it marked a turning point in black-white relations in the United States and also in how blacks saw themselves. The movement was hailed by some as a positive and proactive force aimed at helping blacks achieve full equality with whites, but it was reviled by others as a militant, sometimes violent faction whose primary goal was to drive a wedge between whites and blacks. In truth, it was a complex event that took place at a time when society and culture was being transformed throughout the United States, and its legacy reflects that complexity.
Black Panthers
members of an African-American revolutionary leftist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. The party achieved national and international notoriety through its involvement in the Black Power movement and U.S. politics of the 1960s and 1970s. The group's "provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity."
Shirley Chisholm
an American politician, educator, and author. She was a Congresswoman, representing New York's 12th Congressional District for seven terms from 1969 to 1983. In 1968, she became the first African American woman elected to Congress. On January 25, 1972, she became the first major-party black candidate for President of the United States and the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination (Margaret Chase Smith had previously run for the Republican presidential nomination). She received 152 first-ballot votes at the 1972 Democratic National Convention.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that ruled unconstitutional the admission process of the Medical School at the University of California at Davis, which set aside 16 of the 100 seats for non-white students.
The "diversity in the classroom" justification for considering race as "one" of the factors in admissions policies was different from the original purpose stated by UC Davis Medical School, whose special admissions program under review was designed to ensure admissions of traditionally discriminated-against minorities. UC Davis Medical School originally developed the program to (1) reduce the historic deficit of traditionally disfavored minorities in medical schools and the medical profession, (2) counter the effects of societal discrimination, (3) increase the number of physicians who will practice in communities currently underserved, and (4) obtain the educational benefits that flow from an ethnically diverse student body.
(unconstitutional quota system based on race)
Chicano movement
an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement which began in the 1940s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment.
Cesar Chavez
an American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW).
He became the best known Latino civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic members. His public-relations approach to unionism and aggressive but nonviolent tactics made the farm workers' struggle a moral cause with nationwide support. By the late 1970s, his tactics had forced growers to recognize the UFW as the bargaining agent for 50,000 field workers in California and Florida. However, by the mid-1980s membership in the UFW had dwindled to around 15,000.
United Farm Workers & Table Grape Boycott
(Delano Grape Strike)
began when the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, mostly Filipino farm workers in Delano, California, led by Philip Vera Cruz, Larry Itliong, Benjamin Gines and Pete Velasco, walked off the farms of area table-grape growers, demanding wages equal to the federal minimum wage. One week after the strike began, the predominantly Mexican-American National Farmworkers Association, led by Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta and Richard Chavez, joined the strike, and eventually the two groups merged, forming the United Farm Workers of America in August 1966. Quickly, the strike spread to over 2,000 workers.
Lee Harvey Oswald
according to four government investigations, the sniper who assassinated John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.
Jack Ruby
convicted of the November 24, 1963 murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President John F. Kennedy. Ruby, who was originally from Chicago, Illinois, was then a nightclub operator in Dallas, Texas. Convicted of the murder on March 14, 1964, he appealed the conviction and death sentence. As a date for his new trial was being set, he became ill and died of lung cancer on January 3, 1967.
Warren Commission
established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. Its 888-page final report was presented to President Johnson on September 24, 1964, and made public three days later. It concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the killing of Kennedy and the wounding of Texas Governor John Connally, and that Jack Ruby also acted alone when he killed Oswald. Its findings have since proven controversial and been both challenged and supported by later studies.
President Lyndon Johnson
often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963-1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States (1961-1963). He is one of only four people who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: Representative, Senator, Vice President, and President; he, a Texas Democrat, served as a United States Representative from 1937-1949 and as a Senator from 1949-1961, including six years as United States Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader and two as Senate Majority Whip. After campaigning unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination in 1960, he was asked by John F. Kennedy to be his running mate for the 1960 presidential election.
Great Society
a set of domestic programs in the United States promoted by President Lyndon B. Johnson and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s. Two main goals of the __________ social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. The ___________ in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt, but differed sharply in types of programs enacted.
War on Poverty
the unofficial name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964. This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty.
VISTA
an anti-poverty program created by Lyndon Johnson's Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 as the domestic version of the Peace Corps. Initially, the program increased employment opportunities for conscientious people who felt they could contribute tangibly to the War on Poverty. Volunteers served in communities throughout the U.S., focusing on enriching educational programs and vocational training for the nation's underprivileged classes.
Economic Opportunity Act
central to Johnson's Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty. Implemented by the since disbanded Office of Economic Opportunity, the Act included several social programs to promote the health, education, and general welfare of the impoverished. Although most of the initiatives in the Act have since been modified, weakened, or altogether rolled back, its remaining programs include Head Start, and Job Corps. Remaining War on Poverty programs are managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services's Office of Community Services and the U.S. Department of Labor.
Medicare
is a national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government, that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 and older and younger people with disabilities as well as people with end stage renal disease. As a social insurance program, Medicare spreads the financial risk associated with illness across society to protect everyone, and thus has a somewhat different social role from private insurers, which must manage their risk portfolio to guarantee their own solvency.
Medicaid
the United States health program for certain people and families with low incomes and resources. It is a means-tested program that is jointly funded by the state and federal governments, and is managed by the states.
Election of 1964
held on November 3, 1964. Incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson had come to office less than a year earlier following the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. Johnson, who had successfully associated himself with Kennedy's popularity, won 61.1% of the popular vote, the highest won by a candidate since 1820. It was the sixth-most lopsided presidential election in the history of the United States in terms of electoral votes; in terms of popular vote, it was the fifth-most. No candidate for president since the election has equaled or surpassed Johnson's 1964 percentage margin of the popular vote.
The Republican candidate, Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona, suffered from a lack of support from his own party and his deeply unpopular (for the 1960s) conservative political positions. Johnson's campaign successfully portrayed Goldwater as being a dangerous extremist, and advocated social programs which became known as the Great Society. Johnson easily won the Presidency, carrying 44 of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. However, Goldwater's unsuccessful bid influenced the Republican Party and the modern conservative movement. His campaign received considerable support from former Democratic strongholds in the Deep South.
Barry Goldwater vs. Daisy Ad
a controversial political advertisement aired on television during the 1964 United States presidential election by incumbent president Lyndon B. Johnson's campaign. Though only aired once (by the campaign), it is considered a factor in Johnson's landslide victory over Barry Goldwater and an important turning point in political and advertising history. It was created by Tony Schwartz of Doyle Dane Bernbach. It remains one of the most controversial political advertisements ever made.
Students for a Democratic Society
a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the country's New Left. The organization developed and expanded rapidly in the mid-1960s before dissolving at its last convention in 1969. A faction of it formed the Weather Underground, identified by the FBI as a "domestic terrorist group."
Berkeley Free Speech movement
a student protest which took place during the 1964-1965 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio, Brian Turner, Bettina Aptheker, Steve Weissman, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg, and others. In protests unprecedented in this scope at the time, students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom.
Hippies
originally a youth movement that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The etymology of the term _________ is from hipster, and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district. Both the words "hip" and "hep" came from African American culture and denote "awareness." The early ________ inherited the countercultural values of the Beat Generation, created their own communities, listened to psychedelic rock, embraced the sexual revolution, and some used drugs such as cannabis, LSD and magic mushrooms to explore altered states of consciousness.
Counterculture
a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition
"Tune In, Turn On, Drop Out"
a counterculture phrase popularized by Timothy Leary in 1967. Leary spoke at the Human Be-In, a gathering of 30,000 hippies! in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco and uttered the famous phrase
Second Wave Feminism
a period of feminist activity in the United States which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1990s; broadened the debate to a wide range of issues: sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights, de facto inequalities, and official legal inequalities.
Betty Friedan
an American writer, activist, and feminist.
A leading figure in the Women's Movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the "second wave" of American feminism in the 20th century. In 1966, she founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women, which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men".
The Feminine Mystique, 1963
a nonfiction book by Betty Friedan first published in 1963. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
The Pill, 1960
a medicine created for birth control; created in 1960...
Gloria Steinem
an American feminist, journalist, and social and political activist who became nationally recognized as a leader of, and media spokeswoman for, the women's liberation movement in the late 1960s and 1970s. A prominent writer and political figure, she has founded many organizations and projects and has been the recipient of many awards and honors. She was a columnist for New York magazine and co-founded Ms. magazine. In 1969, she published an article, "After Black Power, Women's Liberation" which, along with her early support of abortion rights, catapulted her to national fame as a feminist leader.
Ms.
an American liberal feminist magazine co-founded by American feminist and activist Gloria Steinem and founding editor Letty Cottin Pogrebin together with founding editors Patricia Carbine, Joanne Edgar, Nina Finkelstein, and Mary Peacock, that first appeared in 1971 as an insert in New York magazine.
Griswold v. Connecticut
a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. By a vote of 7-2, the Supreme Court invalidated the law on the grounds that it violated the "right to marital privacy".
Title IX, 1972
a portion of the Education Amendments of 1972, U.S. legislation also identified using the name of its principal author as the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act. It states that "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance..."
Roe v. Wade, 1973
a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. Decided simultaneously with a companion case, Doe v. Bolton, the Court ruled that a right to privacy under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that right must be balanced against the state's two legitimate interests in regulating abortions: protecting prenatal life and protecting women's health. Arguing that these state interests became stronger over the course of a pregnancy, the Court resolved this balancing test by tying state regulation of abortion to the trimester of pregnancy.
NOW
the largest feminist organization in the United States. It was founded in 1966 and has a membership of 500,000 contributing members. The organization consists of 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
(Betty Friedan and Shirley Chisolm were founders)
ERA
a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution. The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and, in 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time. In 1972, it passed both houses of Congress and went to the state legislatures for ratification. It failed to receive the requisite number of ratifications before the final deadline mandated by Congress of June 30, 1982 expired and so it was not adopted.
Phyllis Schlafly
a Constitutional lawyer, American politically conservative activist and author who founded the Eagle Forum. She is known for her opposition to modern feminism and for her campaign against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment. Her self-published book, A Choice, Not An Echo, was published in 1964 from her home in Alton, Illinois, across the Mississippi River from her native St. Louis. She formed Pere Marquette Publishers company. She has co-authored books on national defense and was highly critical of arms-control agreements with the former Soviet Union.
Sandra Day O'Connor, 1981
an American jurist who was the first female member of the Supreme Court of the United States. She served as an Associate Justice from 1981 until her retirement from the Court in 2006. She was appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981.
"Hearts and Minds"
refers to a short lived campaign by the United States military during the Vietnam War intended to win the popular support of the Vietnamese people.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
a joint resolution which the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in response to a sea battle between the North Vietnamese Navy's Torpedo Squadron 10135 and the destroyer USS Maddox on August 2 and an alleged second naval engagement between North Vietnamese boats and the US destroyers USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy on August 4 in the namesake gulf.
(allowed LBJ to use force in Vietnam without declaring war)
Tet Offensive, 1968
a military campaign during the Vietnam War that was launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), the United States, and their allies. The purpose of the offensive was to utilize the element of surprise and strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam, during a period when no attacks were supposed to take place.
Credibility gap
a political term that came into wide use during the 1960s and 1970s. At the time, it was most frequently used to describe public skepticism about the Lyndon B. Johnson administration's statements and policies on the Vietnam War. Today, it is used more generally to describe almost any "gap" between the reality of a situation and what politicians and government agencies say about it.
My Lai Massacre, 1968
the Vietnam War mass murder of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, by United States Army soldiers of "Charlie" Company of 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the Americal Division. Most of the victims were women, children, infants, and elderly people. Some of the bodies were later found to be mutilated.
When the incident became public knowledge in 1969, it prompted global outrage. The massacre also increased domestic opposition to the US involvement in the Vietnam War. Three US servicemen who had tried to halt the massacre and protect the wounded were initially denounced by several US Congressmen as traitors in an attempt to cover up the massacre. They received hate mail and death threats and found mutilated animals on their doorsteps. The three were later widely praised and decorated by the army for their heroic actions.
The Living Room War
A war in which scenes of actual combat operations are recorded by commercial television crews and replayed on network news programs, thus "bringing the war into the viewer's living room." The Vietnam War was the first such war.
"Nixon Doctrine"
put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by U.S. President Richard Nixon. He stated that the United States henceforth expected its allies to take care of their own military defense, but that the U.S. would aid in defense as requested. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies.
"Peace with Honor"
a phrase U.S. President Richard M. Nixon used in a speech on January 23, 1973 to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War. The phrase is a variation on a campaign promise Nixon made in 1968: "I pledge to you that we shall have an honorable end to the war in Vietnam."
Vietnamization
a policy of the Richard M. Nixon administration during the Vietnam War, as a result of the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive, to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops." This referred to U.S. combat troops specifically in the ground combat role, but did not reject combat by U.S. air forces, as well as the support to South Vietnam, consistent with the policies of U.S. foreign military assistance organizations. U.S. citizens′ mistrust of their government that had begun after the offensive worsened with the release of news about U.S. soldiers massacring civilians at My Lai (1969), the invasion of Cambodia (1970), and the leaking of the Pentagon Papers (1971).
Secret Bombings (Cambodia), 1970
a covert United States Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia and Laos from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970, during the Vietnam War. The supposed targets of these attacks were sanctuaries and Base Areas of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and forces of the Viet Cong, which utilized them for resupply, training, and resting between campaigns across the border in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).[citation needed] The campaign failed in its objective of preventing North Vietnamese offensives.
Kent State shooting, 1970
occurred at Kent State University in the U.S. city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of unarmed college students by the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.
Some of the students who were shot had been protesting against the American invasion of Cambodia, which President Richard Nixon announced in a television address on April 30. Other students who were shot had been walking nearby or observing the protest from a distance.
Pentagon Papers, 1971
a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The papers were first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of the New York Times in 1971. A 1996 article in The New York Times said that this report "demonstrated, among other things, that the Johnson Administration had systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress, about a subject of transcendent national interest and significance". The report was declassified and publicly released in June 2011.
New York Times Co. v. United States, 1971
a United States Supreme Court per curiam decision. The ruling made it possible for the New York Times and Washington Post newspapers to publish the then-classified Pentagon Papers without risk of government censure.
"Honorable Withdrawal"
refers to withdrawal from Vietnam (???)
Paris Peace Agreement, 1973
intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War, ended direct U.S. military involvement, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam. The governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries, signed the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam on January 27, 1973.
War Powers Act, 1973
a federal law intended to check the power of the President in committing the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress. The resolution was adopted in the form of a United States Congress joint resolution; this provides that the President can send U.S. armed forces into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or in case of "a national emergency created by attack upon the United States, its territories or possessions, or its armed forces."
"The Fog of War"
a term used to describe the uncertainty in situation awareness experienced by participants in military operations. The term seeks to capture the uncertainty regarding own capability, adversary capability, and adversary intent during an engagement, operation, or campaign.
Election of 1968
the 46th quadrennial United States presidential election. Coming four years after Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson won in a historic landslide, it saw Johnson forced out of the race and Republican Richard Nixon elected. The election was a wrenching national experience, conducted against a backdrop that included the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and subsequent race riots across the nation, the assassination of presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy, widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses, and violent confrontations between police and anti-war protesters at the 1968 Democratic National Convention as the Democratic party split again and again.
Hubert Humphrey
served under President Lyndon B. Johnson as the 38th Vice President of the United States.
He twice served as a United States Senator from Minnesota, and served as Democratic Majority Whip. He was a founder of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party and Americans for Democratic Action. He also served as Mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota from 1945 to 1949. He was the nominee of the Democratic Party in the 1968 presidential election but lost to the Republican nominee, Richard Nixon.
M.L. King & R.F.K. Assassinations, 1968
two assassinations that occurred in 1968
Chicago Democratic Convention, 1968
held at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968. Because Democratic President Lyndon Johnson had announced he would not seek a second term, the purpose of the convention was to select a new nominee to run as the Democratic Party's candidate for the office. The keynote speaker was Senator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii).
held during a year of violence, political turbulence, and civil unrest, particularly riots in more than 100 cities following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4. The convention also followed the assassination of Democratic presidential hopeful Senator Robert F. Kennedy, who had been murdered on June 5.
mayor Richard J. Daley intended to showcase his and the city's achievements to national Democrats and the news media. Instead, the proceedings became notorious for the large number of demonstrators and the use of force by the Chicago police during what was supposed to be, in the words of the Yippie activist organizers, "A Festival of Life." Rioting took place between demonstrators and the Chicago Police Department, who were assisted by the Illinois National Guard. The disturbances were well publicized by the mass media, with some journalists and reporters being caught up in the violence.
President Richard Nixon
the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. The only president to resign the office, he had previously served as a US representative and senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
VP Spiro Agnew
the 39th Vice President of the United States (1969-1973), serving under President Richard Nixon, and the 55th Governor of Maryland (1967-1969). He was the first Greek American to hold these offices.
During his fifth year as Vice President, in the late summer of 1973, he was under investigation by the United States Attorney's office in Baltimore, Maryland, on charges of extortion, tax fraud, bribery and conspiracy. In October, he was formally charged with having accepted bribes totaling more than $100,000, while holding office as Baltimore County Executive, Governor of Maryland, and Vice President of the United States. On October 10, 1973, he was allowed to plead no contest to a single charge that he had failed to report $29,500 of income received in 1967, with the condition that he resign the office of Vice President.
"Silent Majority"
an unspecified large majority of people in a country or group who do not express their opinions publicly. The term was popularized (though not first used) by U.S. President Richard Nixon in a November 3, 1969, speech in which he said, "And so tonight—to you, the great silent majority of my fellow Americans—I ask for your support." In this usage it referred to those Americans who did not join in the large demonstrations against the Vietnam War at the time, who did not join in the counterculture, and who did not participate in public discourse. Nixon along with many others saw this group of Middle Americans as being overshadowed in the media by the more vocal minority.
"New Federalism"
a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states. The primary objective of this philosophy, unlike that of the eighteenth-century political philosophy of Federalism, is the restoration to the states of some of the autonomy and power which they lost to the federal government as a consequence of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.
EPA, 1970
an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. It was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon submitted a reorganization plan to Congress and it was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate.
Clean Air Act, 1970
a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and enforce regulations to protect the general public from exposure to airborne contaminants that are known to be hazardous to human health. The 1963 Act established a basic research program, which was expanded in 1967. The major amendments to the law, requiring regulatory controls for air pollution, were enacted in 1970, 1977 and 1990.
Henry Kissinger
a German-born American academic, political scientist, diplomat, and businessman. A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, he served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the administrations of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. After his term, his opinion was still sought by many subsequent presidents and many world leaders.
A proponent of Realpolitik, he played a dominant role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. During this period, he pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, orchestrated the opening of relations with the People's Republic of China, and negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, ending American involvement in the Vietnam War. Various American policies of that era, including the bombing of Cambodia, remain controversial.
Chilean Coup, 1973
a watershed event of the Cold War and the history of Chile. Following an extended period of social and political unrest between the conservative-dominated Congress of Chile and the socialist President Salvador Allende, discontent culminated in the latter's downfall in a coup d'état organised by the Chilean military and unofficially endorsed by the Nixon administration and the CIA, which had covertly worked to spread discontent and opposition against the government. A military junta led by Allende's Army Commander-in-Chief Augusto Pinochet eventually took control of the government, composed of the heads of the Air Force, Navy, Carabineros (police force) and the Army. Pinochet later assumed power and ended Allende's democratically elected Popular Unity government, instigating a campaign of terror on its supporters which included the murder of former Foreign Minister Orlando Letelier. Before Pinochet's rule, Chile had for decades been hailed as a beacon of democracy and political stability in a South America hoarding military juntas and Caudillismo.
Détente
the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. The term is often used in reference to the general easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1971, a thawing at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War. In the Soviet Union, détente was known in Russian as разрядка ("razryadka", loosely meaning 'relaxation of tension').
The period was characterized by the signing of treaties such as the SALT I and the Helsinki Agreement. SALT II was discussed but never ratified by the United States. There is some debate amongst historians as to how successful this was in achieving peace.
China visit, 1972
an important step in formally normalizing relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China (PRC). It marked the first time a U.S. president had visited the PRC, which at that time considered the U.S. one of its staunchest foes, and the voyage ended 25 years of separation between the two sides.
SALT, 1972
the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement, also known as Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty; froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.
"Enemies List"
the informal name of what started as a list of President of the United States Richard Nixon's major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell (assistant to Colson, special counsel to the White House), and sent in memorandum form to John Dean on September 9, 1971; it became public knowledge when Dean mentioned during hearings with the Senate Watergate Committee that a list existed containing those whom the president did not like. Journalist Daniel Schorr, who happened to be on the list, managed to obtain copies of it later that day.
Imperial Presidency
a term that became popular in the 1960s and that served as the title of a 1973 volume by historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. to describe the modern presidency of the United States. The author wrote The Imperial Presidency out of two concerns; first that the US Presidency was out of control and second that the Presidency had exceeded the constitutional limits.
Election of 1972
the 47th quadrennial United States presidential election. It was held on November 7, 1972. The Democratic Party's nomination was eventually won by Senator George McGovern of South Dakota, who ran an anti-war campaign against incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon, but was handicapped by his outsider status and limited support from his own party, as well as the medical scandal and firing of vice presidential nominee Thomas Eagleton.
Edward Kennedy
a United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. Serving almost 47 years, he was the second most senior member of the Senate when he died and is the fourth-longest-serving senator in United States history. For many years the most prominent living member of the Kennedy family, he was the last surviving son of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.; the youngest brother of President John F. Kennedy and Senator Robert F. Kennedy, both victims of assassination, and Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., killed in action in World War II; and the father of Congressman Patrick J. Kennedy.
The controversial Chappaquiddick incident on July 18, 1969, resulted in the death of his automobile passenger Mary Jo Kopechne; he pleaded guilty to a charge of leaving the scene of an accident, and the incident significantly damaged his chances of ever becoming President of the United States. His one attempt, in the 1980 presidential election, resulted in a Democratic primary campaign loss to incumbent President Jimmy Carter.
Chappaquiddick incident
refers to the circumstances involving the death of Mary Jo Kopechne, whose body was discovered underwater inside an automobile belonging to her driver, U.S. Senator Edward M. "Ted" Kennedy. During the early morning hours of July 19, 1969, Kopechne's body and the car were found in a tidal channel on Chappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts. After the discovery, Kennedy gave a statement to police saying that during the previous night, Kopechne was his passenger when he took a wrong turn and accidentally drove his car off a bridge and into the water. After pleading guilty to a charge of leaving the scene of an accident after causing injury, Kennedy received a suspended sentence for two months in jail. The incident became a national scandal, and may have influenced Kennedy's decision not to campaign for the Presidency of the United States in 1972 and 1976.
McGovern/Eagleton Campaign
refers to George McGovern's second candidacy for the presidency of the United States in an ultimately unsuccessful bid for the 1972 presidential election.
His Vice President had mental problems, and his platform was ruined by the Watergate scandal
Watergate
a political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Nixon administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement. The scandal eventually led to the resignation of Richard Nixon, the President of the United States, on August 9, 1974, the only resignation of a U.S. President. The scandal also resulted in the indictment, trial, conviction and incarceration of 43 people, including dozens of top Nixon administration officials.
The affair began with the arrest of five men for breaking and entering into the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate complex on June 17, 1972. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) connected cash found on the burglars to a slush fund used by the Committee for the Re-Election of the President, a fundraising group for the Nixon campaign. In July 1973, as evidence mounted against the president's staff, including testimony provided by former staff members in an investigation conducted by the Senate ________ Committee, it was revealed that President Nixon had a tape-recording system in his offices and he had recorded many conversations. Recordings from these tapes implicated the president, revealing he had attempted to cover up the break-in. After a protracted series of bitter court battles, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the president had to hand over the tapes to government investigators; he ultimately complied.
CREEP
a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon's administration. Besides its re-election activities, it employed money laundering and slush funds and was directly and actively involved in the Watergate scandal.
Woodward and Bernstein
the two who did much of the original news reporting on the Watergate scandal. These scandals led to numerous government investigations and the eventual resignation of President Richard Nixon. Gene Roberts, the former executive editor of The Philadelphia Inquirer and former managing editor of The New York Times, has called the work of these two "maybe the single greatest reporting effort of all time."
Saturday Night Massacre
the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixon's executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus on October 20, 1973 during the Watergate scandal.
White House Tapes
audio-recordings of the communications of U.S. President Richard Nixon and various Nixon administration officials and White House staff, ordered by the President for personal records. The taping system was installed in selected rooms in the White House in February 1971 and was voice activated. The records come from line-taps placed on the telephones and small lavalier microphones in various locations around the rooms. The recordings were produced on hundreds of Sony TC-800B open-reel tape recorders. The recorders were turned off on July 18, 1973, shortly after they became public knowledge as a result of the Watergate hearings.
United States v. Nixon, 1974
a landmark United States Supreme Court decision. It was a unanimous 8-0 ruling involving President Richard Nixon and was important to the late stages of the Watergate scandal. It is considered a crucial precedent limiting the power of any U.S. president.
Arab Oil Embargo, 1973
an embargo by members of Eastern OPEC "in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military" during the Yom Kippur war.
American Indian Movement
a Native American activist organization in the United States, founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, by urban Native Americans.
organization was formed to address various issues concerning the Native American urban community in Minneapolis, including poverty, housing, treaty issues, and police harassment. From its beginnings in Minnesota, AIM soon attracted members from across the United States (and Canada). It participated in the Rainbow Coalition organized by the civil rights activist Fred Hampton.
Wounded Knee Incident, 1973
began February 27, 1973 when about 200 Oglala Lakota and followers of the American Indian Movement seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The grassroots protest followed the failure of their effort to impeach the elected tribal president Richard Wilson, whom they accused of corruption and abuse of opponents; they also protested the United States government's failure to fulfill treaties with Indian peoples and demanded the reopening of treaty negotiations.
Oglala and AIM activists controlled the town for 71 days while the United States Marshals Service, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents and other law enforcement agencies cordoned off the area. The activists chose the site of the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre for its symbolic value. Both sides were armed and shooting was frequent. An FBI agent was paralyzed from a gunshot wound early during the occupation, and later died from complications; a Cherokee and an Oglala Lakota were killed by shootings in April 1973. Ray Robinson, a civil rights activist who joined the protesters, disappeared during the events and is believed to have been murdered. Due to damage to the houses, the small community was never reoccupied.
Pluralism
used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics to denote a diversity of views, and stands in opposition to one single approach or method of interpretation
Interest Groups
groups that use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems. Groups vary considerably in size, influence and motive; some have wide ranging long term social purposes, others are focused and are a response to an immediate issue or concern.
Ethnic Revivals
refers to people being proud of their ethnicity (?)
Nixon Resignation
refers to what Nixon did after Watergate...
President Gerald Ford
the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the 40th Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974. As the first person appointed to the vice-presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment (after Spiro Agnew had resigned), when he became President upon Richard Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, he became the only President of the United States who was never elected President nor Vice-President by the Electoral College. Before ascending to the vice-presidency, he served nearly 25 years as the Representative from Michigan's 5th congressional district, eight of them as the Republican Minority Leader.
Nixon Pardon
refers to Ford's pardoning of the previous president...
Rust belt
that gained currency in the 1980s as the informal description of an area straddling the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, in which local economies traditionally specialized in large scale manufacturing of finished medium to heavy consumer and industrial products, including the transportation and processing of the raw materials required for heavy industry. After several "boom" periods from the late-19th to the mid-20th century, cities in this area struggled to adapt to a variety of adverse economic conditions later in the 20th century, such as the movement of manufacturing facilities to the southeastern states with their lower labor costs, the rise of automation in industrial processes, a decreased need for labor in making steel products, and the deregulation of foreign trade policies. Places that struggled the most with these conditions soon encountered several difficulties in common, including population loss, depletion of local tax revenues, and chronic high unemployment.
Whip Inflation Now
an attempt to spur a grassroots movement to combat inflation, by encouraging personal savings and disciplined spending habits in combination with public measures, urged by U.S. President Gerald Ford. People who supported the mandatory and voluntary measures were encouraged to wear "___" buttons, perhaps in hope of evoking in peacetime the kind of solidarity and voluntarism symbolized by the V-campaign during World War II.
President Jimmy Carter
an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States (1977-1981) and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office. Before he became President, ______ served as a U.S. Naval officer, was a peanut farmer, served two terms as a Georgia State Senator and one as Governor of Georgia (1971-1975).
Department of Energy, 1977
a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation's nuclear weapons program, nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy, energy conservation, energy-related research, radioactive waste disposal, and domestic energy production. It also sponsors more basic and applied scientific research than any other US federal agency; most of this is funded through its system of United States _______ National Laboratories.
Department of Education, 1977
a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. Recreated by the Department of Education Organization Act (Public Law 96-88) and signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on October 17, 1979, it began operating on May 16, 1980.
The Department of Education Organization Act divided the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare into the ____________ and the Department of Health and Human Services. It is administered by the United States Secretary of Education.
Draft-dodger Amnesty
refers to an intentional failure to comply with the military conscription policies of one's nation. (?)
Panama Canal (Torrijos-Carter) Treaties, 1978 (1999)
two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D.C., on September 7, 1977, which abrogated the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty of 1903. The treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U.S. had exercised since 1903.
Camp David Accords, 1978
signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following thirteen days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two framework agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter.
Iranian Revolution
refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy (Pahlavi dynasty) under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution.
Iranian Hostage Crisis (444 days)
a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 66 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American Embassy in Tehran in support of the Iranian Revolution. President Carter called the hostages "victims of terrorism and anarchy", adding that the "United States will not yield to blackmail".
Invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
refers to the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan...
Olympic boycott, 1980
a part of a package of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet war in Afghanistan. It preceded the 1984 Summer Olympics boycott carried out by the Soviet Union and other Communist-friendly countries.
Three Mile Island, 1979
a partial nuclear meltdown which occurred at the namesake power plant in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States on March 28, 1979. It was the worst accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history, and resulted in the release of small amounts of radioactive gases and radioactive iodine into the environment.
Energy Crisis
a period in which the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the United States, faced substantial shortages, both perceived and real, of petroleum. The two worst crises of this period were the 1973 oil crisis, caused by the Arab Oil Embargo of OAPEC, and the 1979 energy crisis, caused by the Iranian Revolution.
"Malaise" Speech
a nationally-televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among the American people.
Election of 1980
featured a contest between incumbent Democratic President Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, former California Governor Ronald Reagan, as well as Republican Congressman John B. Anderson, who ran as an independent. Reagan, aided by the Iran hostage crisis and a worsening economy at home, won the election in a landslide, receiving the highest number of electoral votes ever won by a nonincumbent presidential candidate, and became the 40th President of the United States.
Reagan Revolution
refers to Reagan's presidency in recognition of the political realignment both within and beyond the U.S. in favor of his brand of conservatism and his faith in free markets.
"Moral Majority"
a political organization of the United States which had an agenda of evangelical Christian-oriented political lobbying. It was founded in 1979 and dissolved in the late 1980s.
President Ronald Reagan
the 40th President of the United States, serving from 1981 to 1989. Prior to that, he was the 33rd Governor of California from 1967 to 1975 and a radio, film and television actor.
Assassination Attempt, 1981
occurred on Monday, March 30, 1981, just 69 days into the presidency of Ronald Reagan. While leaving a speaking engagement at the Washington Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C., President Reagan and three others were shot and wounded by John Hinckley, Jr. Reagan suffered a punctured lung, but prompt medical attention allowed him to recover quickly. No formal invocation of presidential succession took place, although Secretary of State Alexander Haig controversially stated that he was "in control here" while Vice President George H. W. Bush returned to Washington. Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity and remains confined to a psychiatric facility.
Air Traffic Controllers Strike
a strike seeking better working conditions, better pay and a 32-hour workweek for Air Traffic Controllers. In addition, PATCO no longer wanted to be included within the civil service clauses that had haunted it for decades. In doing so, the union violated a law — 5 U.S.C. (Supp. III 1956) 118p. — that banned strikes by government unions. Ronald Reagan declared the PATCO strike a "peril to national safety" and ordered them back to work under the terms of the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. Only 1,300 of the nearly 13,000 controllers returned to work. Subsequently, Reagan demanded those remaining on strike return to work within 48 hours, otherwise their jobs would be forfeited. At the same time, Transportation Secretary Drew Lewis organized for replacements and started contingency plans. By prioritizing and cutting flights severely, and even adopting methods of air traffic management that PATCO had previously lobbied for, the government was initially able to have 50% of flights available.
On August 5, following the PATCO workers' refusal to return to work, Reagan fired the 11,345 striking air traffic controllers who had ignored the order, and banned them from federal service for life. (This ban was later rescinded by President Bill Clinton in 1993.) In the wake of the strike and mass firings the FAA was faced with the task of hiring and training enough controllers to replace those that had been fired, a hard problem to fix as at the time it took three years in normal conditions to train a new controller. They were replaced initially with nonparticipating controllers, supervisors, staff personnel, some nonrated personnel, and in some cases by controllers transferred temporarily from other facilities. Some military controllers were also used until replacements could be trained. The FAA had initially claimed that staffing levels would be restored within two years; however, it would take closer to ten years before the overall staffing levels returned to normal. PATCO was decertified from its right to represent workers by the Federal Labor Relations Authority on October 22, 1981. The decision was appealed
War on Drugs
a campaign of prohibition and foreign military aid and military intervention being undertaken by the United States government, with the assistance of participating countries, intended to both define and reduce the illegal drug trade. This initiative includes a set of drug policies of the United States that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of illegal psychoactive drugs. The term "War on Drugs" was first used by President Richard Nixon in 1971. (also used by Reagan)
Reaganomics (Milton Friedman's Supply-Side Economics)
refers to economics in which tax cuts are given to the wealthy in order to stimulate the economy
El Salvador
the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. The country's capital city and largest city is San Salvador; Santa Ana and San Miguel are also important cultural and commercial centers in the country as well as Central America.
(no idea what this has to do with Reagan)
Grenada War, 1983
a 1983 United States-led invasion of Grenada, a Caribbean island nation with a population of about 100,000 located 100 miles (160 km) north of Venezuela. Triggered by a bloody military coup which had ousted a four-year revolutionary government, the invasion resulted in a restoration of constitutional government. It was controversial due to charges of American imperialism, Cold War politics, the involvement of Cuba, the unstable state of the Grenadian government, and Grenada's status as a Commonwealth realm.
Beirut barracks bombing
occurred during the Lebanese Civil War, when two truck bombs struck separate buildings housing United States and French military forces—members of the Multinational Force in Lebanon—killing 299 American and French servicemen. The organization Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the bombing.
Iran-Contra Scandal
a political scandal in the United States that came to light in November 1986. During the Reagan administration, senior Reagan administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo. Some U.S. officials also hoped that the arms sales would secure the release of hostages and allow U.S. intelligence agencies to fund the Nicaraguan Contras.
Bombing of Libya
comprised the joint United States Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps air-strikes against Libya on April 15, 1986. The attack was carried out in response to the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing.
SDI ("Star Wars")
proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983, to use ground- and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD).
widely criticized as being unrealistic, even unscientific as well as for threatening to destabilize MAD and re-ignite "an offensive arms race". It was soon derided, largely in the mainstream media, as "Star Wars," after the popular 1977 film by George Lucas. In 1987, the American Physical Society concluded that a global shield such as "Star Wars" was not only impossible with existing technology, but that ten more years of research was needed to learn whether it might ever be feasible.
Stonewall Riots, 1969
a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City. They are frequently cited as the first instance in American history when people in the homosexual community fought back against a government-sponsored system that persecuted sexual minorities, and they have become the defining event that marked the start of the gay rights movement in the United States and around the world.
Harvey Milk, 1978
an American politician who became the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Politics and gay activism were not his early interests; he was not open about his homosexuality and did not participate in civic matters until around the age of 40, after his experiences in the counterculture of the 1960s.
AIDS
a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
It was often associated with homosexuality in the 1970s and 1980s
Anita Bryant
is an American singer, former Miss Oklahoma beauty pageant winner, and outspoken critic of homosexuality. She scored four Top 40 hits in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s, including "Paper Roses", which reached #5. She later became widely known for her strong views against homosexuality and for her prominent campaigning in 1977 to repeal a local ordinance in Dade County, Florida, that prohibited discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, an involvement that significantly damaged her popularity and career.
President George H. W. Bush
an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States (1989-93). He had previously served as the 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981-89), a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.
"Thousand Points Points of Light"
a recurring phrase in speeches given by George H. W. Bush.
(referring to everything doing good?)
Savings and Loan Crisis
the failure of about 747 out of the 3,234 savings and loan associations in the United States. A savings and loan or "thrift" is a financial institution that accepts savings deposits and makes mortgage, car and other personal loans to individual members—a cooperative venture known in the United Kingdom as a Building Society. "As of December 31, 1995, RTC estimated that the total cost for resolving the 747 failed institutions was $87.9 billion." The remainder of the bailout was paid for by charges on savings and loan accounts—which contributed to the large budget deficits of the early 1990s.
Invasion of Panama, 1989
the invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989. It occurred during the administration of U.S. President George H. W. Bush, and ten years after the Torrijos-Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the United States to Panama by the year 2000.
During the invasion, de facto Panamanian leader, general, and dictator Manuel Noriega was deposed, president-elect Guillermo Endara sworn into office, and the Panamanian Defense Force dissolved.
"New World Order"
refers to a speech by George H.W. Bush talking about the Gulf War (?)
Persian Gulf War, 1991
a war waged by a UN-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Americans with Disabilities Act
a law that was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1990. It was signed into law on July 26, 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, and later amended with changes effective January 1, 2009.
a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other characteristics illegal.
President Bill Clinton
an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation. Clinton has been described as a New Democrat. Many of his policies have been attributed to a centrist Third Way philosophy of governance.
NAFTA
an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. and Canada. In terms of combined GDP of its members, as of 2010 the trade bloc is the largest in the world.
World Trade Center Bombing, 1993
occurred on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb was detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York, NY. The 1,336 lb (606 kg) urea nitrate-hydrogen gas enhanced device was intended to knock the North Tower (Tower One) into the South Tower (Tower Two), bringing both towers down and killing thousands of people. It failed to do so, but did kill six people and injured more than a thousand.
Oklahoma City Bombings, 1994
a terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. It would remain the most destructive act of terrorism on American soil until the September 11, 2001 attacks. The Oklahoma blast claimed 168 lives, including 19 children under the age of 6, and injured more than 680 people. The blast destroyed or damaged 324 buildings within a sixteen-block radius, destroyed or burned 86 cars, and shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings. The bomb was estimated to have caused at least $652 million worth of damage. Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated eleven of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.
"Welfare to Work"
refers to a United States federal law considered to be a fundamental shift in both the method and goal of federal cash assistance to the poor. The bill added a workforce development component to welfare legislation, encouraging employment among the poor. The bill was a cornerstone of the Republican Contract with America and was introduced by Rep. E. Clay Shaw, Jr. (R-FL-22) who believed welfare was partly responsible for bringing immigrants to the United States. Bill Clinton signed PRWORA into law on August 22, 1996, fulfilling his 1992 campaign promise to "end welfare as we have come to know it."
Government Shut Down 1995 - 1996
the result of conflicts between Democratic President Bill Clinton and the Congress over funding for Medicare, education, the environment, and public health in the 1996 federal budget. The government shut down after Clinton vetoed the spending bill the Republican Party-controlled Congress sent him. The federal government of the United States put non-essential government workers on furlough and suspended non-essential services from November 14 through November 19, 1995 and from December 16, 1995 to January 6, 1996, for a total of 28 days. The major players were President Clinton and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives Newt Gingrich.
Dayton Peace Accord (Bosnia)
the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on 14 December 1995. These accords put an end to the three and a half year long war in Bosnia, one of the armed conflicts in the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia.
Impeachment Proceedings - Jan 26, 1998 - Feb 12, 1999
the proceedings in which Clinton was impeached...but not convicted
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell"
the official United States policy on homosexuals serving in the military from December 21, 1993 to September 20, 2011. The policy prohibited military personnel from discriminating against or harassing closeted homosexual or bisexual service members or applicants, while barring openly gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons from military service.
Election of 2000
a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush (1989-1993), and Democratic candidate Al Gore, then-Vice President.
Bill Clinton, the incumbent President, was vacating the position after serving the maximum two terms allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment. Bush narrowly won the November 7 election, with 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266 (with one elector abstaining in the official tally).
The election was noteworthy for a controversy over the awarding of Florida's 25 electoral votes, the subsequent recount process in that state, and the unusual event of the winning candidate having received fewer popular votes than the runner-up. It was the fourth election in which the electoral vote winner did not also receive a plurality of the popular vote.
Hanging chad
Many undervotes in the Election of 2000 were potentially caused by either voter error or errors with the punch card paper ballots resulting in this
Bush v. Gore, 2000
the landmark United States Supreme Court decision that effectively resolved the 2000 presidential election in favor of George W. Bush. Only eight days earlier, the United States Supreme Court had unanimously decided the closely related case of Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board, 531 U.S. 70 (2000), and only three days earlier, had preliminarily halted the recount that was occurring in Florida.
President George W. Bush
an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009 and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.
September 11, 2001
a series of four coordinated suicide attacks that were committed in the United States on September 11, 2001, striking the areas of New York City and Washington, D.C. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists from the Islamist militant group Al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger jets. The hijackers intentionally piloted two of those planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center complex in New York City; both towers collapsed within two hours. The hijackers also intentionally crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, and intended to pilot the fourth hijacked jet, United Airlines Flight 93, into a target in Washington, D.C.; however, the plane crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after its passengers attempted to take control of the jet from the hijackers. Nearly 3,000 people died in the attacks.
Iraq War
a conflict that occurred in Iraq from March 20, 2003 to December 15, 2011, though sectarian violence continues since and has caused hundreds of fatalities.
War on Terror
a term commonly applied to an international military campaign led by the United States and the United Kingdom with the support of other NATO as well as non-NATO countries. Originally, the campaign was waged against al-Qaeda and other militant organizations with the purpose of eliminating them.
(phrase first used by George W. Bush)
Dept. of Homeland Security
a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the United States of America and U.S. Territories (including Protectorates) from and responding to terrorist attacks, man-made accidents, and natural disasters. In fiscal year 2011 it was allocated a budget of $98.8 billion and spent, net, $66.4 billion.
Lawrence v. Texas, 2003
a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court. In the 6-3 ruling, the Court struck down the sodomy law in Texas and, by extension, invalidated sodomy laws in thirteen other states, making same-sex sexual activity legal in every U.S. state and territory. The court overturned its previous ruling on the same issue in the 1986 case Bowers v. Hardwick, where it upheld a challenged Georgia statute and did not find a constitutional protection of sexual privacy.
Hurricane Katrina
the deadliest and most destructive Atlantic hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall. At least 1,836 people died in the actual hurricane and in the subsequent floods, making it the deadliest U.S. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane; total property damage was estimated at $81 billion (2005 USD), nearly triple the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992.
Isolationism
the policy or doctrine of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, foreign trade, international agreements, etc., seeking to devote the entire efforts of one's country to its own advancement and remain at peace by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities.
Nye Committee (1936)
officially known as the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, was a committee of the United States Senate which studied the causes of United States' involvement in World War I. It was a significant factor in heightening public and political support for neutrality in the early stages of World War II.
"Merchants of Death"
refers to warring Europeans that had the possibility of dragging America into war (?)
Neutrality Act of 1935
signed on August 31, 1935, imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. It also declared that American citizens traveling on warring ships traveled at their own risk. The act was set to expire after six months.
Neutrality Act of 1936
an act that renewed the provisions of a previous 1935 act for another 14 months. It also forbade all loans or credits to belligerents.
However, this act did not cover "civil wars," such as that in Spain (1936-1939), nor did it cover materials such as trucks and oil.
Neutrality Act of 1937
an act that included the provisions of earlier acts, this time without expiration date, and extended them to cover civil wars as well. Further, U.S. ships were prohibited from transporting any passengers or articles to belligerents, and U.S. citizens were forbidden from traveling on ships of belligerent nations.
"Quarantine Speech" (1937)
a speech that was given by U.S. President [Franklin D. Roosevelt] on October 5, 1937 in [Chicago], calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by non-interventionists and foes to intervene. No countries were directly mentioned in the speech, although it was interpreted as referring to Japan, Italy, and Germany. Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression.
Battle of the Atlantic (9.1939)
the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945. At its core was the Allied naval blockade of Germany, announced the day after the declaration of war, and Germany's subsequent counter-blockade. It was at its height from mid-1940 through to the end of 1943.
Germans U-Boats worked in Wolf Packs
Cash and Carry (11.1939)
a policy of the United States in which belligerent nations had to come to the U.S. with cash if they wanted to train; at first just for non-war items; for munitions later
Destroyers-for Bases (9.1940)
an agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom, September 2, 1940, transferred fifty mothballed destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions. The destroyers became the Town-class, and were named for cities common to both the United States and Great Britain.
Selective Service and Training Act (10.1940)
also known as the Burke-Wadsworth Act, enacted September 16, 1940, was the first peacetime conscription in United States history. This Selective Service Act required that men between the ages of 21 and 35 register with local draft boards.
Four Freedoms Speech (1.1941)
a speech in which a certain number of goals were perpetuated by FDR;
Freedom of speech and expression
Freedom of worship
Freedom from want
Freedom from fear
Lend-Lease Act (3.1941)
(an act that perpetuated) the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, Free France, and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and 1945. It was signed into law on March 11, 1941, a year and a half after the outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 but nine months before the U.S. entered the war in December 1941.
effectively ended the United States' pretense of neutrality.
"Arsenal of Democracy"
a propaganda slogan coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a radio broadcast delivered on December 29, 1940. Roosevelt promised to help the United Kingdom fight Nazi Germany by giving them military supplies while the United States stayed out of the actual fighting. The announcement was made a year before the Attack on Pearl Harbor, at a time when Germany had occupied much of Europe and threatened Britain.
Office of Scientific Research and Development
an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II. Arrangements were made for its creation during May 1941, and it was created formally by Executive Order 8807 on June 28, 1941. It superseded the work of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), was given almost unlimited access to funding and resources, and was directed by Vannevar Bush, who reported only to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
The research was widely varied, and included projects devoted to new and more accurate bombs, reliable detonators, work on the proximity fuze, radar and early-warning systems, lighter and more accurate hand weapons, more effective medical treatments, more versatile vehicles, and, most secret of all, the "S-1 Section", which later became the Manhattan Project and developed the first nuclear weapons.
Manhattan Project (6.1941)
a research and development program, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, that produced the first atomic bomb during World War II. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army Corps of Engineers.
Where work was done for the Manhattan Project
Oak Ridge, TN; Los Alamos, NM; Hanford, WA
Embargo and Japanese Asset-Freeze (8.1941)
resulted when Tokyo decided to strengthen its position in terms of its invasion of China by moving through Southeast Asia. Roosevelt responded by doing this
The Atlantic Charter (8.1941)
a pivotal policy statement first issued in August 1941 that early in World War II defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies.
Pearl Harbor (12.7.1941)
location of a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan). The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.
Got the United States involved in WWII
Total War
a war in which a belligerent engages in the complete mobilization of fully available resources and population.
Used in WWII
The War Production Board
established as a government agency on January 16, 1942 by executive order of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The purpose of the board was to regulate the production of materials and fuel during World War II in the United States.
Office of War Mobilization
an independent agency of the United States government headed by Former Supreme Court Justice James F. Byrnes that coordinated all government agencies involved in the war effort during World War II. This office took over from the earlier War Production Board to shift the country from a peacetime to a wartime economy, sometimes loaning smaller factories the money needed to convert to war production.
Office of Price Administration
established within the Office for Emergency Management of the United States government by Executive Order 8875 on August 28, 1941. The functions of the ___ were originally to control money (price controls) and rents after the outbreak of World War II.
Actions: Rationing, Wage and Price Controls
National War Labor Board
reestablished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on January 12, 1942 under the chairmanship of William Hammatt Davis. It became a tripartite body and was charged with acting as an arbitration tribunal in labor-management dispute cases, thereby preventing work stoppages which might hinder the war effort. It administered wage control in national industries such as automobiles, shipping, railways, airlines, telegraph lines, and mining.
Roy Wilkins
a prominent civil rights activist in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s. His most notable role was in his leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
A. Philip Randolph
a leader in the African American civil-rights movement and the American labor movement. He organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first predominantly Negro labor union. In the early civil-rights movement, he led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced Franklin D. Roosevelt to desegregate production-plants for military supplies during World War II.
Fair Employment Practices Committee (Executive Order 8802)
implemented US Executive Order 8802, requiring that companies with government contracts not to discriminate on the basis of race or religion. It was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the homefront industry. On June 25, 1941, President Roosevelt created this by signing Executive Order 8802, which stated, "there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin." This was due in large part to the urging of A. Philip Randolph, who was the founding president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
"Double V" Campaign
African American campaign in which they strove for Victory over fascism abroad, and victory over discrimination
Second Great Migration
was the migration of more than five million African Americans from the South to the North, Midwest and West. It took place from 1941, through World War II, and lasted until 1970.
Tuskegee Airmen
the popular name of a group of African American pilots who fought in World War II. Formally, they formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the U.S. Army Air Corps.
Zoot Suit Riots
a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that exploded in Los Angeles, California between white sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the ________ they favored. While Mexican Americans and military servicemen were the main parties in the riots, African American and Filipino/Filipino American youth were also involved.
Detroit Race Riot
broke out in Detroit, Michigan in June 1943 and lasted for three days before Federal troops restored order. The rioting between blacks and whites began on Belle Isle on June 20, 1943 and continued until the 22nd of June , killing 34, wounding 433, and destroying property valued at $2 million.
Code Talkers
a term used to describe people who talk using a coded language. It is frequently used to describe 400 Native American Marines who served in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was the transmission of secret tactical messages.
Internment Camps
AKA "Resettlement Communities"; created under (Executive Order 9066); places where Japanese Americans were placed in order to make sure that they were not interfering with the American war effort (?)
Hirabayshi v. United States, 1943
a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that the application of curfews against members of a minority group were constitutional when the nation was at war with the country from which that group originated.
Korematsu v. United States, 1944
a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II.
Rosie the Riveter
a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military.
War Brides
a term used in reference to wartime marriages between soldiers and foreigners, especially - but not exclusively - during World War I and World War II.
One of the largest and best documented ______ phenomenons is American soldiers marrying German "Fräuleins" after World War II. By 1949, over 20,000 German _______ had emigrated into the US.
D-Day (6.6.1944)
the day that the Normandy landings commenced; consisted of an amphibious and an airborne landing
Battle of the Bulge
a major German offensive (die Ardennenoffensive), launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, hence its French name (Bataille des Ardennes), and France and Luxembourg on the Western Front. The Wehrmacht's code name for the offensive was Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein ("Operation Watch on the Rhine"), after the German patriotic hymn Die Wacht am Rhein.
(mainly US vs Germany)
Battle of the Coral Sea (5.1942)
a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval and air forces from the United States and Australia. The battle was the first ever fleet action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other, as well as the first in which neither side's ships sighted or fired directly upon the other.
In an attempt to strengthen their defensive positioning for their empire in the South Pacific, Imperial Japanese forces decided to invade and occupy Port Moresby in New Guinea and Tulagi in the southeastern Solomon Islands. The plan to accomplish this, called Operation MO, involved several major units of Japan's Combined Fleet, including two fleet carriers and a light carrier to provide air cover for the invasion fleets, under the overall command of Shigeyoshi Inoue. The U.S. learned of the Japanese plan through signals intelligence and sent two United States Navy carrier task forces and a joint Australian-American cruiser force, under the overall command of American Admiral Frank J. Fletcher, to oppose the Japanese offensive.
Battle of Midway (6.1942)
widely regarded as the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. Between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, the United States Navy decisively defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) attack against __________, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet Military historian John Keegan has called it "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare."
Island Hopping
a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War II. The idea was to bypass heavily fortified Japanese positions and instead concentrate the limited Allied resources on strategically important islands that were not well defended but capable of supporting the drive to the main islands of Japan.
Enola Gay
a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, mother of the pilot, then-Colonel (later Brigadier General) Paul Tibbets. On 6 August 1945, during the final stages of World War II, it became the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb as a weapon of war. The bomb, code-named "Little Boy", was targeted at the city of Hiroshima, Japan, and caused extensive destruction.
Little Boy
the atomic bomb that hit Hiroshima, Japan
Fat Man
the atomic bomb that hit Nagasaki, Japan
Tehran Conference (12.1943)
a strategy meeting held between Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943. It was held in the Soviet Embassy in ________ and was the first of the World War II conferences held between all of the "Big Three" Allied leaders (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom). It closely followed the Cairo Conference and preceded both the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. Although all three of the leaders present arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the __________ was the commitment to the opening of a second front against Nazi Germany by the Western Allies. The conference also addressed relations between the Allies and Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan as well as the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three's recognition of Iran's independence.
Yalta Conference (2.1945)
sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held February 4-11, 1945, was the wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, in the Crimea.
Potsdam Conference (7.1945)
held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from July 16 to August 2, 1945. Participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The three nations were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and later, Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.
Stalin, Churchill, and Truman—as well as Attlee, who participated alongside Churchill while awaiting the outcome of the 1945 general election, and then replaced Churchill as Prime Minister after the Labour Party's victory over the Conservatives—gathered to decide how to administer punishment to the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on 8 May (V-E Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war.
Nuremberg Trials
a series of military tribunals, held by the victorious Allied forces of World War II, most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of the defeated Nazi Germany. The trials were held in the city of _________, Bavaria, Germany, in 1945-46, at the Palace of Justice. The first and best known of these trials was the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT), which tried 24 of the most important captured leaders of Nazi Germany, though several key architects of the war (such as Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels) had committed suicide before the trials began.
Perimeter Security
refers to securing national borders?
United Nations (4.1945)
an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The __ was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.
Collective security
a security arrangement, regional or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and agrees to join in a collective response to threats to, and breaches of, the peace.
The UN tried to ensure this after the League of Nations failed
U.N. Security Council
one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action.
Containment
refers to trying to limit the influence of the Soviet Union (?)
Federal Farm Board (Agriculture Marketing Act 1929)
created in 1929, before the stock market crash on Black Tuesday, 1929, but its powers were later enlarged to meet the economic crisis farmers faced during the Great Depression. It was established by the Agricultural Marketing Act to stabilize prices and to promote the sale of agricultural products; would help farmers stabilize prices by holding surplus grain and cotton in storage.
Emergency Committee for Employment, 1930
?
Federal Farm Loan Act, 1916
a United States federal law aimed at increasing credit to rural, family farmers. It did so by creating a federal farm loan board, twelve regional farm loan banks and tens of farm loan associations. The act was signed into law by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson.
Federal Emergency Relief Act, 1932
created Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) in 1932
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1932
created by Hoover in 1932; gave federal money to businesses to rebuild economy
Direct relief
refers to relief that comes from the federal government to citizens (?)
Voluntarism
the use of, or reliance on voluntary action to maintain an institution, carry out a policy, or achieve an end.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, 1930
an act, sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
Stopped circular flow of money; made Great Depression worse
Farmers' Holiday Association
a movement of Midwestern United States farmers who, during the Great Depression, endorsed the withholding of farm products from the market, in essence creating a farmers' strike.
"Hoovervilles"
the popular name for shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression. They were named after the President of the United States at the time, Herbert Hoover, because he allegedly let the nation slide into depression.
Dust Bowl
a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops or other techniques to prevent wind erosion. Deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds.
"Okies"
a term dating from as early as 1907, originally denoting residents or natives of Oklahoma.
In the 1930s in California, the term (often used in contempt) came to refer to very poor migrants from Oklahoma (and nearby states). Jobs were very scarce in the 1930s but after the defense boom began in 1940 there were plenty of high paying jobs in in the shipyards and defense factories.
"Bonus Army", 1932
the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand immediate cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
Many of the war veterans had been out of work since the beginning of the Great Depression. The World War Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924 had awarded them bonuses in the form of certificates they could not redeem until 1945. Each service certificate, issued to a qualified veteran soldier, bore a face value equal to the soldier's promised payment plus compound interest. The principal demand of the _________ was the immediate cash payment of their certificates.
Douglas MacArthur
an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign.
Involved in breaking up the Bonus Army
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
the 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. With the bouncy popular song "Happy Days Are Here Again" as his campaign theme, FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover in November 1932, at the depth of the Great Depression.
Eleanor Roosevelt
the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, she continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women.
"New Deal"
a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were Roosevelt's responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is, Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
First 100 Days
a sample of the first 100 days of a first term presidency of a president of the United States. It is used to measure the successes and accomplishments of a president during the time that their power and influence is at its greatest.
(set by FDR)
"Fireside Chats"
a series of thirty evening radio addresses given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944.
Bank Holiday
declared on March 5th, 1932; took place from the 6th to the 13th; prevented banks from failing along with the Emergency Banking Relief Act, March 9th
"Brain Trust"
refers to the smart people that FDR kept around him to help him deal with the Great Depression
Harold Ickes
Secretary of the Interior for FDR from 1933-46
Henry Moregenthau, Jr.
Treasury Secretary for FDR from 1934-45
Relief, Recovery, and Reform
The 3 R's that were the goals of the 2 New Deals
Emergency Banking Relief Act
an act passed on March 9th, 1933 to encourage the Federal Reserve to provide emergency cash to failing banks; restores public confidence in financial system
Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA), May 1933
an act that created the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, which, under Hoover gave loans to the states to operate relief programs; the main goal of the administration created by this act was alleviating household unemployment by creating new unskilled jobs in local and state government.
Harry L. Hopkins
one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.
(also did work with FERA)
Reforestation Relief Act, March 1933
an act that created the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
a public work relief program (created by the Reforestation Relief Act) that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 17-23. A part of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments; designed to provide employment for young men in relief families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000; in nine years 2.5 million young men participated.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), May 1933
an act that created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which put mandatory restrictions on crop production, gave compensation/subsidies for non-production, and even gave compensation for destroying crops and livestock; later declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court
Farm Credit Act, June 1933
an act that made it possible for many farmers to keep their farms and survive the Great Depression. It did so by offering short-term loans for agricultural production as well as extended low interest rates for farmers threatened by foreclosure. Small farmers were able to refinance their mortgages with the aid of twelve district banks, called Banks for Cooperatives. A thirteenth bank served larger farming operations. Local Production Credit Associations provided short and intermediate term loans for seasonal production, insuring that farmers would not lose out on essential crop yields.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), June 1933
an act that marked the close of the first Hundred Days of FDR's first term; created the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which made industry, labor, and government collaborate and sponsored boards for each industry; this act also strengthened union bargaining power in Section 7(a)
Public Works Administration (PWA)
part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals and schools. Its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, and $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, and help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, and again in 1938.
Blue Eagle: "We Do Our Part"
the logo and slogan of the NIRA symbol
structures built during the Great Depression (?)
Hoover Dam, Triborough Bridge (New York), Lincoln Tunnel (New York), Grand Coulee Dam (Washington)
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), May 1933
a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska.
(Federal) Securities Act, May 1933
An act that regulated marketing and disclosure of securities by the FTC (Federal Trade Commission); was strengthened by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the SEC
Securities Exchange Act, June 1934
a law governing the secondary trading of securities (stocks, bonds, and debentures) in the United States of America. It was a sweeping piece of legislation. The Act and related statutes form the basis of regulation of the financial markets and their participants in the United States. The 1934 Act also established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the agency primarily responsible for enforcement of United States federal securities law.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
a federal agency which holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other electronic securities markets in the United States. In addition to the 1934 Act that created it, the ___ enforces the Securities Act of 1933, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other statutes.
Joseph P. Kennedy
a prominent American businessman, investor, and government official; father of JFK and all of his siblings; first chairman of the SEC; may have made fortune from bootlegging liquor
Home Owners Refinancing Act, June 1933
an Act of Congress of the United States passed as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal during the Great Depression to help those in danger of losing their homes. The act, which went into effect on June 13, 1933, provided mortgage assistance to homeowners or would-be homeowners by providing them money or refinancing mortgages.
Sponsored by Senate Majority leader Joe Robinson of Arkansas, it also created the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC), building off of Herbert Hoover's Federal Loan Bank Board. The Corporation lent low-interest money to families in danger of losing their homes to foreclosure. By the mid 1930s, the HOLC had refinanced nearly 20% of urban homes in the country.
Banking ((second) Glass-Steagall) Act of 1933, June 1933
an act that separated investment and commercial banking (repealed in 1999); created FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation); Increased Federal Reserve's oversight of banking practices
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, up to $250,000 per depositor per bank as of January 2012.
Civil Works Administration (CWA), November 1933
an administration that built and repaired infrastructure, hired skilled labor; employed 4 million in 5 months; Roosevelt canceled it in 1934 because he was afraid over how much it was costing; returned a year later (May 1935) as WPA
Harry Hopkins
one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.
Gold Reserve Act, January 1934
required that all gold and gold certificates held by the Federal Reserve be surrendered and vested in the sole title of the United States Department of the Treasury; outlawed most private possession of gold, forcing individuals to sell it to the Treasury, after which it was stored in United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox and other locations. The act also changed the nominal price of gold from $20.67 per troy ounce to $35.
John Maynard Keynes
a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments. He greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as (namesake) economics, as well as its various offshoots.
New Deal followed some of his ideas; not entirely; promoted deficit spending
Communications Act, June 1934
a United States federal law signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Act replaced the Federal Radio Commission with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It also transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from the Interstate Commerce Commission to the FCC.
Silver Purchase Act, June 1934
required the U.S. Treasury Secretary to purchase silver in large quantities and allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all private silver holdings. The act greatly disrupted the world's silver markets and ultimately was repealed in the 1960s.
allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all silver that was owned by American citizens (with a few exceptions including silver coins, jewelry or industrial materials). Americans had to sell their silver to the government for 50 cents an ounce.
increased price of silver
Indian Reorganization Act, 1934
U.S. federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include actions that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of communal holdings of American Indian tribes and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.
Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor
the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet to remain in office for his entire presidency.
(against child labor?)
"Pin Money"
1. An allowance of money given by a husband to his wife for private and personal expenditures.
2. Money for incidental expenses.
3. A trivial sum.
Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, April 1935
passed on April 8 during the "Second Hundred Days" as a part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. It was a "large-scale public works program for the jobless" which included the Works Progress Administration.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
the largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions of unskilled workers to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.
It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing. Almost every community in the United States had a park, bridge or school constructed by the agency, which especially benefited rural and Western areas.
National Youth Administration's Division of Negro Affairs
oversaw the participation of black youth in the National Youth Administration; headed by Mary McLeod Bethune
Resettlement Association (RA), May 1935
a U.S. federal agency that, between April 1935 and December 1936, relocated struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by the federal government.
Rural Electrification Administration (REA), May 1935
an administration that provided electricity to rural areas that had never had it before; it gave low interest loans to utilities to facilitate extension of service (sort of a nationwide application of TVA)
National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act, July 1935
an act that was an attempt to restore labor guarantees from NIRA (such as collective bargaining); NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) was created as a result of the passing of this act; mandates good faith bargaining
Social Security Act, August 1935
a legislative act which created the Social Security system in the United States.
was an attempt to limit what were seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children.
provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death. Payments to current retirees are financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer.
Revenue Act of 1935 (Wealth Tax Act)
an act that was directed at large incomes; raised United States taxes on higher income levels, gifts, estates and corporations, by introducing the "Wealth Tax". It was a new graduated tax that took up to 75 percent of the highest incomes in taxes, starting at incomes above $50,000.; also raised gift tax
Liberty League
an American political organization formed in 1934 by conservative Democrats to oppose the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was active for just two years. Following the landslide re-election of Roosevelt in 1936, it sharply reduced its activities and disbanded in 1940.
Rev. Charles E. Coughlin
a controversial Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as more than thirty million tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s.
Created National Union for Social Justice, a nationalistic worker's rights organization which grew impatient with what it viewed as the President's unconstitutional and pseudo-capitalistic monetary policies.
He at first supported FDR, but then disliked him after some of New Deal legislation. Also hated Federal Reserve and was antisemitic
American Socialist Movement
refers to the Socialist Movement that occurred in America...(opposed FDR?)
Dr. Francis Townsend
an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "________ Plan," this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.
Huey P. Long
nicknamed The Kingfish, served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928-1932 and as a U.S. Senator from 1932 to 1935. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, he split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and planned to mount his own presidential bid for 1936.
created the Share Our Wealth program in 1934 with the motto "Every Man a King", proposing new wealth redistribution measures in the form of a net asset tax on corporations and individuals to curb the poverty and homelessness endemic nationwide during the Great Depression.
A leftist populist, he was preparing to challenge FDR's reelection in 1936 in alliance with radio's influential Catholic priest Charles Coughlin, or run for president in 1940 when Franklin Roosevelt was expected to retire. However, he was assassinated in 1935; his national movement faded, while his state organization continued in Louisiana.
Alf Landon
an American Republican politician, who served as the 26th Governor of Kansas from 1933 to 1937. He was best known for having been the Republican Party's (GOP) nominee for President of the United States, defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election.
Schechter Poultry v. US (1935)
a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress's power under the commerce clause. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act, a main component of President Roosevelt's New Deal, unconstitutional.
US v. Butler (1936)
a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Justice Owen Roberts argued that the tax was "but a means to an unconstitutional end" that violated the Tenth Amendment.
National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp (1936)
a United States Supreme Court case that declared that the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (commonly known as the Wagner Act) was constitutional. It effectively spelled the end to the Court's striking down of New Deal economic legislation, and greatly increased Congress's power under the Commerce Clause.
Judiciary Reorganization Bill
a bill that was attempted to be passed by FDR to increase the number of Supreme Court Justices and allow courtpacking; it was a political miscalculation by FDR, and people did not trust him as much after that
Supreme Court Retirement Act, March 1937
an act that permitted Supreme Court Justices to retire at age 70 with full pay, after 10 years of service
National Housing (Wagner-Steagall) Act, September 1937
provided for subsidies to be paid from the U.S. government to local public housing agencies (LHA's) to improve living conditions for low-income families.
The act created the United States Housing Authority within the United States Department of the Interior. The act builds on the National Housing Act of 1934, which created the Federal Housing Administration. Both the 1934 Act and the 1937 Act were influenced by American housing reformers of the period, with Catherine Bauer chief among them. Bauer drafted much of this legislation and served as a Director in the United States Housing Authority, the agency created by the 1937 Act to control the payment of subsidies, for two years.
(created Federal Housing Authority?)
Fair Labor Standards (Wages and Hour) Act, 1938
a federal statute of the United States; established a national minimum wage, guaranteed 'time-and-a-half' for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term that is defined in the statute. It applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage.
According to the Act, workers must be paid minimum wage and overtime pay must be 1 1/2 times regular pay. Children under the age of 18 cannot do certain dangerous jobs and children under the age of 16 cannot work.
helped combat child labor and provided many low-income wage earners the ability to support themselves working less hours.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 1937
originated as the Committee for Industrial Organization in 1935; changed its name in 1937; umbrella union for unskilled labor
John L. Lewis
an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. After resigning as head of the CIO in 1941, he took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942 and in 1944 took the union into the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
Sit-Down Strikes
strikes in which people appear at work but simply do nothing
Roosevelt Recession, 1937-1938
a brief recession that occurred when FDR started reducing the economic relief; a temporary reversal of the economic recovery from the Great Depression in the United States.
Popular Culture of the 1930's
swing music; film; sports...
Hays Code
AKA The Motion Picture Production Code; was the set of industry moral censorship guidelines that governed the production of most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968.
21st Amendment
a Constitutional Amendment that repealed 18th and prohibition of alcohol
Hindenburg Explosion
took place on Thursday, May 6, 1937, as the namesake German passenger caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock with its mooring mast at the Lakehurst Naval Air Station, which is located adjacent to the borough of Lakehurst, New Jersey. Of the 97 people on board (36 passengers, 61 crew), there were 36 fatalities, including one death among the ground crew.
Scottsboro Boys 1931-1938
nine black teenage boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The case includes a frameup, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice.
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938)
a United States Supreme Court decision holding that states that provide a school to white students must provide in-state education to blacks as well. States can satisfy this requirement by allowing blacks and whites to attend the same school or creating a second school for blacks.
Walter White
a civil rights activist who led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for almost a quarter of a century and directed a broad program of legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement. He was also a journalist, novelist, and essayist. He graduated from Atlanta University in 1916 (now Clark Atlanta University). In 1918 he joined the small national staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in New York at the invitation of James Weldon Johnson, where he acted as Johnson's assistant national secretary. He later succeeded Johnson as the head of the NAACP, serving from 1931 to 1955.
He oversaw the plans and organizational structure of the fight against public segregation. Under his leadership, the NAACP set up the Legal Defense Fund, which raised numerous legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement, and achieved many successes. Among these was the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, which determined that segregated education was inherently unequal.
Charles Hamilton Houston
a prominent African American lawyer, Dean of Howard University Law School, and NAACP Litigation Director who played a significant role in dismantling the Jim Crow laws, which earned him the title The Man Who Killed Jim Crow. He is also well known for having trained future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall.
1935 NYC (Harlem) Race Riot
sparked off by rumors of the beating of a teenage shoplifter. Three died, hundreds were wounded and an estimated $2 million in damages were sustained to properties throughout the district, with African-American owned homes and businesses spared the worst of the destruction.
Great War or the War to End All Wars
a war that broke out in multiple countries between the years 1914 and 1918; some people thought it would be the last war due to the fact that it involved so many countries and caused so much destruction
WWI roots
the causes of WWI: Nationalism, Imperialism, Military Alliances, & Militarism
Kaiser Wilhelm II
the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was a grandson of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe. Crowned in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Prince Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 and launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led to World War I. Bombastic and impetuous, he sometimes made tactless pronouncements on sensitive topics without consulting his ministers. He was humiliated by the Daily Telegraph affair in 1908 and lost most of his power. His generals dictated policy during World War I with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands.
Allies
the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I; included the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on the Entente in 1915. Japan, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Romania and the Czechoslovak legions were minor members of this force
Central Powers
composed of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria; fought against Allied Powers
Poison Gas
dangerous gas that was used during WWI; mustard gas and chlorine were two types
Neutral Shipping Rights
refers to a law created during the London Naval Conference of 1909 that states that belligerents must warn passenger ships before firing (?); Germany's breach of this law was one of the reasons why the US went to war
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
refers to warfare in which submarines attack all ships regardless of whether the ships are simply passenger ships; The US cut off diplomatic relations with Germany and eventually went to war because they practiced this type of warfare
R.M.S. Lusitania
a British ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. The ship entered passenger service with the Cunard Line on 26 August 1907 and continued on the line's heavily-traveled passenger service between Liverpool, England and New York City, which included a port of call at Queenstown (now Cobh) Ireland on westbound crossings and Fishguard, Wales on eastbound crossings.
During the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against Britain, the ship was identified and torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20 on 7 May 1915 and sank in eighteen minutes. The vessel went down eleven miles (18 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard, leaving 764 survivors. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany, contributed to the American entry into World War I and became an iconic symbol in military recruiting campaigns of why the war was being fought.
Propaganda
a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position; usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the desired result in audience attitudes.
(for example: used by U.S. in both WWI and WWII)
Sussex Pledge
a pledge by Germany in 1916 to renounce unrestricted submarine warfare; later broken; named after a ship that was sunk
Venustiano Carranza
one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914, and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted. He was assassinated near the end of his term of office at the behest of a cabal of army generals resentful at his insistence that his successor be a civilian.
Pancho Villa
one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
As commander of the División del Norte (Division of the North), he was the veritable caudillo of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua which, given its size, mineral wealth, and proximity to the United States of America, provided him with extensive resources. He was also provisional Governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914. Although he was prevented from being accepted into the "panteón" of national heroes until some 20 years after his death, today his memory is honored by Mexicans, U.S. citizens, and many people around the world.
seized hacienda land for distribution to peasants and soldiers. He robbed and commandeered trains, and, like the other revolutionary generals, printed fiat money to pay for his cause.
dominance in northern Mexico was broken in 1915 through a series of defeats he suffered at Celaya and Agua Prieta at the hands of Álvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles. After his famous raid on Columbus in 1916, U.S. Army General John J. Pershing tried unsuccessfully to capture him in a nine-month pursuit that ended when Pershing was called back as the United States entry into World War I was assured. He retired in 1920 and was given a large estate which he turned into a "military colony" for his former soldiers. In 1923, he decided to re-involve himself in Mexican politics and as a result was assassinated, most likely on the orders of Obregón.
Watchful Waiting
refers to Wilson waiting to see which faction of Mexico would eventually take over; a phrase used by him in a State of the Union Address
Peace Without Victory
refers to Woodrow Wilson's policy on WWI; he wanted to fight the war not to win but to create world peace; he wanted WWI to end all wars
Zimmerman Note (Telegram)
a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. Revelation of the contents outraged American public opinion and helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April.
Also promised American land for war efforts
Jeannette Rankin
the first woman in the US Congress. A Republican, she was elected statewide in Montana in 1916 and again in 1940. A lifelong pacifist, she is the only member of Congress to have voted against the entry of the United States into both World War I in 1917 and World War II in 1941. She is the only woman to be elected to Congress from Montana.
"Making the world safe for democracy"
a reason promoted by Wilson to go to war: to make the world a safer place for democracies
Selective Service Act
a mandatory draft that was issued in 1917 for males from ages 21 - 30; not really necessary
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe in World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I the ___ fought in France alongside British and French allied forces in the last year of the war, against Imperial German forces. The ___ helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive (at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood) in June 1918, and fought its major actions in the Saint-Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne Offensives in late 1918.
Gen. Pershing was a commander of these forces.
General John J. (Blackjack) Pershing
a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. He is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies (a retroactive Congressional edict passed in 1976 promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority); holds the first United States officer service number (O-1). He was regarded as a mentor by the generation of American generals who led the United States Army in Europe during World War II, including George C. Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar N. Bradley, and George S. Patton.
War Industries Board
a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted psychological testing to help people find the right jobs.
(anti-trust laws suspended during the time this organization was in power; changes Wilson's policy to New Nationalism (Roosevelt) out of necessity)
War Labor Board, April 1918
a federal agency created in April 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson. It was composed of twelve representatives from business and labor, and co-chaired by Former President William Howard Taft. Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers in order to ensure labor reliability and productivity during the war. It was disbanded after the war in May, 1919.
Ludlow Massacre, 1917
an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914; resulted in the violent deaths of between 19 and 25 people; sources vary but all sources include two women and eleven children, asphyxiated and burned to death under a single tent. The deaths occurred after a day-long fight between strikers and the Guard.
Wobblies
refers to members of the IWW; they were scorned during this time because they were thought to be Anti-American since they did not want to support the war effort; many were arrested during the time the US participated in WWI
Food Administration
was the responsible agency for the administration of the allies' food reserves. One of its important tasks was the stabilization of the price of wheat on the U. S. market. It was established by Executive Order 2679-A of August 10, 1917 pursuant to the Food and Fuel Control Act.
Under the direction of Herbert Hoover it employed its Grain Corporation, organized under the provisions of the Food Control Act of August 10, 1917, as an agency for the purchase and sale of foodstuff. Having done transactions in the size of $ 7 billion it was rendered obsolete by the armistice in Europe. President Woodrow Wilson promoted its transition in a new agency for the support of the reconstruction of Europe. It became the American Relief Administration, approved by an Act (Public, No. 274, 65th Congress) on February 25, 1919.
Smith-Lever Act (Cooperative Extension Service Act), 1914
a United States federal law that established a system of cooperative extension services, connected to the land-grant universities, in order to inform people about current developments in agriculture, home economics, and related subjects. It helped farmers learn new agricultural techniques by the introduction of home instruction.
Lever Act (Food and Fuel Control Act), 1917
a World War I era US law that among other things created the United States Food Administration and the Federal Fuel Administration.
Smith-Hughes Act (Vocational Education Act), 1917
an act of the United States Congress that promoted vocational agriculture to train people "who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon the work of the farm," and provided federal funds for this purpose. As such, it is the basis both for the promotion of vocational education, and for its isolation from the rest of the curriculum in most school settings. The act is an expansion and modification of the 1914 Smith-Lever Act and both where based largely on a report and recommendation from Charles Allen Prosser's Report of the National Commission on Aid to Vocational Education. Woodlawn High School (Woodlawn, Virginia) became the first public secondary school in the United States to offer agricultural education classes under the Smith-Hughes Act.
Victory Garden
also called a war garden or a food garden for defense, was a vegetable, fruit and herb garden planted at a private residence or public park in United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Germany during World War I and World War II to reduce the pressure on the public food supply brought on by the war effort. In addition to indirectly aiding the war effort such gardens were also considered a civil "morale booster" — in that gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. This made such gardens become a part of daily life on the home front.
Committee on Public Information (Creel Committee)
an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. (i.e. propaganda)
Federal Highways Act, 1916
enacted on July 11, 1916, and was the first federal highway funding legislation in the United States. It was introduced by Rep. Dorsey W. Shackleford of Missouri, then amended by Sen. John H. Bankhead of Alabama to conform with model legislation written by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO). President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Aid Road Act at a ceremony attended by members of AASHO, American Automobile Association, and various farm organizations.
Under the Act, federal funding was provided for rural post roads on the condition that they be open to the public at no charge. Funding was to be distributed to the states based on a formula incorporating each state's geographic area, population, and existing road network. To obtain the funding, states were required to submit project plans, surveys, specifications and estimates to the United States Secretary of Agriculture.
(federal money to state departments of transportation; rural routes and trunk lines created)
Liberty Loan Drives (War Bonds)
drives in which the federal government campaigned for people to buy war bonds to help with the war effort
Adamson Act, 1916
a United States federal law passed in 1916 that established an eight-hour workday, with additional pay for overtime work, for interstate railroad workers.
Espionage Act, 1917
a United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years.
It originally prohibited any attempt to interfere with military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote insubordination in the military, or to interfere with military recruitment; later added on Sedition Act of 1918
Sedition Act, 1918
an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds. One historian of American civil liberties has called it "the nation's most extreme antispeech legislation."
Schenck v. United States, 1919
a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to express freedom of speech against the draft during World War I.
Eugene V. Debs
an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.
Bolshevik Revolution
a political revolution, mass insurrection and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917 Old Style Julian Calendar (O.S.), which corresponds with 7 November 1917 New Style (N.S.).Gregorian Calendar.
overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks. As the revolution was not universally recognized outside of Petrograd there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918 at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers marking Russia's exit from World War I.
While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year, it did provide some relief to the Bolsheviks, who were tied up in fighting the Russian Civil War, and it affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania. In Poland, which was not mentioned in the treaty, its signing caused riots, protests and an end to any support for the Central Powers.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
an agreement in which the Japanese recognized the US Open Door Policy while the US recognized the Japanese right to extend influence in China; causes problems later as the last part is mistranslated as Japan's "paramount" power in China
Armistice Day, Nov. 11, 1918
the date that WWI ended
Versailles Peace Conference
the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities. They met, discussed various options and developed a series of treaties ("Paris Peace Treaties") for the post-war world. These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany. The defeated Central Powers' colonial empires in Africa, southwest Asia, and the Pacific, would be parceled between and mandated to the victorious colonial empires, based on the different levels of previous development and the creation of the League of Nations.
The Big Four
refers to Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau (Fr), David Lloyd George (GB), and Vittorio Orlando (It)
(Wilson's) Fourteen Points
a speech given by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918.
Also refers to the goals that Wilson wanted to make as part of the Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations
was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing war through collective security and disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.
(not supported by Congress)
Treaty of Versailles 6/28/1919
one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties.[1] Although the armistice signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919, and was printed in The League of Nations Treaty Series.
Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war (along with Austria and Hungary, according to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the Treaty of Trianon) and, under the terms of articles 231-248 (later known as the War Guilt clauses), to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers.
Self-determination
the principle in international law that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference. The principle does not state how the decision is to be made, or what the outcome should be, whether it be independence, federation, protection, some form of autonomy or even full assimilation. Neither does it state what the delimitation between nations should be — or even what constitutes a nation. In fact, there are conflicting definitions and legal criteria for determining which groups may legitimately claim the right to ____________. Moreover, ____________ is just one of many principles applied to determining international borders.
Mandates
after WWI required the creation of the League of Nations...(?)
Reparations ($33 billion)
refers to the money Germany had to pay for "causing the war"
Soviet Communism
refers to communism that occurred in the Soviet Union
Democratic Capitalism
refers to capitalism that occurs in Democracies...opposite of Soviet Communism
Collective Security
a security arrangement, regional or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and agrees to join in a collective response to threats to, and breaches of, the peace.
Was attempted to be created in the League of Nations
Irreconcilables
refers to people (like Hiram Johnson & Robert La Follette) who did not want to ratify the Treaty of Versailles
Moderates
refers to people (like Henry Cabot Lodge) who were on the edge about ratifying the Treaty of Versailles
1918-1919 Influenza Epidemic
an epidemic that hit multiple parts of the world and killed many people
Great Migration (African-American)
the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West from 1910 to 1970.
1919 Strikes
refers to strikes that happened in 1919...(Boston Police Force strike?)
1919-20 Depression
an extremely sharp deflationary recession in the United States, shortly after the end of World War I. It lasted from January 1920 to July 1921. The extent of the deflation was not only large, but large relative to the accompanying decline in real product.
Eighteenth Amendment
established prohibition in the United States. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing this, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes).
Nineteenth Amendment
Amendment that gave women the right to vote
The Election of 1920
election in which James M. Cox ran for the Democrats and Warren G. Harding was nominated by the "smoke-filled room" to run for Republicans, mainly because he was handsome and didn't really have any views; also ran on "return to normalcy" platform; Harding won; his presidency became riddled with corruption
Harding Administration
a presidential administration that was involved with more scandals and corruption than Grant's administration; the president died while scandals were being made public;
Calvin Coolidge was vice-president; "return to normalcy"
Teapot Dome Scandal
scandal in which Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall was selling oil leases people without competitive bidding; possibly most famous scandal under Harding Administration
Veteran's Bureau Scandal
scandal in which Charles Forbes, who was head of the namesake bureau, was accepting bribes from contractors in return for selling government property;
as a result, Charles F. Cramer (attorney for the namesake bureau) committed suicide; made Harding Administration look bad
Volstead Act
the enabling legislation for the Eighteenth Amendment which established prohibition in the United States. The Anti-Saloon League's Wayne Wheeler conceived and drafted the bill, which was named for Andrew ________, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, who managed the legislation.
Treasury (or Revenue) Agents
members of the police force involved with the money supply and employed by the U.S. treasury (?)
Palmer Raids
attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of the namesake attorney general. Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders, his efforts were largely frustrated by officials at the U.S. Department of Labor who had responsibility for deportations and who objected to his methods.
Red Scare
the term given to fear of and reaction against political radicals in the U.S. in the years immediately following World War I.
Those years were marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism. Concerns over the effects of radical political agitation in American society and alleged spread in the American labor movement fueled the paranoia that defined the period.
Red Baiting
the act of accusing, denouncing, attacking or persecuting an individual or group as communist, socialist, or anarchist, or sympathetic toward communism, socialism, or anarchism.
It was well established in the U.S. during the decade before World War I. In the post-war period of 1919-1921 the U.S. government employed it as a central tactic in dealing with labor radicals, anarchists, communists, and foreign agents.
J. Edgar Hoover
the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. Appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation—predecessor to the FBI—in 1924, he was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director until his death in 1972 aged 77. He is credited with building the FBI into a large and efficient crime-fighting agency, and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories.
He was one of the most powerful men in America during his time as a part of the Bureau
Sacco and Venzetti
two Italian anarchists who were charged with murder and robbing an office and executed; the former was guilty but there was (or at least today there is) evidence that the latter was not guilty; the latter also had an alibi; executed anyways; showed that the U.S. was still prejudiced and that anarchists did not have basic constitutional rights
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
restricted immigration into the United States. Although intended as temporary legislation, the Act "proved in the long run the most important turning-point in American immigration policy" because it added 2 new features to American immigration law: numerical limits on immigration from Europe and the use of a quota system for establishing those limits.
The Act restricted the number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3% of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States as of the U.S. Census of 1910. Based on that formula, the number of new immigrants admitted fell from 805,228 in 1920 to 309,556 in 1921-22.
The act meant that only people of Northern Europe who had similar cultures to that of America, were likely to get in. The American government wanted to protect its culture when this act was introduced.
1924 Indian Citizenship Act
also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder (R) of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to America's indigenous peoples, called "Indians" in this Act. (The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees citizenship to persons born in the U.S., but only if "subject to the jurisdiction thereof"; this latter clause excludes certain indigenous peoples.) The act was signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge on June 2, 1924.
Immigration Act of 1924
a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890. It superseded the 1921 Emergency Quota Act. The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s, as well as prohibiting the immigration of Middle Easterners, East Asians and Asian Indians.
National Origins Act, 1929
an act that allowed 150,000 immigrants per year; used a quota system to preserve the existing percentage of national groups; used to preserve Anglo-Saxon population; quota systems remained in place until 1965
Jazz Age
a movement that took place during the 1920s, or the Roaring Twenties, from which jazz music and dance emerged with the introduction of mainstream radio and the end of the war. This era ended in the 1930s with the beginning of The Great Depression but has lived on in American pop culture for decades. With the introduction of jazz came an entirely new cultural movement in places like the United States, France and England.
Expatriates
refers to Americans who changed their citizenship; many did in the years after WWI; many moved to Paris
Lost Generation
a term used to refer to the generation, actually a cohort, that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein, who was then his mentor and patron.
New Woman
a feminist ideal that emerged in the late 19th century; pushed the limits set by male-dominated society, especially as modeled in the plays of Norwegian Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906); active in the Suffragette movement and were disappointed by the emergence of the frivolous flapper in the 1920s.
Modernism
modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement in the arts, its set of cultural tendencies and associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In particular the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I, were among the factors that shaped ________.
Two Americas
a catch phrase referring to social stratification in American society, made famous in a speech by former US Senator and former presidential candidate John Edwards, originally referring to haves and have-nots.
"New Negro"
a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation.
W.E.B. DuBois
an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, and editor. Born in western Massachusetts, he grew up in a tolerant community and experienced little racism as a child. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Atlanta University. He was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
Opponent of Booker T. Washington and his "Atlanta" Compromise.
Edited the NAACP's monthly magazine The Crisis
Marcus Garvey
lead a Back-to-Africa movement; created the Universal Negro Improvement Association; also created the Black Star Line to try to get blacks to Africa, but he ran into money troubles
Harlem Renaissance
a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, many French-speaking black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by it.
Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes were prominent figures of this movement
"Scientific" Child Rearing
refers to decreasing the amount of children that one had to focus on each individual child rather than focusing on the whole group; became popular during the 1920s
Consumer Culture
refers to mass-production of consumer goods, such as the Model T, plastics and synthetic fibers, and advertising; installment buying also started during the 1920s
Installment plans
refers to paying for a product with multiple payments over time; started during 1920s
Spectator Sports
refers to sports in which people can watch...
1912 Olympics (Jim Thorpe), Prize Fighting (Jack Dempsey, Gene Tunney), College and Professional Football, Tennis (Bill Tilden, Helen Wills), Golf (Bobby Jones), Swimming (Gertrude Ederle), Baseball (Babe Ruth)
The Man Nobody Knows
a book written by Bruce Barton in 1925; presents Jesus as "the founder of modern business," in an effort to make the Christian story accessible to businessmen of the time.
Frederick W. Taylor (and Taylorization)
an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of scientific management and was one of the first management consultants. He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era.
Scientific Management
also called Taylorism, was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management.
Henry Ford
an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. As owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers.
(was anti-Semitic)
Assembly Line
a manufacturing process (sometimes called progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods. The division of labour was initially discussed by Adam Smith, regarding the manufacture of pins, in his book The Wealth of Nations (published in 1776).
Used heavily by Henry Ford for making Model T's
Charles Lindbergh
the man who flew across the Atlantic Ocean in the Spirit of St. Louis in 1927
Birth of a Nation
the first full-length film produced by D.W. Griffith in 1915; controversial today because it glorified the Ku Klux Klan and made African-Americans appear evil
The Jazz Singer
the first full-length film with audio; created in 1927; films were known as "Talkies" after the creation of this film
"Silver Screen" stars
black-and-white film stars (?)
Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Mary Pickford, Theda Bara, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino
Ku Klux Klan
a hate group at first started against African-Americans; turned in recent years to hate Jews as well; numbers were dwindling during Reconstruction but rebounded during the early 1900's
Nativism
favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. It may also include the re-establishment or perpetuation of such individuals or their culture.
Scopes "Monkey" Trial, 1925
A trial that occurred in Tennessee due to a teacher planning to teach evolution to his students; Clarence Darrow (on defense's side) debated William Jennings Bryan (on prosecuting side)
Scopes found guilty but he was turned away free
Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act, 1921
a U.S. Act of Congress providing federal funding for maternity and child care. It was sponsored by Senator Morris Sheppard (D) of Texas and Representative Horace Mann Towner (R) of Iowa, and signed by President Warren G. Harding on November 23, 1921.
The act provided for federally-financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and gave 50-50 matching funds to individual US states to build women's health care clinics. It was one of the most significant achievements of Progressive-era maternalist reformers.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
raised American tariffs in order to protect factories and farms. Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the ad valorem tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to Europe, which in turn bought more American goods. The Roaring Twenties brought a period of sustained economic prosperity with an end to the Depression of 1920-21.
Isolationism
the policy or doctrine of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, foreign trade, international agreements, etc., seeking to devote the entire efforts of one's country to its own advancement and remain at peace by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities.
Done often by the United States prior to WWI and after the War of 1812
Washington Naval Conference, 1921
a military conference called by President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations, the United States, Japan, China, France, Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal, having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia. Soviet Russia was not invited to the conference. It was the first international conference held in the United States and the first disarmament conference in history, and as Kaufman, 1990 shows, it is studied by political scientists as a model for a successful disarmament movement.
Held at Memorial Continental Hall in downtown Washington, it resulted in three major treaties: Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty (more commonly known as the Washington Naval Treaty), the Nine-Power Treaty, and a number of smaller agreements. These treaties preserved peace during the 1920s but are also credited with enabling the rise of the Japanese Empire as a naval power leading up to World War II.
Dawes Plan, 1924
an attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem, which had bedevilled international politics, in the wake of the Ruhr occupation and the hyperinflation crisis. It provided for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from Germany. Intended as an interim measure, the Young Plan was adopted in 1929 to replace it.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
an agreement signed on August 27, 1928, by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy.
After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry by the representatives from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, British India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States. It was provided that it would come into effect on July 24, 1929. By that date, the following nations had deposited instruments of definitive adherence to the pact: Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Romania, the Soviet Union, the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Siam, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Eight further states joined after that date: Persia, Greece, Honduras, Chile, Luxembourg, Danzig, Costa Rica and Venezuela.
In the United States, the Senate approved the treaty overwhelmingly, 85-1, with only Wisconsin Republican John J. Blaine voting against. While the U.S. Senate did not add any reservation to the treaty, it did pass a measure "interpreting" the treaty which included the statement that the treaty must not infringe upon America's right of self defense and that the United States was not obliged to enforce the treaty by taking action against those who violated it.
Young Plan, 1929
a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I written in 1929 and formally adopted in 1930. It was presented by the committee headed (1929-30) by American Owen D. Young.
Replaced Dawes Plan
Stimson Doctrine, 1931
a policy of the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932, to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force. The doctrine was an application of the principle of ex injuria jus non oritur. While some analysts have applied the doctrine in opposition to governments established by revolution, this usage is not widespread, and its invocation usually involves treaty violations.
Clark Memorandum, 1930
rejected the view that the Roosevelt Corollary was based on the Monroe Doctrine. However, it was not a complete repudiation of the Roosevelt Corollary but was rather a statement that any intervention by the U.S. was not sanctioned by the Monroe Doctrine but rather was the right of America as a state. This separated the Roosevelt Corollary from the Monroe Doctrine by noting that the Monroe Doctrine only applied to situations involving European countries. One main point in the _____________ was to note that the Monroe Doctrine was based on conflicts of interest only between the United States and European nations, rather than between the United States and Latin American nations.
Good Neighbor Policy
the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a "good neighbor" and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of the United States in Latin America, however many Latin American governments were not convinced.
Coolidge Prosperity
refers to the prosperity that abounded during the Coolidge presidency...
Andrew Mellon
an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.
In 1872 he was set up in a lumber and coal business by his father and soon turned it into a profitable enterprise.
He joined his father's banking firm, T. Mellon & Sons, in 1880 and two years later and had ownership of the bank transferred to him. In 1889, he helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh. He also branched into industrial activities: oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction.
appointed Secretary of the Treasury by new President Warren G. Harding in 1921. He served for ten years and eleven months; the third-longest tenure of a Secretary of the Treasury. His service continued through the Coolidge and Hoover administrations. Along with James Wilson and James J. Davis, he is one of only three Cabinet members to serve under three consecutive Presidents.
namesake plan had four main points:
Cut the top income tax rate from 77 to 24 percent
Cut taxes on low incomes from 4 to 1/2 percent
Reduce the Federal Estate tax
Efficiency in government
Became unpopular during Great Depression
Herbert Hoover
becomes president after Coolidge; wins 1928 election against Al Smith; Stock Market Crash occurs after he is 7 months in office
Election of 1928
election in which Herbert Hoover ran against Al Smith; Smith's Tammany Hall reputation hurt him (also the fact that he was Catholic); political realignment starts to occur; "a chicken in every pot" was a slogan used by Hoover
Bull Market
characterized by optimism, investor confidence and expectations that strong results will continue.
opposite of bear market
Margin Trading
borrowing money from a broker to purchase stock;
contributed to stock market crash
Black Thursday
Another name for October 24, 1929, the start of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 at the New York Stock Exchange.
Black Tuesday
when the Wall Street Crash of 1929 really hit (?)
week after Black Thursday
Federal Reserve
the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913 with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907. Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the ____________ have expanded and its structure has evolved. Events such as the Great Depression were major factors leading to changes in the system.
Hague Convention of 1899 (Arms Limitation Talks)
a peace conference that was proposed on August 29, 1898 by Russian Tsar Nicholas II. Nicholas and Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov, his foreign minister, were instrumental in initiating the conference. It was held from _______ and signed on July 29 of that year, and entered into force on September 4, 1900. ___________ consisted of four main sections and three additional declarations (the final main section is for some reason identical to the first additional declaration):
I: Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
II: Laws and Customs of War on Land
III: Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864
IV: Prohibiting Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
Declaration I: On the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
Declaration II: On the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases
Declaration III: On the Use of Bullets Which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human Body
The main effect of the ______ was to ban the use of certain types of modern technology in war: bombing from the air, chemical warfare, and hollow point bullets. The Convention also set up the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
Another was held in 1907 to continue the debates and focused more on naval warfare
1907 Gentlemen's Agreement
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S. The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations. The agreement was never ratified by Congress, which in 1924 ended it.
Albert Beveridge
an American historian and United States Senator from Indiana.
known as one of the great American imperialists. He supported the annexation of the Philippines and along with Republican leader Henry Cabot Lodge he campaigned for the construction of a new navy. After his re-election in 1905 to a second term, he became identified with the reform-minded faction of the GOP. He championed national child labor legislation, broke with President William Howard Taft over the Payne-Aldrich tariff, and sponsored the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906, adopted in the wake of the publication of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.
Alfred Nobel
a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer. He is the inventor of dynamite. He also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannon and other armaments. He held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. In his last will, he used his enormous fortune to institute namesake prizes.
American Exceptionalism
refers to the theory that the United States is qualitatively different from other countries.
Although the term does not necessarily imply superiority, many neoconservative and American conservative writers have promoted its use in that sense. To them, the United States is like the biblical "shining city on a hill," and exempt from historical forces that have affected other countries.
(also used by imperialists to justify expansion)
Andrew Mellon
an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.
In 1872 he was set up in a lumber and coal business by his father and soon turned it into a profitable enterprise.
He joined his father's banking firm, T. Mellon & Sons, in 1880 and two years later and had ownership of the bank transferred to him. In 1889, he helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh. He also branched into industrial activities: oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction.
appointed Secretary of the Treasury by new President Warren G. Harding in 1921. He served for ten years and eleven months; the third-longest tenure of a Secretary of the Treasury. His service continued through the Coolidge and Hoover administrations. Along with James Wilson and James J. Davis, he is one of only three Cabinet members to serve under three consecutive Presidents.
namesake plan had four main points:
Cut the top income tax rate from 77 to 24 percent
Cut taxes on low incomes from 4 to 1/2 percent
Reduce the Federal Estate tax
Efficiency in government
Became unpopular during Great Depression
Anti-Imperialist League, 1899
an organization established in the United States on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. They opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for "consent of the governed." They did not oppose expansion on commercial, constitutional, religious, or humanitarian grounds; rather they believed that annexation and administration of backward tropical areas would mean the abandonment of American ideals of self-government and isolation—ideals expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence, George Washington's Farewell Address and Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. This group represented an older generation and were rooted in an earlier era; they were defeated in terms of public opinion, the 1900 election, and the actions of Congress and the President because most of the younger Progressives who were just coming to power supported imperialism.
Battle of San Juan Hill
a decisive battle of the Spanish-American War. The San Juan heights was a north-south running elevation about two kilometers east of Santiago de Cuba. The names San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill were names given by the Americans. This fight for the heights was the bloodiest and most famous battle of the War. It was also the location of the greatest victory for the Rough Riders as claimed by the press and its new commander, the future Vice-President and later President, Theodore Roosevelt, who was (posthumously) awarded the Medal of Honor in 2001 for his actions in Cuba. Overlooked then by the American Press, much of the heaviest fighting was done by African-American troops.
Battleship U.S.S. Maine
was the United States Navy's second commissioned pre-dreadnought battleship
best known for her catastrophic loss in Havana harbor on the evening of 15 February 1898. Sent to protect U.S. interests during the Cuban revolt against Spain, she exploded suddenly without warning and sank quickly, killing nearly three quarters of her crew. The cause and responsibility for her sinking remained unclear after a board of inquiry. Nevertheless, popular opinion in the U.S., fanned by inflammatory articles printed in the "Yellow Press" by William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, blamed Spain.
One of the reasons for Spanish American War
Boxer Rebellion, 1900
a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place in response to foreign "spheres of influence" in China, with grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, to missionary evangelism. In China, popular sentiment remained resistant to foreign influences, and anger rose over the "unequal treaties", which the weak Qing state could not resist. Concerns grew that missionaries and Chinese Christians could use this decline to their advantage, appropriating lands and property of unwilling Chinese peasants to give to the church. This sentiment resulted in violent revolts against foreign interests.
In June 1900 in Beijing, ______ threatened foreigners and forced them to seek refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi, urged by the conservatives of the Imperial Court, supported the _____ and declared war on foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians and soldiers, and Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were under siege by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers for 55 days. The Chinese government was split between destroying the foreigners in the Legation Quarter and extending olive branches. Clashes were reported between Chinese factions favoring war and those favoring conciliation, the latter led by Prince Qing. The supreme commander of the Chinese forces, Ronglu, claimed three years later that he acted to protect the besieged foreigners. The siege was ended when the Eight-Nation Alliance brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and captured Beijing.
Bryan-Chamorro Treaty, 1914
signed on August 5, 1914 under the approval of the Taft administration. The Wilson administration changed the treaty by adding a provision similar in language to that of the Platt Amendment, which would have authorized U.S. military intervention in Nicaragua. The United States Senate opposed the new provision; in response, it was dropped and the treaty was formally ratified on June 19, 1916.
By the terms of the Treaty, the United States acquired the rights to any canal built in Nicaragua in perpetuity, a renewable ninety-nine year option to establish a naval base in the Gulf of Fonseca, and a renewable ninety-nine year lease to the Great and Little Corn Islands in the Caribbean. For these concessions, Nicaragua received three million dollars.
Abolished in 1970
Buffalo Soldiers
members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
The nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought; the term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1850
a treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom, negotiated in 1850 by John M. Clayton and Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, later Lord Dalling. It was negotiated in response to attempts to build the Nicaragua Canal, a canal in Nicaragua that would connect the Pacific and the Atlantic.
Said that countries would share Central American Canal if one was built (England and US)
Commodore George Dewey
an admiral of the United States Navy. He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He was also the only person in the history of the United States to have attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy, the most senior rank in the United States Navy.
Cuban Insurrection 1868-78
began on October 10, 1868 when sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers proclaimed Cuba's independence from Spain. It was the first of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Little War (1879-1880) and the Cuban War of Independence (1895-1898). The final three months of the last conflict escalated to become the Spanish-American War.
Cuban War for Independence 1895-99
the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868-1878) and the Little War (1879-1880). The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish-American War.
began on 24 February 1895 with uprisings all across the island. In Oriente, the most important ones took place in Santiago, Guantánamo, Jiguaní, San Luis, El Cobre, El Caney, Alto Songo, Bayate and Baire. The uprisings in the central part of the island, such as Ibarra, Jagüey Grande and Aguada suffered from poor co-ordination and failed; the leaders were captured, some of them deported and some executed. In the province of Havana, the insurrection was discovered before it got off and the leaders were detained. Thus, the insurgents further west in Pinar del Río were ordered to wait.
de Lome letter
set off an 1898 diplomatic incident; was written by Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish Minister with the Portfolio of Cuba. In the personal letter, which was stolen despite being under diplomatic protection, he referred to the President William McKinley as "weak and catering to the rabble and, besides, a low politician who desires to leave a door open to himself and to stand well with the jingos of his party." On February 9, 1898, the letter was published in William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. One week later, the USS Maine sunk in Havana Harbor. Both helped stir public sentiment in favor of the Cuban Junta and against the Spanish and are seen as two of the principal triggers of the Spanish-American War of 1898.
Dollar Diplomacy
term used to describe the effort of the United States—particularly under President William Howard Taft—to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. The term was originally coined by President Theodore Roosevelt. It was also used in Liberia, where American loans were given in 1913. It was then known as a dollar diplomacy because of the money that made it possible to pay soldiers without having to fight; most would agree it was a considerably meager wage.
Drago Doctrine
announced in 1902 by the Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs Luis María Drago. Extending the Monroe Doctrine, it set forth the policy that no foreign power, including the United States, could use force against an American nation to collect debt. It was supplanted in 1904 by the Roosevelt Corollary.
Emilio Aguinaldo
a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation.
He became the Philippines' first President. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country's president, the longest-lived president (having survived to age 94) and the president to have outlived the most number of successors.
Filipino Rebels
refers to rebels during the Philippine Insurrection...
Foraker Act, 1900
officially known as the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian (albeit limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had recently become a possession of the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War. Section VII of the ________ also established Puerto Rican citizenship. President William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900
Francisco Madero
politician, writer and revolutionary who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. As a respectable upper-class politician, he supplied a center around which opposition to the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz could coalesce. However, once Díaz was deposed, this man proved to be ineffective, and the Mexican Revolution quickly spun out of his control. He was deposed and executed by the Porfirista military and his aides, which he had neglected to replace with revolutionary supporters. His assassination was followed by the most violent period of the revolution in Mexico (1913-1917), lasting until the Constitution of 1917 and revolutionary president Venustiano Carranza achieved some degree of stability.
Gen. Valeriano Weyler
a Spanish political and military noble, Marquis of Tenerife and Duke of Ruby, Grandee of Spain, captain general of Cuba during the independence uprising of Jose Marti and Maximo Gomez. He was famous for his maligned Reconcentración policy.
Great White Fleet, 1907-09
the popular nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. It consisted of 16 battleships divided into two squadrons, along with various escorts. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water navy capability. Hoping to enforce treaties and protect overseas holdings, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds to build American sea power. Beginning with just 90 small ships, over one-third of them wooden, the navy quickly grew to include new modern steel fighting vessels. The hulls of these ships were painted a stark white, giving the armada its nickname
Gunboat Diplomacy
refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power — implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.
(usually with a Navy; part of Big Stick Policy)
Hawaiian Reciprocity Agreement, 1875
a free trade agreement signed and ratified in 1875 that is generally known as the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875.
The treaty gave free access to the United States market for sugar and other products grown in the Kingdom of Hawaii starting in September 1876. In return, the US gained lands in the area known as Puʻu Loa for what became known as the Pearl Harbor naval base. The treaty led to large investment by Americans in sugar plantations in Hawaii.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, 1903
a treaty signed on November 18, 1903, by the United States and Panama, that established the Panama Canal Zone and the subsequent construction of the Panama Canal.
The terms of the treaty stated that the United States was to receive rights to a canal zone which was to extend five miles on either side of the canal route in perpetuity, and Panama was to receive a payment from US up to $10 million and an annual rental payment of $250,000.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, 1901
a treaty signed by the United States and the United Kingdom on 18 November 1901, as a preliminary to the creation of the Panama Canal. The Treaty nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across the Central American isthmus to connect the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. In the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, both nations had renounced building such a canal under the sole control of one nation.
Henry Cabot Lodge
an American Republican Senator and historian from Massachusetts. He had the role (but not the title) of Senate Majority leader. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles. Lodge demanded Congressional control of declarations of war; Wilson refused and the United States Senate never ratified the Treaty nor joined the League of Nations.
early on associated with the conservative faction of the Republican Party. He was a staunch supporter of the gold standard, vehemently opposing the Populists and the silverites, who were led by the left-wing Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Lodge was a strong backer of U.S. intervention in Cuba in 1898, arguing that it was the moral responsibility of the United States to do so
came to represent the imperialist faction of the Senate, those who called for the annexation of the Philippines. He maintained that the United States needed to have a strong navy and be more involved in foreign affairs.
Supported immigration restrictions
Insular Cases 1901-22
several U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning the status of territories acquired by the U.S. in the Spanish-American War (1898).
The cases were in essence the court's response to a major issue of the 1900 presidential election and the American Anti-Imperialist League, summarized by the phrase "Does the Constitution follow the flag?"
Downes v. Bidwell, 1901
a case in which the United States Supreme Court decided whether United States territories were subject to the provisions and protections of the United States Constitution. This question is sometimes stated as "does the Constitution follow the flag?". The resulting decision narrowly held that the U.S. Constitution did not necessarily apply to territories. Instead, the United States Congress had jurisdiction to create law within territories in certain circumstances, particularly dealing with revenue, that would not be allowed by the U.S. Constitution for proper states within the union.
(stemmed from people not being forced to pay import duties on fruit from Puerto Rico)
Internationalism
a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations for the theoretical benefit of all. Partisans of this movement, such as supporters of the World Federalist Movement, claim that nations should cooperate because their long-term mutual interests are of greater value than their individual short term needs.
by nature opposed to ultranationalism, jingoism, realism and national chauvinism.
Jones Act of 1916 (Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916)
an organic act passed by the United States Congress which replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902. The Jones Law acted like a constitution for the Philippines until 1934 when the Tydings-McDuffie Act creating of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. It established for the first time an elected upper house, which would eventually become the Philippine Senate.
framework for a "more autonomous government" in preparation for the grant of independence by the United States.
Jones Act of 1917 (Jones-Shafroth Act)
an Act of the United States Congress and President Woodrow Wilson that replaced the Foraker Act of 1900 and established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico.
The people of Puerto Rico were empowered to have a popularly-elected Senate, established a bill of rights, Puerto Ricans were collectively made U.S. citizens, and authorized the election of a Resident Commissioner to a four year term.
José Martí
a Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life he was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, and a political theorist. He was also a part of the Cuban Freemasons. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba's bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence." He also fought against the threat of United States expansionism into Cuba. From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his death was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt.
The concepts of freedom, liberty, and democracy are prominent themes in all of his works, which were influential on the Nicaraguan poet, Rubén Darío and the Chilean poet, Gabriela Mistral.
Kanagawa Treaty
concluded between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate.
The treaty opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors; however, the treaty did not create a basis for establishing a permanent residence in these locations. The treaty did establish a foundation for the Americans to maintain a permanent consul in Shimoda. The arrival of the fleet would trigger the end of Japan's 200 year policy of seclusion (Sakoku).
Klondike Gold Rush
an attempt by an estimated 100,000 people to travel to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1897 and 1899 in the hope of successfully prospecting for gold.
Some miners discovered very rich deposits of gold and became immensely wealthy. However, the majority arrived after the best of the gold fields had been claimed and only around 4,000 miners ultimately struck gold.
ended in 1899, after gold was discovered in Nome, prompting an exodus from the Klondike.
"Little Brown Brother"
a term used by Americans to refer to native Filipinos during the period of U.S. colonial rule over the Philippines, following the Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States, and the Philippine-American War. The term was coined by William Howard Taft, the first American Governor-General of the Philippines (1901-1904) and later the 27th President of the United States. U.S. military men in the Philippines greeted the term with scorn.[1][2] The book Benevolent Assimilation recounts that Taft "assured President McKinley that 'our___________' would need 'fifty or one hundred years' of close supervision 'to develop anything resembling Anglo-Saxon political principles and skills.'", and reports that the military greeted Taft's assertion "that 'Filipinos are moved by similar considerations to those which move other men' with utter scorn".
not originally intended to be derogatory, nor an ethnic slur; instead, it is a reflection of "paternalist racism", shared also by Theodore Roosevelt.
London Naval Conference of 1909
a continuation of the debates of the Hague Conference of 1907, with the United Kingdom hoping for the formation of an International Prize Court. Ten nations sent representatives, the main naval powers of Europe and the United States and Japan. The conference met from December 4, 1908 to February 26, 1909. The agreements were issued as the Declaration of London, containing seventy-one articles it restated much existing international maritime law.
The signatories' governments did not all ratify the Declaration and it never went into effect.
R.M.S. Lusitania
a British ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. The ship entered passenger service with the Cunard Line on 26 August 1907 and continued on the line's heavily-traveled passenger service between Liverpool, England and New York City, which included a port of call at Queenstown (now Cobh) Ireland on westbound crossings and Fishguard, Wales on eastbound crossings.
During the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against Britain, the ship was identified and torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20 on 7 May 1915 and sank in eighteen minutes. The vessel went down eleven miles (18 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard, leaving 764 survivors. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany, contributed to the American entry into World War I and became an iconic symbol in military recruiting campaigns of why the war was being fought.
Meiji (Restoration?)
a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868; led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure
Midway Islands
atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago, about one-third of the way between Honolulu, Hawaii, and Tokyo, Japan.
atoll was sighted on July 5, 1859, by Captain N.C. Middlebrooks, though he was most commonly known as Captain Brooks, of the sealing ship Gambia. The islands were named the "Middlebrook Islands" or the "Brook Islands". Brooks claimed these islands for the United States under the Guano Islands Act of 1856, which authorized Americans to occupy uninhabited islands temporarily to obtain guano. On 28 August 1867, Captain William Reynolds of the USS Lackawanna formally took possession of the atoll for the United States; the name changed to ______ some time after this. The atoll became the first Pacific islands annexed by the U.S. government, as the Unincorporated Territory of _______, and administered by the United States Navy. _______ is the only island in the entire Hawaiian archipelago that was not later part of the State of Hawaii.
Newlands Resolution, 1898
a joint resolution written by and named after United States Congressman Francis G. Newlands. It was an Act of Congress to annex the Republic of Hawaii and create the Territory of Hawaii.
established a five-member commission to study which laws were needed in Hawaii. The commission included: Territorial Governor Sanford B. Dole (R-Hawaii Territory), Senators Shelby M. Cullom (R-IL) and John T. Morgan (D-AL), Representative Robert R. Hitt (R-IL) and former Hawaii Chief Justice and later Territorial Governor Walter F. Frear (R-Hawaii Territory).
Open Door Note(s), 1899
a set of notes that pushed for the Open Door Policy (?)
Pan-Americanism
a movement which, through diplomatic, political, economic and social means, seeks to create, encourage and organize relationships, associations and cooperation between the states of the Americas in common interests.
Panama Canal Zone
a 553-square-mile (1,430 km2) unorganized U.S. territory located within the Republic of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending five miles (8.0 km) on each side of the centerline, but excluding Panama City and Colón, which otherwise would have been partly within the limits of the Canal Zone. Its border spanned two of Panama's provinces and was created on November 18, 1903 with the signing of the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty. When reservoirs were created to assure a steady supply of water for the locks, those lakes were included within the Zone.
From 1903 to 1979 the territory was controlled by the United States (mainly to build and control canal there)
Philippine Insurrection
an armed conflict between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries. The conflict arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States.[13][14] The war was part of a series of conflicts in the Philippine struggle for independence, preceded by the Philippine Revolution and the Spanish-American War.
(mainly happened because the United States annexed the territories)
Platt Amendment (1901-03)
an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, replacing the earlier Teller Amendment. It stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations. The Amendment ensured U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs and gave legal standing (in U.S law) to U.S. claims to certain territories on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
Porfirio Diaz
a Mexican War of Independence volunteer and French intervention hero, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N. Méndez as interim president, and a four-year term served by his political ally Manuel González from 1880 to 1884. Commonly considered by historians to have been a dictator, he is a controversial figure in Mexican history. The period of his leadership was marked by significant internal stability (known as the "paz porfiriana"), modernization, and economic growth. However, his regime grew unpopular due to repression and political stagnation, and he fell from power during the Mexican Revolution, after he had imprisoned his electoral rival and declared himself the winner of an eighth term in office.
Porfiriato
The 35 years in which Díaz ruled Mexico are referred to as this term
Pujo Committee (House subcommittee)
a United States congressional subcommittee which was formed between May 1912 and January 1913 to investigate the so-called "money trust", a community of Wall Street bankers and financiers that exerted powerful control over the nation's finances.
Queen Liliuokalani
the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
overthrown in a coup when she tried to limit the power that fruit interests had in Hawaii
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1904
a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that was articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union Address in 1904. The corollary states that the United States will intervene in conflicts between European Nations and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly.
Root-Takahira Agreement, 1908
an agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan negotiated between United States Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador to the United States Takahira Kogorō.
Signed on 30 November 1908, the agreement consisted of an official recognition of the territorial status quo as of November 1908, affirmation of the independence and territorial integrity of China (i.e. the "Open Door Policy" as proposed by John Hay), maintenance of free trade and equal commercial opportunities, Japanese recognition of the American annexation of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the Philippines and American recognition of Japan's position in northeast China. Implicit in the agreement was American acknowledgment of Japan's right to annex Korea and dominance over southern Manchuria, and Japan's acquiescence to limitations on Japanese immigration to California.
Rough Riders
the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish-American War and the only one of the three to see action. The United States Army was weakened and left with little manpower after the American Civil War roughly thirty years prior. As a result, President William McKinley called upon 1,250 volunteers to assist in the war efforts.[1] It was also called "Wood's Weary Walkers" after its first commander, Colonel Leonard Wood, as an acknowledgment of the fact that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up fighting on foot as infantry. Wood's second in command was former assistant secretary of the United States Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, a man who had pushed for American involvement in Cuban independence.
The Rough Riders were mostly made of native Americans, college athletes, cowboys, and ranchers.
Russo-Japanese War, 1905
"the first great war of the 20th century."[3] It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden; and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.
Japanese were more advanced; had radio; T. Roosevelt's negotiation of the treaty helped him win the Nobel Peace Prize
Samoa
a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
American side and German side
Sanford Dole
a lawyer and jurist in the Hawaiian Islands as a kingdom, protectorate, republic and territory. Serving as a friend of both Hawaiian royalty and the elite immigrant community, he advocated the westernization of Hawaiian government and culture.
Chosen as the first to govern after the coup in Hawaii took place.
Sec. of State William H. Seward
the 12th Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.
As Johnson's Secretary of State, he engineered the purchase of Alaska from Russia in an act that was ridiculed at the time as his namesake "Folly", but which somehow exemplified his character.
(was not such a "Folly" after gold was discovered there)
Sec. State John Hay
an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. His highest office was serving as United States Secretary of State under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt.
helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris of 1898, which ended the Spanish-American War. He continued serving as Secretary of State after Theodore Roosevelt succeeded McKinley, serving until his own death in 1905. He established the Open Door policy in China.
preparations for the Panama Canal. (negotiating treaties)
(described Spanish-American War as "splendid little war")
Seward's Folly
refers to Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia
"Speak softly and carry a big stick"
a quote that Roosevelt thought was a West African proverb that gave rise to a namesake policy
Taft-Katsura Agreement, 1905
a set of notes taken during conversations between United States Secretary of War William Howard Taft and Prime Minister of Japan Katsura Tarō on 29 July 1905. The notes were discovered in 1924; there was never a signed agreement or secret treaty, only a memorandum of a conversation regarding Japanese-American relations.
First were Katsura's views on peace in East Asia, which according to him formed the fundamental principle of Japan's foreign policy and was best accomplished by a good understanding between Japan, the United States, and Great Britain.
The second issue concerned the Philippines. On this, Taft observed that it was in Japan's best interests to have the Philippines governed by a strong and friendly nation like the United States; Katsura claimed that Japan had no aggressive designs on the Philippines.
Finally, regarding Korea, Katsura observed that Japanese colonization of Korea was a matter of absolute importance, as he considered Korea to have been direct cause of the just-concluded Russo-Japanese War. Katsura stated that a comprehensive solution of the Korea problem would be the war's logical outcome. Katsura further stated that if left alone, Korea would continue to improvidently enter into agreements and treaties with other powers, which he said created the original problem. Therefore, Katsura stated that Japan must take steps to prevent Korea from again creating conditions which would force Japan into fighting another foreign war.
Tampico Affair
started off as a minor incident involving U.S. sailors and Mexican land forces loyal to General Victoriano Huerta during the guerra de las facciones phase of the Mexican Revolution.
The commander of the Dolphin arranged for a pickup of oil from a warehouse on April 9 near a tense defensive position at Iturbide Bridge. The defenders of the bridge anticipated an attack based on the two consecutive days of skirmishes that had immediately preceded. Nine U.S. sailors on a whaleboat flying the U.S. flag were dispatched to the warehouse along a canal. Based on the sailors' account, seven of them moved the cans of fuel to the boat while two remained on the vessel. Mexican federal soldiers were alerted to the activity and confronted the American sailors. Neither side was able to speak the other's language, which left the sailors immobile in the face of commands from the soldiers.
The Mexicans raised rifles against the Americans, including the sailors still on the boat, and ushered the men to the nearby Mexican regimental headquarters.
(near namesake place)
Torrijos-Carter Treaties of 1977
two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D.C., on September 7, 1977, which abrogated the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty of 1903. The treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U.S. had exercised since 1903.
Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905
formally ended the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905 after negotiations at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine (but named after nearby Portsmouth, New Hampshire) in the USA.
Valparaiso Affair, 1891
a diplomatic incident that took place between Chile and the United States, during the Chilean Civil War, as result of the growing American influence in Pacific Coast region of Latin America in the 1890s. It remains a nodal event because it marked a dramatic shift in United States-Chilean relations. It was triggered by the stabbing of two United States Navy sailors from the USS Baltimore in front of the "True Blue Saloon" in Valparaíso on October 16, 1891.
Venezuelan Boundary Dispute 1895-6
occurred over Venezuela's longstanding dispute with the United Kingdom about the territory of Essequibo and Guayana Esequiba, which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory. As the dispute became a crisis, the key issue became Britain's refusal to include in the proposed international arbitration the territory east of the "Schomburgk Line", which a surveyor had drawn half a century earlier as a boundary between Venezuela and the former Dutch territory of British Guiana.
ultimately saw Britain accept the United States' intervention in the dispute to force arbitration of the entire disputed territory, and tacitly accept the United States' right to intervene under the Monroe Doctrine. A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the matter, and in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana.
(afterwards, Anglo-American relations became better)
Venustiano Carranza
one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914, and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted. He was assassinated near the end of his term of office at the behest of a cabal of army generals resentful at his insistence that his successor be a civilian.
Pancho Villa
one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
As commander of the División del Norte (Division of the North), he was the veritable caudillo of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua which, given its size, mineral wealth, and proximity to the United States of America, provided him with extensive resources. He was also provisional Governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914. Although he was prevented from being accepted into the "panteón" of national heroes until some 20 years after his death, today his memory is honored by Mexicans, U.S. citizens, and many people around the world.
seized hacienda land for distribution to peasants and soldiers. He robbed and commandeered trains, and, like the other revolutionary generals, printed fiat money to pay for his cause.
dominance in northern Mexico was broken in 1915 through a series of defeats he suffered at Celaya and Agua Prieta at the hands of Álvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles. After his famous raid on Columbus in 1916, U.S. Army General John J. Pershing tried unsuccessfully to capture him in a nine-month pursuit that ended when Pershing was called back as the United States entry into World War I was assured. He retired in 1920 and was given a large estate which he turned into a "military colony" for his former soldiers. In 1923, he decided to re-involve himself in Mexican politics and as a result was assassinated, most likely on the orders of Obregón.
Emiliano Zapata
a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which broke out in 1910, and which was initially directed against the president Porfirio Díaz. He formed and commanded an important revolutionary force, the Liberation Army of the South, during the Mexican Revolution.
Walter Reed
a U.S. Army physician who in 1900 led the team that postulated and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact. This insight gave impetus to the new fields of epidemiology and biomedicine, and most immediately allowed the resumption and completion of work on the Panama Canal (1904-1914) by the United States.
Watchful Waiting
refers to Wilson waiting to see which faction of Mexico would eventually take over; a phrase used by him in a State of the Union Address
William Jennings Bryan
gave Cross of Gold Nomination Acceptance Speech when accepting Populist Party nomination; attacked Darwinism and Evolution in the Scopes Trial; defeated by McKinley;
proponent of BIMETALLISM gave what is known as the Cross of Gold Speech: "you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns."
o FREE SILVER
o Support of POPULIST PARTY
an ANTI-IMPERIALIST
Yellow Fever
an acute viral hemorrhagic disease.
Disrupted work on the Panama Canal.
Walter Reed was able to find the cause of it and people were able to combat it by using insecticides to kill mosquitoes
Yellow Journalism
a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering, or sensationalism.
Pulitzer and Hearst used this type of journalism
Grover Cleveland
the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. He was the winner of the popular vote for president three times—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was the only Democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1861 to 1913; won a second term in 1892, with the major parties challenged, especially at the state level, by the POPULIST PARTY;
His handling of the PULLMAN STRIKE (1894) earned Cleveland the enmity of labor unions and lost him the industrial working class vote
People's (Populist) Party
a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement (United States, 19th Century). It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas) and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 the Democrats endorsed their presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
enacted on July 14, 1890 as a United States federal law. It was named after its author, Senator John Sherman, an Ohio Republican, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month; Cleveland vetoed it during Panic of 1893; farmers got angry
Grange Movement
AKA National Grange, a fraternal organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being. Founded in 1867 after the Civil War, it is the oldest surviving agricultural organization in America, though now much diminished from the over one million members it had in its peak in the 1890s through the 1950s
1893 - 1897
the years of Cleveland's second term
James G. Blaine
a Republican politician who served as U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, and two-time Secretary of State. He was nominated for president in 1884, but was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland.
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President of the United States (1889-1893). Harrison, a grandson of President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio, and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana at age 21, eventually becoming a prominent politician there. During the American Civil War, he served the Union as a Brigadier General in the XX Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, and was later appointed to the U.S. Senate from that state.
"Waving the bloody shirt"
the Republican political tactic of reminding voters that southern democrats caused the Civil War
Southern Alliance
a southern division of the Farmers' Alliance
Omaha Platform (1892)
the party program adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska on July 4 1892
Colored Alliance
formed in the 1880s in the USA, when both black and white farmers faced great difficulties due to the rising price of farming and the decreasing profits which were coming from farming. At this time the Southern Farmers' alliance which was currently in place did not allow black farmers to join. A group of black farmers decided to organize their own alliance, to fill their need.
Crime of '73
refers to the Fourth Coinage Act, which was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
an 1878 act of Congress requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. Though the bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Congress overrode Hayes' veto on February 28, 1878 to enact the law.
McKinley Tariff
an act framed by Representative William McKinley that became law on October 1, 1890. The tariff raised the average duty on imports to almost fifty percent, an act designed to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. Protectionism, a tactic supported by Republicans, was fiercely debated by politicians and condemned by Democrats
Silverites and Gold Bugs
refers to the debate between having silver as an additional money standard and having on the gold standard
Jacob S. Coxey and Coxey's Army
an American politician, who ran for elective office several times in Ohio. He twice led a namesake Army in 1894 and 1914, consisting of a group of unemployed men that he led on marches from Massillon, Ohio to Washington, D.C. to present a "Petition in Boots" demanding that the United States Congress allocate funds to create jobs for the unemployed
Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894
a tariff that replaced the McKinley Tariff and lowered tax rates; imposed an income tax
William McKinley
the 25th President of the United States (1897-1901). He is best known for winning fiercely fought elections, while supporting the gold standard and high tariffs; he succeeded in forging a Republican coalition that for the most part dominated national politics until the 1930s. He also led the nation to victory in 100 days in the Spanish-American War; assassinated at Pan-American exhibition;
campaigned in 1896 against the Democrat free silver advocate WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN, on a pro-tariff, pro-imperialism platform, as a means to fix the economy.
Marcus A. Hanna
a Republican United States Senator from Ohio and the friend and political manager of President William McKinley; made millions as a businessman, and used his money and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900.; started Panama Canal (?)
William Jennings Bryan
gave Cross of Gold Nomination Acceptance Speech when accepting Populist Party nomination; attacked Darwinism and Evolution in the Scopes Trial; defeated by McKinley;
proponent of BIMETALLISM gave what is known as the Cross of Gold Speech: "you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns."
o FREE SILVER
o Support of POPULIST PARTY
Panic (Depression) of 1893
economic crisis that brought Cleveland and the Democrat party down. Cleveland pushed for a lower tariff to help the economy (the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894), but the northern industrialists who came into Congress with him wanted a high one and he lost their support. The WILSON-GORMAN TARIFF OF 1894 did enact, in addition to a slightly lower tariff, the FIRST PEACE-TIME INCOME TAX, of 2% on about 10% of the population.
COXEY'S ARMY - 1500 TROOPS TO 500 MARCHERS; ARRESTED FOR STEPPING ON THE GRASS;
CLEVELAND has to ask J.P. MORGAN to BAIL OUT
Pullman Strike
a strike that occurred at first against the titular company, because they lowered wages while keeping the housing prices at the same level; becomes a federal issue Eugene V. Debs, the leader of the strike, was arrested; violated Sherman Anti-Trust Act; again held up the mail
Progressivism
A largely middle-and upper class paternalistic movement, progressives worked to end dominance of political machines, to regulate and control big business, and to improve the working and living conditions the urban poor. NOT at all the enemy of Big Business, they simply wanted to REGULATE big business for the benefit of the many, rather than the few.
William Randolph Hearst
an American business magnate and a leading newspaper publisher; his enormous news empire was reflective of his own politics throughout his life. It reflected many "populist" beliefs at the start, such as advocating bimetallism and imperialism. By the end of his life, his papers were extremely conservative ("more Fox than Fox" - Patton), and refused to publish anything that was not complimentary towards his own pro-big business, anti-labor and intolerant interests.
Edward Bellamy
the author of Looking Backward;
a socialist of a sort (not at all a communist) also wrote the Pledge of Allegiance in 1892.
Looking Backward
a sci-fi novel; the setting is the year 2000; Dr. Leete examines the year 1887; utopian society; written by Edward Bellamy;
Social Gospel - Socialist, utopian novel set in 2000: envisions the possibility of a society that has used the potential of industry & technology to create an equitable, just, safe society.
Jacob Riis
a Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. He endorsed the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veiller. Additionally, as one of the most famous proponents of the newly practicable casual photography, he is considered one of the fathers of photography due to his discovery of the use of flash in photography.
How the Other Half Lives
one of Jacob Riis's collection of photos showing how poor people lived
Immigrant Labor
refers to labor done by immigrants; the Exclusion Act limited Chinese immigration; Foran Act got rid of Padrone System; Immigration Restriction League was formed by Harvard graduates to restrict immigration;
liked by big business; not by most others, especially by less recent immigrants of a different national origin
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
The Atlantic Monthly
an American magazine founded in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1857. It was created as a literary and cultural commentary magazine. It quickly achieved a national reputation, which it held for more than a century. It was important for recognizing and publishing new writers and poets, and encouraging major careers. It published leading writers' commentary on abolition, education, and other major issues in contemporary political affairs.
The magazine's founders were a group of prominent writers of national reputation, who included Harriet Beecher Stowe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., John Greenleaf Whittier and James Russell Lowell. Lowell was its first editor. The editor-in-chief as of November 2009 is James Bennet
McClure's
an American illustrated monthly periodical popular at the turn of the 20th century. The magazine is credited with creating muckraking journalism. Ida Tarbell's series in 1902 exposing the monopoly abuses of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company and Ray Stannard Baker's earlier look at the United States Steel Corporation focused the public eye on the conduct of corporations. The magazine helped shape the moral compass of the time.
it also published such writers as Rudyard Kipling, Robert Louis Stevenson, Jack London, Herminie T. Kavanagh, Lincoln Steffens, Willa Cather and Arthur Conan Doyle. Mark Twain also contributed.
RADICALISM
is decidedly NOT middle class, nor tolerant of Big Business
Eugene Debs
an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.
INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD (the WOBBLIES)
convinced that the capitalist system needed to be overthrown. They wanted to create a labor union for organizing all workers of the world, then go on general strike and paralyze capitalist society, then take over the plants and overthrow governments (this is an anarcho-syndicalist philosophy), believing that if there was no government, people would willingly to work in "syndicates" or collectives, taking according to their needs and produce according to their abilities;
made up of the Western Federation of Miners (who were apparently VERY violent) and immigrants who had been exposed to ideas of anarchism, socialism, and communism in Europe. It had less than100,000 members at its peak. Most traditional labor unions shunned it;
did win a strike in Lawrence MA, although it lost a big one in NJ.
It agitated for pacifism in WWI, calling for all workers to fight capitalists, not each other ("Make Love Not War" 50 years early!). The Red Scare and conservatism of the 1920s, following the Bolshevik Revolution, led to state laws banning its existence as a "criminal syndicate." Veterans and the Ku Klux Klan both target it. By the 1920s it is exterminated in the U.S.
"Big Bill" Haywood
a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party of America. During the first two decades of the 20th century, he was involved in several important labor battles, including the Colorado Labor Wars, the Lawrence textile strike, and other textile strikes in Massachusetts and New Jersey.
also led the Western Federation of Miners
Mary Harris "Mother" Jones
a prominent American labor and community organizer, who helped coordinate major strikes and co-founded the Industrial Workers of the World.
She worked as a teacher and dressmaker but after her husband and four children all died of yellow fever and her workshop was destroyed in a fire in 1871 she began working as an organizer for the Knights of Labor and the United Mine Workers union.
She was a very effective speaker, punctuating her speeches with stories, audience participation, humor and dramatic stunts. From 1897 (when she was 60) she was known as her nickname and in 1902 she was called "the most dangerous woman in America" for her success in organizing mine workers and their families against the mine owners. In 1903, upset about the lax enforcement of the child labor laws in the Pennsylvania mines and silk mills, she organized a Children's March from Philadelphia to the home of then president Theodore Roosevelt in New York.
Emma Goldman
an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century.
She and anarchist writer Alexander Berkman, her lover and lifelong friend, planned to assassinate industrialist and financier Henry Clay Frick as an act of propaganda of the deed. Although Frick survived the attempt on his life, Berkman was sentenced to twenty-two years in prison; she was imprisoned several times in the years that followed, for "inciting to riot" and illegally distributing information about birth control. In 1906, she founded the anarchist journal Mother Earth.
John Reed
(I think it's this guy) an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, best remembered for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. He was married to writer and feminist Louise Bryant.
Robert M. LaFollette
an American Republican (and later a Progressive) politician. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, was the Governor of Wisconsin, and was also a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin (1906 to 1925). He ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in 1924, carrying Wisconsin and 17% of the national popular vote.
He is best remembered as a proponent of progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations. In 1957, a Senate Committee selected him as one of the five greatest U.S. Senators, along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, and Robert Taft
Initiative and Referendum
one of the methods by which Progressive laws got passed (?)
Direct Election of Senators
Resulted from the passing of the 17th Amendment; pushed for by Progressives and Populists
10 & 8 Hour Day Laws
laws that were trying to be passed to limit the work hours of men, women, and children
Lochner v. New York (1905)
a landmark United States Supreme Court case that held a "liberty of contract" was implicit in the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The case involved a New York law that limited the number of hours that a baker could work each day to ten, and limited the number of hours that a baker could work each week to 60. By a 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court rejected the argument that the law was necessary to protect the health of bakers, deciding it was a labor law attempting to regulate the terms of employment, and calling it an "unreasonable, unnecessary and arbitrary interference with the right and liberty of the individual to contract." Justice Rufus Peckham wrote for the majority, while Justices John Marshall Harlan and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. filed dissents.
Child Labor
refers to labor done by children; poorly enforced at state level; struck down by Supreme Court (Hammer v. Dagenhart)
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (1911)
a disaster that occurred in the middle of the day on a weekend; women were jumping out of a sweatshop in a tall building in order to escape flames; brought working conditions to attention; local authorities did not help the wounded; strong support from Jewish communities
Consumer's League
an American consumer organization; a private, nonprofit advocacy group representing consumers on marketplace and workplace issues; provides government, businesses, and other organizations with the consumer's perspective on concerns including child labor, privacy, food safety, and medication information; chartered in 1899 by social reformers Jane Addams and Josephine Lowell.
Female Suffrage
what women wanted in terms of voting...
arguments made for it: "politics would be more pure"
arguments made against it: "women are different; must be taken care of"
Carrie Chapman Catt
a women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920; she served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and was the founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women.
Western States
these states accepted Women's Suffrage via the State by State Approach
Alice Paul
an American suffragist and activist. Along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign for women's suffrage that resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920
Theodore Roosevelt
the 26th President of the United States of America (1901-1909). He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity.[3] He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the short-lived Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party of 1912. Before becoming President, he held offices at the city, state, and federal levels. Roosevelt's achievements as a naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier are as much a part of his fame as any office he held as a politician.
Became president after McKinley died
first of Progressive Presidents
"THERE CAN BE NO GREATER ISSUE THAN THAT OF CONSERVATION." (August 5, 1912)
With Gifford Pinchot, he established the federal BUREAU OF FORESTRY, and by executive order created the first federal bird sanctuary, and several other wildlife refuges.
"I believe that the natural resources must be used for the benefit of all our people. ... Conservation is a great moral issue, for it involves the patriotic duty of ensuring the safety and continuance of the nation." (Aug. 31, 1910).
Square Deal
President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. Thus, it aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor. In contrast to his conservative predecessor William McKinley, Roosevelt was a liberal Republican who believed in government action to mitigate social evils, and as president denounced "the representatives of predatory wealth" as guilty of "all forms of iniquity from the oppression of wage workers to defrauding the public."
In his second term, he tried to extend this program further. Roosevelt pushed for the courts, which had been guided by a clearly delineated standard up to that point, to yield to the wishes of the executive branch on all subsequent anti-trust suits.
Hepburn Act
a 1906 United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records, a task simplified by standardized bookkeeping systems. For any railroad that resisted, the ICC's conditions would remain in effect until the outcome of legislation said otherwise. By this act, the ICC's authority was extended to cover bridges, terminals, ferries, railroad sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines.
Elkins Railroad Act
a 1903 United States federal law that amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The Elkins Act authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates. The railroad companies were not permitted to offer rebates. Railroad corporations, their officers and employees were all made liable for discriminatory practices
Newlands Act
a United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of 20 states in the American West.
Northern Securities Company
an important United States railroad trust formed in 1902 by E. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan, J. D. Rockefeller, and their associates. The company controlled the Northern Pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and other associated lines. The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt, one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor.
"busted" in 1904
Standard Oil Co., American Tobacco Co.
trusts that were also busted (?)
Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902
a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities (homes and apartments were heated with anthracite or "hard" coal because it had higher heat value and less smoke than "soft" or bituminous coal). President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received more pay for fewer hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.
United Mine Workers
a North American labor union best known for representing coal miners and coal technicians. Today, the Union also represents health care workers, truck drivers, manufacturing workers and public employees in the United States and Canada. Although its main focus has always been on workers and their rights, the ___ of today also advocates for better roads, schools, and universal health care.
The ___ was founded in Columbus, Ohio, on January 22, 1890, with the merger of two old labor groups, the Knights of Labor Trade Assembly No. 135 and the National Progressive Miners Union. Adopting the model of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the union was initially established as a three-pronged labor tool: to develop mine safety; to improve mine workers' independence from the mine owners and the company store; and to provide miners with collective bargaining power. After passage of the National Recovery Act in 1933, organizers spread throughout the United States to organize all coal miners into labor unions.
John L. Lewis
an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. After resigning as head of the CIO in 1941, he took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942 and in 1944 took the union into the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
help negotiate the Anthracite Coal Strike with his demands
John Muir
a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. One of the most well-known hiking trails in the U.S., the 211-mile (340 km) John Muir Trail, was named in his honor.[2] Other places named in his honor are Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, John Muir College, Mount Muir, Camp Muir and Muir Glacier.
Sierra Club
one of the oldest, largest, and most influential grassroots environmental organization in the United States.[2] It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. The Sierra Club has hundreds of thousands of members in chapters located throughout the US, and is affiliated with Sierra Club Canada.
Hetch Hetchy
a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in California. It is currently completely flooded by O'Shaughnessy Dam, forming the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. The Tuolumne River fills the reservoir. Upstream from the valley lies the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne. The reservoir supplies the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct. The damming of the valley in the 1920s, and the creation of a reservoir, were at the time, and since, a major environmental controversy in the Western United States.
Yuba National Forest
Its creation set aside FEDERAL FORESTS, millions of acres of lands for public use, under the Forest Reserve Act of 1891.
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
a United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines.[1] The Act arose due to public education and exposés from Muckrakers such as Upton Sinclair and Samuel Hopkins Adams, social activist Florence Kelley, researcher Harvey W. Wiley, and President Theodore Roosevelt.
Panic of 1907
also known as the 1907 Bankers' Panic, was a financial crisis that occurred in the United States when the New York Stock Exchange fell almost 50% from its peak the previous year. Panic occurred, as this was during a time of economic recession, and there were numerous runs on banks and trust companies. The 1907 panic eventually spread throughout the nation when many state and local banks and businesses entered bankruptcy. Primary causes of the run include a retraction of market liquidity by a number of New York City banks and a loss of confidence among depositors, exacerbated by unregulated side bets at bucket shops. The panic was triggered by the failed attempt in October 1907 to corner the market on stock of the United Copper Company. When this bid failed, banks that had lent money to the cornering scheme suffered runs that later spread to affiliated banks and trusts, leading a week later to the downfall of the Knickerbocker Trust Company—New York City's third-largest trust. The collapse of the Knickerbocker spread fear throughout the city's trusts as regional banks withdrew reserves from New York City banks. Panic extended across the nation as vast numbers of people withdrew deposits from their regional banks.
The panic might have deepened if not for the intervention of financier J. P. Morgan, who pledged large sums of his own money, and convinced other New York bankers to do the same, to shore up the banking system. At the time, the United States did not have a central bank to inject liquidity back into the market. By November the financial contagion had largely ended, yet a further crisis emerged when a large brokerage firm borrowed heavily using the stock of Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company (TC&I) as collateral. Collapse of TC&I's stock price was averted by an emergency takeover by Morgan's U.S. Steel Corporation—a move approved by anti-monopolist president Theodore Roosevelt. The following year, Senator Nelson W. Aldrich, father-in-law of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., established and chaired a commission to investigate the crisis and propose future solutions, leading to the creation of the Federal Reserve System.
"Gentlemen's Agreement" of 1907
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S. The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations. The agreement was never ratified by Congress, which in 1924 ended it.
restricted Japanese Immigrants
William Howard Taft
the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). He is the only person to have served in both offices, and along with James Polk, the only president to have also headed another branch of the federal government.
was a progressive; there were limitations (?)
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair (1910)
a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century.
Election of 1912
Election with the following parties:
PROGRESSIVE "BULL MOOSE" PARTY - TR and the "NEW NATIONALISM"
Platform: progressive stuff...
DEMOCRATS - WOODROW WILSON and the "NEW FREEDOM"
Platform: limited federal government and opposition to monopoly powers, often after consultation with his chief advisor Louis D. Brandeis
SOCIALIST PARTY - EUGENE V. DEBS
REPUBLICANS - TAFT
Woodrow Wilson
the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. Running against Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt and Republican candidate William Howard Taft, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912.
Underwood Tariff
re-imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%, well below the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909. It was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on October 3, 1913, and was sponsored by Alabama Representative Oscar Underwood.
Federal Reserve Act
an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (now commonly known as the U.S. Dollar) and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.
Federal Trade Commission
an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of what regulators perceive to be harmfully anti-competitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly.
created by Wilson against trusts
Clatyon Anti-Trust Act
enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime by seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. That regime started with the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered harmful to consumers (monopolies, cartels, and trusts). The Clayton Act specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures.
Passed during the Wilson administration, the legislation was first introduced by Alabama Democrat Henry De Lamar Clayton, Jr. in the U.S. House of Representatives, where the act passed by a vote of 277 to 54 on June 5, 1914. Though the Senate passed its own version on September 2, 1914 by a vote of 46-16, the final version of the law (written after deliberation between Senate and the House), did not pass the Senate until October 5 and the House until October 8 of the same year.
Black Militancy
refers to blacks serving in the military; W.E.B. DuBois pushed for this (?)
W.E.B. DuBois
an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, and editor. Born in western Massachusetts, he grew up in a tolerant community and experienced little racism as a child. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Atlanta University. He was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
Opponent of Booker T. Washington and his "Atlanta" Compromise
NAACP
an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Its mission is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination". Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people.
Disenfranchisement
the action of taking away someone's right to vote
Literacy Tests and Poll Taxes
two ways that the voting rights of blacks were disenfranchised in the South; needed to be able to read and pay a fee to vote; Grandfather Clause also put into motion
Grandfather Clause
a law that stated that blacks could only vote if their namesake ancestor was allowed to vote; another form of disenfranchisement
Jim Crow
this name originated as the name of a stage character; refers to the time in which rights were taken away from blacks in the South due to laws of the same name
Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
the first United States Supreme Court interpretation of the relatively new Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It is viewed as a pivotal case in early civil rights law, reading the Fourteenth Amendment as protecting the "privileges or immunities" conferred by virtue of the federal United States citizenship to all individuals of all states within it, but not those privileges or immunities incident to citizenship of a state;
narrow interpretation of the 14th Amendment lead to rights being taken away from blacks
"privileges or immunities" clause
part of the 14th Amendment that states "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States...."; narrowly interpreted in the Slaughterhouse Cases
police powers
The results of the Slaughterhouse Cases held that the 14th Amendment did not restrict these powers of the state
theory of incorporation
this theory was rejected in the 1881 Civil Rights Cases; present in Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution; the rejection of this theory helped reject the Civil Rights Law, stating that it was unconstitutional
procedural due process
due process in criminal and civil proceedings
substantive due process
one of the theories of law through which courts enforce limits on legislative and executive powers and authority
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review. The Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments;
also declared the 1875 Civil Rights Law unconstitutional
Anti-miscegenation Laws (1883)
Laws that prevented interracial marriage; resulted from Pace v. Alabama (1883)
Plessy v. Fergusson (1896)
a test case in Louisiana; said that "Separate but equal" facilities were constitutional; dissenting opinion by John Marshall Harlan
Justice John Marshall Harlan
a supreme court justice involved in the Plessy v. Fergusson case who disagreed with the "separate but equal" majority ruling
Colonization Movement
a movement that began sending blacks to colonies in Africa; Marcus Garvey was one of the leaders of this movement
Booker T. Washington
a former slave who became an orator and founded the Tuskegee Institute for African-Americans; became unpopular for Atlanta Compromise, in which he agreed with the "separate but equal" ruling; wrote autobiography Up From Slavery
Lynching
refers to the killing of African-Americans without trial; peak amount in 1890's
Burlingame Treaty (1868)
treaty between the United States and China, amended the Treaty of Tientsin of 1858 and established formal friendly relations between the two countries, with the United States granting China most favored nation status. It was signed at Washington in 1868 and ratified at Beijing in 1869.
Recognized China's right of eminent domain over all of its territory;
Gave China the right to appoint consuls at ports in the United States, "who shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those enjoyed by the consuls of Great Britain and Russia";
Provided that "citizens of the United States in China of every religious persuasion and Chinese subjects in the United States shall enjoy entire liberty of conscience and shall be exempt from all disability or persecution on account of their religious faith or worship in either country"; and
Granted certain privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the privilege of naturalization, however, being specifically withheld.
Importantly, Chinese immigration to the United States was encouraged.
Exclusion Act (1882)
a United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 8, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Indian Wars
wars fought against the titular group of people during the years from 1862 - 1867
Plains Indians
refers to Indians that lived in the West, like the Sioux
Chief Red Cloud
a war leader and a chief of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux). He led as a chief from 1868 to 1909. One of the most capable Native American opponents the United States Army faced, he led a successful campaign in 1866-1868, a war named after him, over control of the Powder River Country in northeastern Wyoming and southern Montana.
Indian Bureau
a bureau created to fight the titular group?
General Philip Sheridan
a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. His career was noted for his rapid rise to major general and his close association with Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who transferred Sheridan from command of an infantry division in the Western Theater to lead the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the East; prosecuted the later years of the Indian Wars of the Great Plains.
W. T. Sherman
Union Army General who led his famous "March to Sea" during the Civil War; When Grant assumed the U.S. presidency in 1869, he succeeded Grant as Commanding General of the Army (1869-83). As such, he was responsible for the U.S. Army's engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years, in the western United States.
Board of Indian Commissioners
a committee that advised the federal government of the United States on Native American policy and it inspected supplies delivered to Indian agencies to ensure the fulfillment of government treaty obligations to tribes.
Black Hills Gold
refers to the metal found in the Dakotas in July of 1876; mainly responsible for the Great Sioux War
Little Bighorn
a June 1876 battle; an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Gall, inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake). The U.S. Seventh Cavalry, including the Custer Battalion, a force of 700 men led by George Armstrong Custer, suffered a severe defeat. Five of the Seventh's companies were annihilated; Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother-in-law. Total U.S. deaths were 268, including scouts, and 55 were wounded.
Wounded Knee
happened on December 29, 1890, near the titular creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them 5 miles westward (8 km) to the creek where they made camp.
The rest of the 7th Cavalry Regiment arrived led by Colonel James Forsyth and surrounded the encampment supported by four Hotchkiss guns.
On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle claiming he had paid a lot for it. A scuffle over Black Coyote's rifle escalated and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry opening fire indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their own fellow troopers. Those few Lakota warriors who still had weapons began shooting back at the attacking troopers, who quickly suppressed the Lakota fire. The surviving Lakota fled, but U.S. cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed.
Nez Perce
a group of Indians named for their pierced noses; one of their leaders was Chief Joseph, who was brilliant in retreating his people and hiding them from U.S. troops; Chief Joseph eventually surrendered
Apache
a group of Indians famous for being lead under Geronimo; fought in Arizona and New Mexico territories as well as in Mexico; last true Indian opponents; final surrender in 1886 (decision was Geronimo's)
Helen Hunt Jackson
a United States writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government. She detailed the adverse effects of government actions in her history A Century of Dishonor (1881).
A Century of Dishonor
a non-fiction book by Helen Hunt Jackson that chronicles the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on injustices; published in 1881
Dawes Act
act that authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide the land into allotments for individual Indians; named for sponsor; objective was to stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society. Individual ownership of land was seen as an essential step. The act also provided that the government would purchase Indian land "excess" to that needed for allotment and open it up for settlement by non-Indians; well-intentioned, but Indians still got land taken from them (so still a failure in the end)
Comstock Lode
the first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada, on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range; discovery published in 1859
Big Bonanza
an enormous gold and silver ore body discovered beneath Virginia City (in the Comstock Lode)
Timber and Stone Act of 1878
an act that sold Western timberland for $2.50 per acre ($618/km²) in 160 acre (0.6 km²) blocks.

Land that was deemed "unfit for farming" was sold to those who might want to "timber and stone" (logging and mining) upon the land. The act was used by speculators who were able to get great expanses declared "unfit for farming" allowing them to increase their land holdings at minimal expense.
"Bonanza" Farms
very large farms in the United States performing large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat; made possible by a number of factors including: the efficient new farming machinery of the 1870s, the cheap abundant land available during that time period, the growth of eastern markets in the U.S., and the completion of most major railroads.
Open-Range Ranching
refers to ranching that occurred in the West by cowboys...
Chisholm Trail cattle drives
refers to cattle drives that occurred on an eponymous trail that led cattle from Texas to Kansas so that they could be shipped East
Desert Land Act
passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1877 to encourage and promote the economic development of the arid and semiarid public lands of the Western states. Through the Act, individuals may apply for a desert-land entry to reclaim, irrigate, and cultivate arid and semiarid public lands.

The act offered 640 acres (2.6 km2) of land to an adult married couple who would pay $1.25 an acre and promise to irrigate the land within three years. A single man would only receive half of the land for the same price. Individuals taking advantage of the act were required to submit proof of their efforts to irrigate the land within three years, but as water was relatively scarce, a great number of fraudulent "proofs" of irrigation were provided. (I'm pretty sure the act was a failure in that about 90% did not satisfy requirements)
Barbed Wire
invented by Glidden in 1874; revolutionary in keeping cattle and buffalo away from railroads; divided up the west; also contributed to range wars
Cattlemen's Associations
associations formed by ranchers(?)
Laissez-faire
refers to a form of capitalism in which government stayed out of the affairs of businesses; dominated Gilded Age of Capitalism
Corporation
created under the laws of a state as a separate legal entity that has privileges and liabilities that are distinct from those of its members
Monopolies
exist when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity
Vertical Integration
describes a style of management control; companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need; Carnegie was good at doing this
Horizontal Integration
describes a type of ownership and control. It is a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets. It is much more common than vertical integration is in production; occurs when a firm is being taken over by, or merged with, another firm which is in the same industry and in the same stage of production as the merged firm, e.g. a car manufacturer merging with another car manufacturer; Rockefeller was good at doing this
Monopolistic Combinations
combinations of companies that resemble monopolies... (?)
Trust
a large business. Originally, it was a legal instrument used to consolidate power by large American enterprises; pretty much it was a monopoly
Pool
an informal agreement by competing companies to fix prices, share profits, or divide the market for their products in order to maximize profits.
Holding Company
a way companies can be brought together without being illegal. It is a corporation that owns enough voting stock in other companies to excise some control over them. They can have control over several companies with minimum investment.
Conglomerate
a combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate structure (a corporate group), usually involving a parent company and several (or many) subsidiaries.
George Westinghouse
an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry
Air brake (1869)
invented by George Westinghouse
George Pullman
an American inventor and industrialist. He is known as the inventor of a namesake sleeping car
Sleeping Car (1864)
invented by George Pullman
Western Union Company
a financial services and communications company based in the United States. Its North American headquarters is in Englewood, Colorado. Up until 2006, Western Union was the best-known U.S. company in the business of exchanging telegrams.
Bessemer Process
the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron; heavily used by Carnegie in his steel mills
Mesabi Iron Range
vast deposit of iron ore and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota. Discovered in 1866, it is the chief deposit of iron ore in the United States.
Edwin L. Drake
an American oil driller, popularly credited with being the first to drill for oil in the United States
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone in 1876
American Telegraph and Telephone Company (AT&T)
a company (still around today) that handled telephone and telegraph communications in the late 1800's
Transatlantic Cable
first cable used for telegraph communications laid across the floor of the Atlantic Ocean
Thomas Edison
an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" (now Edison, New Jersey) by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large teamwork to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory
(proponent of direct current; rivaled Tesla)
Incandescent Lamp
invented by Edison in 1879
Deflation
a period of time during the years 1873 - 1896/7 during which the value of American currency lost value
Panic of 1873
a financial crisis that lasted until 1876/9 that was caused by the fall in demand for silver internationally, which followed Germany's decision to abandon the silver standard in the wake of the Franco-Prussian war
1873 Cholera Epidemic
refers to the outbreak of a specific disease that occurred in the cities; mainly in NY
Tariff Crisis of 1880
refers to the tariff debate that occurred in 1880; Grover Cleveland received support from the pro-manufacturing Republicans but was opposed by Bourbon Democrats and Mugwumps (Republicans who joined Democrats)
Free Silver
the farmers wanted this to decrease their debt (?)
Bimetallism
refers to a currency backed by both silver and gold
Grand Army of the Republic
a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army, US Navy, US Marines and US Revenue Cutter Service who served in the American Civil War. Founded in 1866 in Decatur, Illinois, it was dissolved in 1956 when its last member died; a very large political force; Cleveland became unpopular for vetoing pension for this group
Greenbacks
refers to members of a namesake political party named after the namesake type of currency; against big business; for female suffrage; want income tax
"Bourbon" Democrats and Mugwumps
2 groups of people against Cleveland in the tariff debate of the 1880s; the first were laissez-faire Democrats; the others were Republicans who were "on the fence"
Big Trusts
refers to large monopolies... (?)
Patronage Politics
when political leaders promise to give people jobs in office in return for their votes and contribution (?) Spoils System (?)
J. Pierpont Morgan
an American financier, banker and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time; created U.S. Steel after buying Carnegie's steel company
Andrew Carnegie
known for Vertical Integration; made a large steel company; became a philanthropist after amassing large sums of money; partnered with Frick; sold company to J.P. Morgan, who then created U.S. Steel; took advantage of the Bessemer process
John D. Rockefeller
the CEO of Standard Oil; known for Horizontal Integration; also becomes philanthropist but was not as nice as Carnegie; Trust or Monopoly vs. Corporation (1888)
Life Insurance
a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money (the "benefits") upon the death of the insured person
Tontine Policy
A policy that was popular after the Civil War, which is now illegal. The policy paid dividends to the policyholders who were still living at the end of a certain period. The money for these dividends came from people who had paid in and were now deceased or who had let their policies lapse.
Social Darwinism
a philosophy promoted by William Graham Sumner in his work The Gospel of Wealth; "survival of the most economically fit"; poor starve and die out while rich survive; says it's ok and even necessary to have large sums of money
Edward Bellamy
the author of Looking Backward
Looking Backward
a sci-fi novel; the setting is the year 2000; Dr. Leete examines the year 1887; utopian society; written by Edward Bellamy
Social Labor Party
the oldest socialist political party in the United States and the second oldest socialist party in the world. Originally known as the Workingmen's Party of America, the party changed its name in 1877 and has operated continuously since that date, although its current existence is tenuous
The National Grange
a fraternal organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being. Founded in 1867 after the Civil War, it is the oldest surviving agricultural organization in America, though now much diminished from the over one million members it had in its peak in the 1890s through the 1950s
Wabash v. Illinois
a court case in which the railroad rates were being unfair to farmers and violated interstate commerce; created the Interstate Commerce Act; set up ICC; "fair and reasonable rates"; Regulatory Agencies were also soon set up
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
an act that was created in 1890 for the intent of disbanding monopolies but was actually first used against labor unions; not effectively used until TR's time in office; United States v. EC Knight Co. (1885) showed how ineffective it was against a sugar trust; started wave of business consolidations in manufacturing sector after failure
Knights of Labor (1869)
a group of working class reformers who had middle class aspirations; founded by Terrence V. Powderly
Haymarket Affair
a demonstration and unrest that took place on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at the Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians and the wounding of scores of others.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
a labor group founded in 1886 by Adolph Strasser and Samuel Gompers; an "umbrella group"; still present today
Molly Maguires
Irish-American terrorists who committed acts of violence to warn leaders of big-businesses; also executed
Railroad Strike of 1877
a strike that occurred in which people did not operate the railroads; mail did not get transported; federal issue; Rutherford B. Hayes got involved; began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, and federal troops.
Homestead Strike (1892)
a strike that occurred in PA; workers were locked out of factories and mines; workers want to get in (town depends on plant); Henry Clay Frick employed Pinkerton Detectives; people on both sides killed; Carnegie was away and said that he would have better handled situation
Pullman Strike (1894)
a strike that occurred at first against the titular company, because they lowered wages while keeping the housing prices at the same level; becomes a federal issue Eugene V. Debs, the leader of the strike, was arrested; violated Sherman Anti-Trust Act; again held up the mail
Thorstein Veblen
an American economist and sociologist, and a leader of the so-called institutional economics movement. Besides his technical work he was a popular and witty critic of capitalism, as shown by his best known book The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899).
Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)
a book, first published in 1899, by the Norwegian-American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen while he was a professor at the University of Chicago. In the book's introduction he explains that much of the material discussed can be traced back to the proper sources by any well-read person. The Theory of the Leisure Class is considered one of the first detailed critiques of consumerism.
Office Work and "Women's Work"
refers to working in offices and women in the workplace...
Typewriters
a mechanical or electromechanical device with keys that, when pressed, cause characters to be printed on a medium, usually paper; also produced by Remington Arms Company
Vocational Public High Schools
a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job. Traditionally, they have not existed to further education in the sense of liberal arts, but rather to teach only job-specific skills, and as such have been better considered to be institutions devoted to training, not education
Immigrant Labor
refers to labor done by immigrants; the Exclusion Act limited Chinese immigration; Foran Act got rid of Padrone System; Immigration Restriction League was formed by Harvard graduates to restrict immigration
Tenements
small huts found in cities in the late 1800's; not well-lit; Jacob Riis took photos of them
Jacob Riis
a Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. He endorsed the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veiller. Additionally, as one of the most famous proponents of the newly practicable casual photography, he is considered one of the fathers of photography due to his discovery of the use of flash in photography.
How the Other Half Lives
one of Jacob Riis's collection of photos showing how poor people lived
Electric Trolley Lines
created in the late 1800's; started to replace horse-drawn carts
Brooklyn Bridge
one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States. Completed in 1883, it connects the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn by spanning the East River. With a main span of 1,595.5 feet (486.3 m), it was the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and the first steel-wire suspension bridge.
John A. Roebling (1883)
a German immigrant who initially designed the Brooklyn Bridge
Skyscrapers
tall buildings made of steel; they were being constructed by the late 1800's and early 1900's
Louis Sullivan
an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism"; He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School.
Chicago World's Fair (1893)
a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492; electricity was featured there
Leisure Time
refers to time away from school and factories; one has time to enjoy life
Central Park
a natural place created in NY by Frederick Law Olmstead
Culture Places (?)
American Museum of Natural History (1870), Metropolitan Museum of Art (1870), Boston Museum of Fine Arts (1870), Boston Symphony (1881), Metropolitan Opera (1883)
Spectator Sports
sports that crowds began watching; Intercollegiate level and Professional level
James Naismith
the inventor of basketball
Dwight L. Moody
an American evangelist and publisher who founded the Moody Church, Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts (now Northfield Mount Hermon School), the Moody Bible Institute and Moody Publishers
YMCA (1851)
a worldwide organization of more than 45 million members from 125 national federations affiliated through the World Alliance of YMCAs. Their main motto is: "Empowering young people." It was founded on June 6, 1844 in London, England, United Kingdom, and it aims to put Christian principles into practice, achieved by developing "a healthy spirit, mind, and body." The YMCA is a federated organization made up of local and national organizations in voluntary association. It is one of the many organizations that espouses Muscular Christianity.
Salvation Army
a Protestant Christian church known for its thrift stores and charity work. It is an international movement that currently works in over 120 countries.
It was founded in 1865 in the United Kingdom by William Booth and his wife Catherine as the East London Christian Mission and with a quasi-military structure
Social Gospel
a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada
Applied Christianity
a book by Washington Gladden published in 1887. Gladden was a well known pastor in the day. The book attacks competition between social classes and urges cooperation between employees and employers. Gladden was a well known anti-catholic, so he obviously didn't show love for all beings (unlike the loving, forgiving, benign and tolerant Catholics).
Jane Addams
a pioneer settlement worker, founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace. Beside presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, she was the most prominent reformer of the Progressive Era and helped turn the nation to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace. She said that if women were to be responsible for cleaning up their communities and making them better places to live, they needed the vote to be effective in doing so; In 1931 she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; founded the Hull House: a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
Settlement House Movement
a reformist social movement, beginning in the 1880s and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US, with a goal of getting the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community. Its main object was the establishment of "settlement houses" in poor urban areas, in which volunteer middle-class "settlement workers" would live, hoping to share knowledge and culture with, and alleviate the poverty of their low-income neighbors.
Chautauqua Movement
an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Public Libraries
libraries open to the public...Carnegie helped found some of them
Newspapers
papers with news information; started getting published about the late 1800's
Edward Scripps
an American newspaper publisher and founder of The E. W. Scripps Company, a diversified media conglomerate, and United Press news service
Joseph Pulitzer
a Hungarian-American newspaper publisher of the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the New York World; crusaded against big business and corruption. In the 1890s the fierce competition between his World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal introduced yellow journalism and opened the way to mass circulation newspapers that depended on advertising revenue and appealed to the reader with multiple forms of news, entertainment, and advertising
William Randolph Hearst
an American business magnate and a leading newspaper publisher
Mass Ciruclation Periodicals
mass-produced newspapers and magazines; late 1800's
Ladies Home Journal
an American magazine which first appeared on February 16, 1883, and eventually became one of the leading women's magazines of the 20th century in the United States. It was the first American magazine to reach 1 million subscribers in 1907
Johns Hopkins
a wealthy American entrepreneur, philanthropist and abolitionist of 19th-century Baltimore, Maryland, now most noted for his philanthropic creation of the institutions that bear his name, namely the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and the Johns Hopkins University and its associated divisions, in particular the schools of nursing, medicine and public health. A biography entitled Johns Hopkins: A Silhouette written by his cousin, Helen Hopkins Thom, was published in 1929 by the Johns Hopkins University Press
John Dewey
an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology. He was a major representative of progressive education and liberalism
Literature
Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Henry James, Edith Wharton
Visual Arts
Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, James McNeill Whistler, Eadweard Muybridge (photography)
Philosophy
William James's Pragmatism (Relativism)
Spoils System
refers to political patronage; giving govt jobs to supporters; endorsed by Andrew Jackson; James Garfield died because of it; after his death, Chester Arthur wanted to get rid of govt corruption
William Marcy "Boss" Tweed
the leader of a political machine in NY; exposed by the cartoonist Thomas Nast; Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
where Boss Tweed "ruled" NY; still a corrupted place years after Boss Tweed was removed
Party Politics and Political Machines
forms of political patronage (?)
Rutherford B. Hayes
the 19th President of the United States (1877-1881). As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction and the United States' entry into the Second Industrial Revolution. Hayes was a reformer who began the efforts that would lead to civil service reform and attempted, unsuccessfully, to reconcile the divisions that had led to the American Civil War fifteen years earlier.
Sound Money
refers to money that is not susceptible to inflation or deflation (?)
Tariff of 1880
caused a split in politics; Cleveland and tariff-supporting Republicans vs Mugwumps and "Bourbon" Democrats
James A. Garfield
served as the 20th President of the United States, after completing nine consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives; assassinated because of an angry supporter who felt he got sleighted
Stalwarts
a faction of the United States Republican Party toward the end of the 19th century; "traditional" Republicans who opposed Rutherford B. Hayes' civil service reform
Half-Breeds
a political faction of the United States Republican Party that existed in the late 19th century; a moderate-wing group, and they were the opponents of the Stalwarts, the other main faction of the Republican Party. The main issue that separated the Stalwarts from them was political patronage. The Stalwarts were in favor of political machines and spoils system-style patronage, while these people, led by Maine senator James G. Blaine, were in favor of civil service reform and a merit system
Chester A. Arthur
the 21st President of the United States (1881-1885). Becoming President after the assassination of President James A. Garfield, Arthur struggled to overcome suspicions of his beginnings as a politician from the New York City Republican machine, succeeding at that task by embracing the cause of civil service reform. His advocacy for, and enforcement of, the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was the centerpiece of his administration.
Pendleton Act and Civil Service Commission
2 things put into motion under Chester A. Arthur to reduce political patronage
Mugwumps
Republicans who agreed with "Bourbon" Democrats on Tariff issue; "on the fence"
"Bourbon" Democrats
Democrats against the Tariff of 1880; favored laissez-faire capitalism
Grover Cleveland
the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. He was the winner of the popular vote for president three times—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was the only Democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1861 to 1913.
James G. Blaine
a Republican politician who served as U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, and two-time Secretary of State. He was nominated for president in 1884, but was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland.
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President of the United States (1889-1893). Harrison, a grandson of President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio, and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana at age 21, eventually becoming a prominent politician there. During the American Civil War, he served the Union as a Brigadier General in the XX Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, and was later appointed to the U.S. Senate from that state.
"Waving the bloody shirt"
the Republican political tactic of reminding voters that southern democrats caused the Civil War
Southern Alliance
a southern division of the Farmers' Alliance
People's (Populist) Party
a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement (United States, 19th Century). It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas) and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 the Democrats endorsed their presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan.
Omaha Platform (1892)
the party program adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska on July 4 1892
Colored Alliance
formed in the 1880s in the USA, when both black and white farmers faced great difficulties due to the rising price of farming and the decreasing profits which were coming from farming. At this time the Southern Farmers' alliance which was currently in place did not allow black farmers to join. A group of black farmers decided to organize their own alliance, to fill their need.
Crime of '73
refers to the Fourth Coinage Act, which was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
an 1878 act of Congress requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. Though the bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Congress overrode Hayes' veto on February 28, 1878 to enact the law.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
enacted on July 14, 1890 as a United States federal law. It was named after its author, Senator John Sherman, an Ohio Republican, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month
McKinley Tariff
an act framed by Representative William McKinley that became law on October 1, 1890. The tariff raised the average duty on imports to almost fifty percent, an act designed to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. Protectionism, a tactic supported by Republicans, was fiercely debated by politicians and condemned by Democrats
Silverites and Gold Bugs
refers to the debate between having silver as an additional money standard and having on the gold standard
Jacob S. Coxey and Coxey's Army
an American politician, who ran for elective office several times in Ohio. He twice led a namesake Army in 1894 and 1914, consisting of a group of unemployed men that he led on marches from Massillon, Ohio to Washington, D.C. to present a "Petition in Boots" demanding that the United States Congress allocate funds to create jobs for the unemployed
Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894
a tariff that replaced the McKinley Tariff and lowered tax rates; imposed an income tax
William McKinley
the 25th President of the United States (1897-1901). He is best known for winning fiercely fought elections, while supporting the gold standard and high tariffs; he succeeded in forging a Republican coalition that for the most part dominated national politics until the 1930s. He also led the nation to victory in 100 days in the Spanish-American War; assassinated at Pan-American exhibition
Marcus A. Hanna
a Republican United States Senator from Ohio and the friend and political manager of President William McKinley; made millions as a businessman, and used his money and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900.; started Panama Canal (?)
William Jennings Bryan
gave Cross of Gold Nomination Acceptance Speech when accepting Populist Party nomination; attacked Darwinism and Evolution in the Scopes Trial; defeated by McKinley
Disenfranchisement
the action of taking away someone's right to vote
Literacy Tests and Poll Taxes
two ways that the voting rights of blacks were disenfranchised in the South; needed to be able to read and pay a fee to vote; Grandfather Clause also put into motion
Grandfather Clause
a law that stated that blacks could only vote if their namesake ancestor was allowed to vote; another form of disenfranchisement
Jim Crow
this name originated as the name of a stage character; refers to the time in which rights were taken away from blacks in the South due to laws of the same name
Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
the first United States Supreme Court interpretation of the relatively new Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It is viewed as a pivotal case in early civil rights law, reading the Fourteenth Amendment as protecting the "privileges or immunities" conferred by virtue of the federal United States citizenship to all individuals of all states within it, but not those privileges or immunities incident to citizenship of a state;
narrow interpretation of the 14th Amendment lead to rights being taken away from blacks
"privileges or immunities" clause
part of the 14th Amendment that states "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States...."; narrowly interpreted in the Slaughterhouse Cases
police powers
The results of the Slaughterhouse Cases held that the 14th Amendment did not restrict these powers of the state
theory of incorporation
this theory was rejected in the 1881 Civil Rights Cases; present in Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution; the rejection of this theory helped reject the Civil Rights Law, stating that it was unconstitutional
procedural due process
due process in criminal and civil proceedings
substantive due process
one of the theories of law through which courts enforce limits on legislative and executive powers and authority
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review. The Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments;
also declared the 1875 Civil Rights Law unconstitutional
Anti-miscegenation Laws (1883)
Laws that prevented interracial marriage; resulted from Pace v. Alabama (1883)
Plessy v. Fergusson (1896)
a test case in Louisiana; said that "Separate but equal" facilities were constitutional; dissenting opinion by John Marshall Harlan
Justice John Marshall Harlan
a supreme court justice involved in the Plessy v. Fergusson case who disagreed with the "separate but equal" majority ruling
Colonization Movement
a movement that began sending blacks to colonies in Africa; Marcus Garvey was one of the leaders of this movement
Booker T. Washington
a former slave who became an orator and founded the Tuskegee Institute for African-Americans; became unpopular for Atlanta Compromise, in which he agreed with the "separate but equal" ruling; wrote autobiography Up From Slavery
Burlingame Treaty (1868)
treaty between the United States and China, amended the Treaty of Tientsin of 1858 and established formal friendly relations between the two countries, with the United States granting China most favored nation status. It was signed at Washington in 1868 and ratified at Beijing in 1869.
Recognized China's right of eminent domain over all of its territory;
Gave China the right to appoint consuls at ports in the United States, "who shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those enjoyed by the consuls of Great Britain and Russia";
Provided that "citizens of the United States in China of every religious persuasion and Chinese subjects in the United States shall enjoy entire liberty of conscience and shall be exempt from all disability or persecution on account of their religious faith or worship in either country"; and
Granted certain privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the privilege of naturalization, however, being specifically withheld.
Importantly, Chinese immigration to the United States was encouraged.
Exclusion Act (1882)
a United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 8, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Indian Wars
wars fought against the titular group of people during the years from 1862 - 1867
Plains Indians
refers to Indians that lived in the West, like the Sioux
Chief Red Cloud
a war leader and a chief of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux). He led as a chief from 1868 to 1909. One of the most capable Native American opponents the United States Army faced, he led a successful campaign in 1866-1868, a war named after him, over control of the Powder River Country in northeastern Wyoming and southern Montana.
Indian Bureau
a bureau created to fight the titular group?
General Philip Sheridan
a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. His career was noted for his rapid rise to major general and his close association with Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who transferred Sheridan from command of an infantry division in the Western Theater to lead the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the East; prosecuted the later years of the Indian Wars of the Great Plains.
W. T. Sherman
Union Army General who led his famous "March to Sea" during the Civil War; When Grant assumed the U.S. presidency in 1869, he succeeded Grant as Commanding General of the Army (1869-83). As such, he was responsible for the U.S. Army's engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years, in the western United States.
Board of Indian Commissioners
a committee that advised the federal government of the United States on Native American policy and it inspected supplies delivered to Indian agencies to ensure the fulfillment of government treaty obligations to tribes.
Black Hills Gold
refers to the metal found in the Dakotas in July of 1876; mainly responsible for the Great Sioux War
Little Bighorn
a June 1876 battle; an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Gall, inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake). The U.S. Seventh Cavalry, including the Custer Battalion, a force of 700 men led by George Armstrong Custer, suffered a severe defeat. Five of the Seventh's companies were annihilated; Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother-in-law. Total U.S. deaths were 268, including scouts, and 55 were wounded.
Wounded Knee
happened on December 29, 1890, near the titular creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them 5 miles westward (8 km) to the creek where they made camp.
The rest of the 7th Cavalry Regiment arrived led by Colonel James Forsyth and surrounded the encampment supported by four Hotchkiss guns.
On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle claiming he had paid a lot for it. A scuffle over Black Coyote's rifle escalated and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry opening fire indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their own fellow troopers. Those few Lakota warriors who still had weapons began shooting back at the attacking troopers, who quickly suppressed the Lakota fire. The surviving Lakota fled, but U.S. cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed.
Nez Perce
a group of Indians named for their pierced noses; one of their leaders was Chief Joseph, who was brilliant in retreating his people and hiding them from U.S. troops; Chief Joseph eventually surrendered
Apache
a group of Indians famous for being lead under Geronimo; fought in Arizona and New Mexico territories as well as in Mexico; last true Indian opponents; final surrender in 1886 (decision was Geronimo's)
Helen Hunt Jackson
a United States writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government. She detailed the adverse effects of government actions in her history A Century of Dishonor (1881).
A Century of Dishonor
a non-fiction book by Helen Hunt Jackson that chronicles the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on injustices; published in 1881
Dawes Act
act that authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide the land into allotments for individual Indians; named for sponsor; objective was to stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society. Individual ownership of land was seen as an essential step. The act also provided that the government would purchase Indian land "excess" to that needed for allotment and open it up for settlement by non-Indians; well-intentioned, but Indians still got land taken from them (so still a failure in the end)
Comstock Lode
the first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada, on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range; discovery published in 1859
Big Bonanza
an enormous gold and silver ore body discovered beneath Virginia City (in the Comstock Lode)
Timber and Stone Act of 1878
an act that sold Western timberland for $2.50 per acre ($618/km²) in 160 acre (0.6 km²) blocks.

Land that was deemed "unfit for farming" was sold to those who might want to "timber and stone" (logging and mining) upon the land. The act was used by speculators who were able to get great expanses declared "unfit for farming" allowing them to increase their land holdings at minimal expense.
"Bonanza" Farms
very large farms in the United States performing large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat; made possible by a number of factors including: the efficient new farming machinery of the 1870s, the cheap abundant land available during that time period, the growth of eastern markets in the U.S., and the completion of most major railroads.
Open-Range Ranching
refers to ranching that occurred in the West by cowboys...
Chisholm Trail cattle drives
refers to cattle drives that occurred on an eponymous trail that led cattle from Texas to Kansas so that they could be shipped East
Desert Land Act
passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1877 to encourage and promote the economic development of the arid and semiarid public lands of the Western states. Through the Act, individuals may apply for a desert-land entry to reclaim, irrigate, and cultivate arid and semiarid public lands.

The act offered 640 acres (2.6 km2) of land to an adult married couple who would pay $1.25 an acre and promise to irrigate the land within three years. A single man would only receive half of the land for the same price. Individuals taking advantage of the act were required to submit proof of their efforts to irrigate the land within three years, but as water was relatively scarce, a great number of fraudulent "proofs" of irrigation were provided. (I'm pretty sure the act was a failure in that about 90% did not satisfy requirements)
Barbed Wire
invented by Glidden in 1874; revolutionary in keeping cattle and buffalo away from railroads; divided up the west; also contributed to range wars
Cattlemen's Associations
associations formed by ranchers(?)
Election of 1848
election between Lewis Cass (Democrat), Martin Van Buren (running with the Free Soil Party (Barnburners and Liberty Party)), and Whig Zachary Taylor; Free Soil Party took votes from Cass; Zachary Taylor won
Gold Rush
occurred during the years 1849 - 1860 in California; many people went to California because of this
Popular Sovereignty
referred to leaving the slavery debate to the states; letting them vote on the issue; caused problems (in the KS-NE Act, for example)
Compromise of 1850
compromise negotiated mainly by Stephen Douglas; Fugitive Slave Law enforced; Utah and New Mexico Territories created; California admitted as a free state; abolished slave trade in D.C.; Settled Texas claims to NM territory; opposed by Zachary Taylor, but he died in office; Millard Fillmore replaced him
Stephen A. Douglas
a senator from Illinois; negotiated Compromise of 1850 and was behind the KS-NE Act; debated Lincoln in a series of debates
Millard Fillmore
VP of Zachary Taylor; became President after Zachary Taylor died; favored Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Act
amended as a part of the Compromise of 1850; employed people called "commissioners" by the federal government to catch "fugitive" slaves; also made it illegal to try to help them
Crop value per slave
refers to how many crops a slave could grow relative to the cost of the slave (?)
Antebellum plantation culture
refers to the relations between masters and slaves on plantations; treatment of slaves varied from master to master, but slaves were not usually close to their masters or their families and were not treated very well, either (?)
Denmark Vesey (1822)
African American slave brought to the United States from the Caribbean of Coromantee background. After purchasing his freedom, he planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States. Word of the plans was leaked, and at Charleston, South Carolina, authorities arrested the plot's leaders before the uprising could begin. Vesey and others were tried, convicted and executed.
Nat Turner (1831)
led a slave rebellion in 1831; occurred in Southampton County, VA; 55 - 65 white men killed
Gradualism
belief in or the policy of advancing toward a goal by gradual, often slow stages; some abolitionists wanted to use this philosophy to get rid of slavery (proposed by more moderate abolitionists)
Immediate Emancipation
the belief in the instant abolition of slaves; supported strongly by people like William Lloyd Garrison (considered more extreme)
Panic of 1857
a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy; first worldwide economic crisis; failure of Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company and ruling of Dred Scott v. Sanford Case led to this crisis
Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
a written in 1852 that depicted slaves as human beings; characters dramatized and somewhat unrealistic, but still depicted slaves as humans; contributed to anti-slavery sentiments
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom, negotiated in 1850 by John M. Clayton and Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, later Lord Dalling. It was negotiated in response to attempts to build the Nicaragua Canal, a canal in Nicaragua that would connect the Pacific and the Atlantic; stated that should a canal be built, the two countries would share it
Election of 1852
election between Cass, Buchanan, and Douglas for the Democrats; Franklin Pierce emerges as a darkhorse Democrat; "Conscience Whigs" vs "Cotton Whigs"; eventually nominate Winfield Scott for Whig party; Pierce wins
Gadsden Purchase
a land purchase that extended the land at the south of Alabama and New Mexico; opened possibility of Southern Continental Railroad; negotiated in 1853
Ostend Manifesto
a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.; became very unpopular once people found out about it. (North and Europe outraged)
Commodore Matthew Perry
the military officer who opened doors to Japan by sailing there with warships and refusing to leave until they decided to open up to the rest of the world
Townsend Harris
first American ambassador to Japan; created namesake treaty that favored visa status for Japanese students and opened ports to U.S. in Japan
Kansas-Nebraska Act
occurred in 1854; split KS and NE; repealed 36o 30' line; slavery question left to popular sovereignty; to try to get South on board with northern transcontinental railroad; increased sectional tensions; Bloody Kansas revolts resulted in around 200 dead; negotiated largely by Stephen Douglas
Know-Nothing (American) Party
a secretive political party; against immigration and Catholics; popular in South as well as North; 1854 midterm successes; Leonard Jerome of Rochester, NY was the leader of them
Nativist
one who favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.
Free-Soilers
a political party that pushed for the abolition of slavery; largely absorbed by Republican Party in 1854
Conscience Whigs
a faction of the Whig Party in the state of Massachusetts noted for their moral opposition to slavery. They were noted as opponents of the more conservative "Cotton" Whigs who dominated the state party; led by Charles Sumner
Anti-Nebraska Democrats
an American political party formed in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Its founders, including Salmon P. Chase, held deep moral opposition to slavery, and were thus appalled by legislation that could lead to more slave-holding states; morphed into Republican Party
"Bleeding Kansas"
refers to the revolts that led to 200 dead in Kansas due to the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Popular Sovereignty
middle position on the slavery issue. It said that actual residents of territories should be able to decide by voting whether or not slavery would be allowed in the territory. The federal government did not have to make the decision, and by appealing to democracy Cass and Douglas hoped they could finesse the question of support for or opposition to slavery. Douglas applied it to Kansas in the Kansas-Nebraska Act which passed Congress in 1854. The Act had two unexpected results. By dropping the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (which said slavery would never be allowed in Kansas), it was a major boost for the expansion of slavery; led to trouble when the Kansas-Nebraska Act was created
"Border Ruffians"
refers to people who came from out of state to vote in the Kansas election to determine whether slavery would be legal in that state
John Brown
attacked Harpers Ferry; wanted to create a slave revolt; also fought in Kansas and Nebraska during the Bloody Kansas revolts
Charles Sumner
famous for being caned by Brooks; one of the Radical Republicans who pushed for equality of blacks; also lead the Conscience Whig party before it gave way to the Republican Party
Election of 1856
Election in which Republicans nominated John C. Fremont ("Free soil, free speech, Fremont), Democrats nominated Buchanan (because he was unsullied by KS-NE act) (came from PA); Know-Nothings nominate Millard Fillmore; Buchanan wins
Dred Scott decision
a Supreme Court decision (ruled under the Taney court) that ruled that even free blacks were not equal to whites and that Constitutional rights did not apply to them
Lecompton Constitution
a pro-slavery faction-formed Constitution that was created for Kansas; Buchanan wanted to accept it, but Douglas rallied Congress to oppose him; Kansas joined as a free state just before the Civil War
Stephen Douglas
a Senator from Illinois; debated against Lincoln in a series of debates; expansionist and cared about economy; wanted a transcontinental railroad to run through Illinois
Abraham Lincoln
became the 16th President of the United States; debated Douglas in a series of debates; disliked slavery but was still racist; was President throughout Civil War
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
the series of debates that occurred between the two titular opponents for the Illinois Senate seat
Freeport Doctrine
articulated by Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858, in the titular town. Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular sovereignty proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the majority decision of the United States Supreme Court in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from U.S. territories (since Douglas professed great respect for Supreme Court decisions, and accused the Republicans of disrespecting the court, yet this aspect of the Dred Scott decision was contrary to Douglas' views and politically unpopular in Illinois).
"Fire-eaters"
refers to radical Southern Democrats who wanted to secede from the Union, such as Jefferson Davis; blocked northern legislation; once they were out of Congress, Republicans took advantage of their absence and passed laws that they blocked, before
Harpers Ferry Raid
a raid made by John Brown on a city in Virginia; wanted to inspire a slave revolt, but the slaves did not follow him; he was executed, later; supported by North; hated by South
Election of 1860
an election between Stephen Douglas (Northern Democratic platform), Abraham Lincoln (Republican platform), John Breckenridge (Southern Democratic platform), and John Bell (Constitutional Party platform); Lincoln won; Southerners were outraged, because Lincoln didn't even appear on some of their ballots, and they were afraid that slavery was going to be taken away from them; South Carolina seceded shortly afterwards
Crittenden Compromise
an unsuccessful proposal introduced by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden on December 18, 1860. It aimed to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860-1861 by addressing the grievances that led the slave states of the United States to contemplate secession from the United States; composed of constitutional amendments and congressional resolutions; vetoed by Lincoln; last-ditch attempt to appease South (would have prohibited later amendments)
Secession Ordinance
document drafted and ratified in 1860 and 1861 by the states officially seceding from the United States of America. Each state ratified its own, typically by means of a specially elected convention or general referendum.
Confederate States of America
refers collectively to the states who seceded from the Union (S.C., Miss., Flor., Ala., Geo., Louis., Tex., Ark., N.C., Tenn., and Vir.)
Jefferson Davis
a fire-eater who was elected the President of the Confederate States of America
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
Lincoln's first public speech to the people in which he addressed issues of slavery and secession of the South
Fort Sumter
the first battle of the Civil War in which Confederates opened fire on a Union military fort in Charleston (4/12/1861)
Blockade
what the Union formed to try to prevent the South from trading with Europe (?)
Anaconda Plan
the plan for defeating the Confederacy; formed by Winfield Scott and George McClellan; involved forming a blockade and preventing resources from getting to the Confederacy
Wheeling Conferences
a series of two meetings that ultimately repealed the Ordinance of Secession passed by Virginia, thus establishing the Restored government of Virginia, which ultimately authorized the counties that organized the convention to become West Virginia. The convention was held at what became known as West Virginia Independence Hall in the namesake town (May - June, 1861)
Repealed Ordinance of Secession
the result of the Wheeling Conferences; West Virginia gained statehood after doing this
(First Battle of) Bull Run
A Civil War battle that occurred July 12, 1861; unseasoned Union Army troops under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell against the equally unseasoned Confederate Army under Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard near Manassas Junction. McDowell's ambitious plan for a surprise flank attack against the Confederate left was not well executed by his inexperienced officers and men, but the Confederates, who had been planning to attack the Union left flank, found themselves at an initial disadvantage.

Confederate reinforcements under the command of Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad and the course of the battle changed. A brigade of Virginians under a relatively unknown colonel from the Virginia Military Institute, Thomas J. Jackson, stood their ground and Jackson received his famous nickname, "Stonewall Jackson". The Confederates launched a strong counterattack and as the Union troops began withdrawing under pressure, many panicked and it turned into a rout as they frantically ran in the direction of nearby Washington, D.C. Both sides were sobered by the violence and casualties of the battle, and they realized that the war would potentially be much longer and bloodier than they had originally anticipated; Confederate Victory
Merrimack (Confederacy) vs. Monitor (Union)
a famous naval war battle between the two namesake ships; both were ironclad; occurred March 9, 1862
Battle of Shiloh
also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6-7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union army under Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the river. Confederate forces under Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard launched a surprise attack on Grant there. The Confederates achieved considerable success on the first day, but were ultimately defeated on the second day; Grant did well
Battle of Antietam
occurred September 17, 1862; fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and namesake Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Union soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties; Lincoln gave Emancipation Proclamation afterwards; Lee's army vs. McClellan's; Burnside was also involved; McClellan let Lee retreat
Battle of Fredericksburg
fought December 11-15, 1862, in and around namesake town of Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. The Union army's futile frontal assaults on December 13 against entrenched Confederate defenders on the heights behind the city is remembered as one of the most one-sided battles of the American Civil War, with Union casualties more than twice as heavy as those suffered by the Confederates.

Burnside's plan was to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg in mid-November and race to the Confederate capital of Richmond before Lee's army could stop him. Bureaucratic delays prevented Burnside from receiving the necessary pontoon bridges in time and Lee moved his army to block the crossings. When the Union army was finally able to build its bridges and cross under fire, urban combat resulted in the city on December 11-12. Union troops prepared to assault Confederate defensive positions south of the city and on a strongly fortified ridge just west of the city known as Marye's Heights.
Battle of Chancellorsville
a major battle of the American Civil War; It was fought from April 30 to May 6, 1863, in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, near the namesake village. Two related battles were fought nearby on May 3 in the vicinity of Fredericksburg. The campaign pitted Union Army Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac against an army half its size, Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia; it's known as Lee's "perfect battle" because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a much larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory. The victory, a product of Lee's audacity and Hooker's timid combat performance, was tempered by heavy casualties and the mortal wounding of Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson to friendly fire, a loss that Lee likened to "losing my right arm."
Siege of Vicksburg
(May 18 - July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the namesake Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate army of Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of namesake city of Mississippi; together with Battle of Gettysburg, this battle forms the turning point of the Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg
fought July 1-3, 1863, in and around the namesake Pennsylvania town. The battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War, it is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's invasion of the North.
Gettysburg Address
the public speech that Lincoln gave to the people after the namesake Civil War Battle in PA; "Four score and seven years ago...a new nation, conceived in liberty...we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground...government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.)
Fall of Atlanta
occurred on 9/2/1864; refers to the devastation of Georgia's capital due to Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman
the Union General who made a famous March to the Sea; executed total war in Georgia; destroyed railroad system
Sherman's March to the Sea
campaign by the namesake Union general as he marched through Georgia; destroyed crops and railroads along the way; supposed to be a punishment to the South
Fall of Richmond
occurred on 4/2/1865; beginning of the end of the Civil War; Lee realized that the war could not continue
Appomattox Court House
the location where the final surrender of the South took place
Union Advantages (Confederate Disadvantages)
refers to the fact that the Union had a better industry, higher population, and other things that the South did not have
Union Disadvantages (Confederate Advantages)
refers to the fact that the Union did not have very good generals and the fact that the Union had to invade the Confederacy in order to win
Trent Affair
an international incident in which American ships pulled over the namesake British ship in order to arrest John Slidell and another man for wanting to help Confederacy; seen as a violation of British sovereignty (and kind of ironic)
Alabama Issue
refers to the fact that Britain made ships for the Confederacy; got the U.S. very angry; sued Britain for it
Native Americans
no idea what this is doing here; apparently the Union had some sort of diplomacy with them
Confederate Diplomacy