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Central and South America
Terms in this set (207)
a large system of mountain ranges located along the Pacific coast of Central and South America
a large, grassy, treeless area in South America, used for grazing and farming
a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall, which make it suitable for farming
a vast area of grassland and rich soil in south-central South America
a river mainly in Venezuela and part of South America's northernmost river system
the second longest river in the world, and one of South America's three major river systems, running about 4,000 miles from west to east, and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean
a river in central South America and one of its three major river systems, originating in the highlands of southern Brazil, travelling about 3,000 miles south and west
a member of the Quechen peoples of South America who built a civilization in the Andes Mountains in the 15th and 16th centuries
the language of the Inca Empire, now spoken in the Andes highlands
the heartland or place of origin of a major culture; a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to other cultures
The Mayans were believed to have two historical cities. One of these cities was called "land with small houses". What was its name?
the name of Central America after the region declared independence from Mexico in 1823
United Provinces of Central America
a ship canal cut through Panama connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean
a style of music that began in Trinidad and combines musical elements from Africa, Spain, and the Caribbean
a style of music that developed in Jamaica in the 1960s and is rooted in African, Caribbean, and American music, often dealing with social problems and religion
takes place outside official channels, without benefits or protection from workers
What is the name of the Incan's most famous city?
the conquering of the Native Americans by the Spanish
the ancient Aztec capital, site of Mexico City today
the political party introduced in 1929 in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century
Institutional Revolutionary Party (IRP)
people of mixed Spanish and Native American heritage
a factory in Mexico that assembles imported materials into finished goods for export
The Aztecs believe the world was created and ordered by this god.
an important trade agreement creating a huge zone of cooperation on trade and economic issues in North America
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
a forest region located in the Tropical Zone with a heavy concentration of different species of broadleaf trees
a way of clearing fields for planting by cutting trees, brush, and grasses and burning them
When was the classic period of the Mayans?
an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes, using step-like horizontal fields cut into the slopes
a factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region
a factor that draws or attracts people to another location
the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems
There is no location in Central America that is more than how many miles from the sea?
What is an ismas?
narrow group of land with water on both sides
What are the names of the geoglyphs found in Peru?
What mountains combine to form volcanic chains that continues through Central America?
What forces threaten Central America?
earthquakes, hurricanes, and active volcanoes
What are the factories in Mexico called that assemble items later sold?
How wide is the most narrow location in Central America?
30 miles wide
What are positive aspects of Central America?
fertile soil, productive agricultural zones, dense population, coffee, bananas
What is the creation myth of the Mayans called?
What in Central America reflects 300 years of Spanish domination?
language, culture, and religion
The Aztecs believe each human being is drawn or connected from the earth to the heavens. What is this line called?
All of Central America reflects Spanish culture except for what country from what rule?
When did most countries in Central America gain independence?
What do you call items that attract people to a place?
In the 1500s, Franciscan friars converted Indians to what religion?
What caused many European deaths in Central America?
Who makes up the majority of Central America?
Who are mestizos?
people of mixed Indian and Spanish heritage
The Incan emperor believed he descended from what person?
the sun god
Where was the Mayan empire located?
Guatemala, Belize, Mexico
Where was the Olmec empire located?
Where was the Incan empire located?
Where was the Aztec empire located?
List the ancient civilizations in order from earliest to die to last to die
Olmecs, Mayas, Aztecs, Incas
List the ancient civilizations in order from earliest created to last created
Mayas, Olmecs, Incas, Aztecs
The Mayans created the only fully developed what in the Americas?
Who is the Mayan creator god?
How many days were in a Mayan calendar?
What are the Mayans known for?
art, architecture, math, and astronomy
When was the Mayan classic period?
The Mayans had a time of large-scale what?
The Mayans recorded their records in folded books. What were these books called?
What do you call an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides?
The Mayans believed in three major plains. What are they?
underworld, sky, earth
The Mayans worshipped a feathered serpent called what?
What is the cactus rod that is used to pierce your body?
The Incans built an empire that stretched nearly how many miles south from Peru?
Which Spanish conquered the Incans?
What is the technique where you clear fields by cutting trees?
How many canons did Pizzaro have against the Incans?
Lake Titicaca is on the border of what two South American countries?
Peru and Bolivia
What were the massive cities of the Mayan empire?
Palenque and Tikal
What are theories on why the Mayan culture collapsed?
war, agriculture, drought, disease
What does Palenque mean?
land of strong houses
The Mayans integrated natural features like open public plazas and would build around a what?
natural water source
At the center of Mayan plazas would be what?
temples, government buildings, and sometimes ball courts
What were ball courts used for by the Mayans?
fun and ritual
The Mayans creation of which myth explains the mythical importance of basketball
What did the Mayans independently develop the concept of?
What was the Mayan writing?
hieroglyphics with phonetic symbols
The Mayan hieroglyphics were a combination of what?
syllabic sounds and images
What dod epigraphers do?
The Mayans had what kind of extremely accurate observations?
The Mayans knew the length of the what?
How many days did the Mayans use in their calendar?
What did the Mayans believe in?
cyclical nature of time
What were Mayan rituals closely related to?
Who was the most important deity in the Mayan civilization?
Who is the Mayan creator god?
In the Mayan empire, priests made predictions about the future based on what?
What are the three major planes?
underworld, earth, sky
The Mayans believe the gods could do what?
merge and take on different forms
What is Popol Vuh?
the creation story
What is the jaguar a symbol of in the Mayan civilization?
darkness and night
What is the feathered servant in the Mayan civilization?
Aztec cosmology attributed the creation and ordering of the world to the Toltec god __________
The Aztecs believed each human was a kind of what?
What did the Aztecs offer up to gain the favor of the gods?
hearts and heads of their warriors and captives
What did the Aztecs believe the only way to delay death was?
to continually nourish the sun through sacrifices
What was the "currency" that the Aztecs used in their exchanges with their gods?
Why did the Aztecs perform ritual self-sacrifice on a daily basis?
give thanks to the gods, only way to appease gods
What is self-sacrifice called in the Aztec empire?
What is a tequitl?
tribute or tax
What type of tax did the Aztecs take?
How did the Aztecs differentiate rank and profession?
What is another word for heart in the Aztec empire?
What is a sharp cactus quill called?
What did the Aztecs use to take blood daily?
maguey (sharp cactus quill)
What did the Aztec diet consist of?
triad of maize, beans and squash plus chile and tomato, high protein
What impressed the Spanish about Aztec medical knowledge?
Aztec battle surgeons healed soldiers faster than the Spanish surgeons
What did earrings prove in the Aztec civilization?
The Spanish were impressed by what transportation in the Aztec civilization?
canoes (normally 14 feet long)
When the Aztec civilization was discovered, what was found from those sacrificed in the Aztec empire?
What are codices?
What are folded books?
How did the Spanish attempt to go east?
Where did Christopher Columbus land in 1492?
Cuba and Hispaniola
What is Hispaniola?
Dominican Republic and Haiti
How many voyages did Christopher Columbus take?
When Columbus asked to return to Central America for a 5th voyage, who forbid him to return?
What gave Columbus and his men such an advantage over the native Indians besides superior weaponry?
more men/missionaries, better food, horses and body armor
In 1519 Herman Cortes led an expedition with 600 men to the Mexican mainland in search of slaves and to establish what?
From his glorious capital of Tenochtitlan, the Aztec emporer Moctezuma sent messengers to greet who?
Where is Tenochtitlan located?
present day Mexico City
Who did the Aztecs think Cortes was?
Quetzalcoatl (creator god)
What killed many of the people in Tenochtitlan?
How would you describe Cortes and his actions upon arriving in Central America?
Why was Cortes welcomed by the Aztecs?
they thought he was Quetzalcoatl
Although the Aztec empire was destroyed, the Aztec _____________ remains
According to legend the Virgin Mary appeared to an Aztec convert named _____________
The hill on which Virgin Mary appeared was considered the sacred place of the Aztec mother goddess ____________________
What is Day of the Dead called in the Aztec culture?
Dia de los Muertos
How did Juan Diago ultimately convince the Bishop that the Virgin Mary appeared to him?
showed him flowers from when the Virgin Mary healed his Uncle, flowers then came out of the Bishop's robe
The vast Inca Empire stretched nearly ________ miles south from the equator and contained half of the population in South America
The Inca emperor believed that he was descended from the __________
An efficient system of ______ and messengers kept the Inca emperor informed about major events in his empire.
Who founded Matchu Pitzu in 1911?
What is the capital of the Incan Empire?
Which Spanish conquistador conquered the Incan Empire?
How many men, horses and canons did Pizarro have when he met the Incan emperor?
180, 37, 2
How many Incans were there when Pizarro attacked the Incan empire?
In exchange for his freedom, the emperor offered the Spaniards a room filled with what?
gold and silver
Oppression of the Incas continued for centuries and by the end of the 20th century there are fewer than ___________ individuals of direct Inca descent. The ancient population is said to have been between ____________________
3 million, 8 to 10 million
How would you describe Pizarro and his treatment of the Inca emperor?
In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, the Pope drew "______________" down what he believed to be the center of South America
Line of Demarcation
Why were the Europeans so successful in South America?
guns, germs, horses
What was the significance of the treaty of Tordesillas?
colonized South America
What was the European treatment of the Native Americans like?
misguided paternalism, forced labor, forced conversion
What is explotation?
The Indian people were divided among the settlers and forced to provide them with labor, good, and other goods in what system?
Under the Encomienda System, Spaniards considered it their obligation to convert the Indians to what?
It is estimated that a total of ____ of the original population of Natives was gone in about 100 years
Exploration caused the Americas to have a ________________ perspective
Europeans constantly sought what in the Americas?
gold and silver
Colonizing the Americas caused a new era of what?
What religion was the most influential?
Roman Catholic Church
In the sixties a movement called _______________ emerged
Who founded the Liberation Theology in 1971?
What was Gustavu Gutlerrer's occupation? What did he found? What else did he do?
Beruvian priest, Liberation Theology, wrote book
Roman Catholicism is the professed religion of ________ Central Americans
What is Liberation Theology?
more money is more sin, make sure money doesn't corrupt you, believes God loves the poor more
The Liberation Theology has a strong desire to bring justice to who?
The Liberation Theology is sometimes described as a form of what?
Who is the Venezuela president? When was he first elected?
Hugo Chavez, 1999
What does Hugo Chavez believe?
US wants to overthrow him
What did Chavez call Bush?
What is the largest tropical rainforest?
What is the Amazon Rain Forest also known as?
How many acres is the Amazon Rain Forest?
The Amazon contains __________ of the planet's remaining rain forests.
What is the largest and most species tropical rainforest in the world?
One square kilometer in the Amazon may contain over _______ types of trees and ________ species of higher plants
What are popular hunted animals in the Amazon? Why are they hunted?
crocodile (skins), river turtles (eggs), giant sea cow (blubber)
What is the largest rodent in the world?
Name some animals that live in the Amazon Rain Forest.
What are factors that threaten the rainforest?
hunting, deforestation, drought
What type of farming has being to spread further in the Amazon?
slash and burn
What did Amazon indians contribute?
What is quinine?
antidote for malaria
___________ are made to travel through the Amazon Rain Forest
At the current rate, in 20 years just a little over _______ of the Amazon rain forest will still remain
South America is the ______ largest continent
The Andes are the world's ______________ and _____________ tallest mountain range
The __________________ Desert in Chile has never recorded rainfall
Iquaca Falls is the world's ___________ waterfall
________________ is the world's largest waterfall
Where is Iquacu Falls located?
border of Brazil and Argentina
The name America is derived from that of the Italian navigator __________________, one of the earliest European explorers of the New World
Where is Lake Titicaca located?
between Bolivia and Peru
Who was Lake Titicaca believed to be greated by?
Where did the Incan god create the world?
What are geoglyphs?
writings on the earth
How many islands are there in Lake Titicaca? What are they made from?
40+, floating reeds
Where are the Nazca Lines located?
in the Nazca Desert in Peru
When were the Nazca Lines believed to be created? By who?
between 200 BC-700AD; Nazca culture
What was located on Lake Titicaca?
Where is the Atacama Desert located in relation to the Andes Mountains?
Chile, west on the Pacific Coast
Name two large rivers that feed directly into the Amazon.
Maderia River, Negro River
The Andes are an extension of which two mountain chains in North America?
Sierra Madre Mountains, Rocky Mountains
Which of the landforms on your map represent plains? Describe where each one is located?
llanos (Guinea Highlands) and pampas (southern end of South America)
Which two peninsulas form part of the coast of Mexico?
Baja and Yucatan
Of the 13 South American countries, which two do not share a border with Brazil?
Chile and Ecuador
What major city is the furthest south on South America?
What is the largest island in the West Indies? What is its capital?
Through which countries does the Amazon River flow?
Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Columbia
What South American countries do not have access to the oceans?
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