40 terms

A&P Cell structure

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Cell membrane
surrounds the cell, forms a semipermeable membrane. A phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded in it.
Nucleus
Contains the deoxyribonucleic a
A membrane‐bound organelle in eukaryotic cells functioning to maintain the integrity of the genetic material and, through the expression of that material, controlling and regulating cellular activities.
Prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes.
Eukaryotic cell
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Examples of organisms with these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
Ribosome
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Lysosome
In an ANIMAL CELL. Contain chemicals that break down certain materials. Breaks down dead cells.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Proteins are made on the endoplasmic reticulum's ribosomes. They are collected inside the endoplasmic reticulum and transported throughout the cell. Transports and modifies organelles, highway for cell.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.
Centrioles
a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
Golgi apparatus
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Mitochondria
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
Cation
A positively charged ion
Anion
Negatively charged ion
The commonest intracellular cation
potassium
Epithelium
A membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation.
Tissue
A group of similar cells that perform a specific function.
Simple squamous epithelium
Simple columnar epithelium
Transitional epithelium
urinary bladder
apocrine gland
glands that secretes product by exocytosis or pinches off into vesicles, ex. mammary glands
_____ accumulate their secretory product at the apical (outer) margin of the secreting cell. That portion of the cell pinches off from the rest of the cell to form the secretion. The remaining part of the cell repairs itself and repeats the process.
merocrine gland
forms its secretory products and discharges them by exocytosis; remains intact throughout the process
holocrine gland
secretion accumulates inside cell, cell ruptures and becomes the secretion (also a great variety of molecules) e.g. sebaceous skin glands
Sweat glands
Two types: eccerine (found over entire surface of skin, respond to heat) and apocrine (congregated in certain regions of the dermis, respond to stress). Are found in the skin separate from hair follicles.
Tiny coiled glands dogs and cats only have apocrine glands. Horses have a large number of eccerine glands
Ecerine glands
Found in horses and human open directly onto the surface of the skin.
Mammary glands
modified sweat glands
Sebaceous glands
Glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.
Endocrine gland
Ductless or tubeless organs or groups of cells that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Exocrine gland
A gland that secretes its product into a duct, which ultimately carries the product to the surface of the body or into a body cavity. Some examples of exocrine gland and their products are sweat glands (sweat), gastric glands (acid, mucus, protease), the liver (bile), sebaceous glands (oil), and lacrimanl glands (tears).
Acinar glands
secretory cells clustered into spherical acini, secretions collect in center and move through duct to surface, secrete a serous secretion (has proteins, ions) and stains dark bc rough ER
Tubular glands
Multicellular exocrine glands of which the secretory cells form a TUBE.
Branched tubular glands
Emptying into the gastric pits of the stomach are
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis
A process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
Pinocytosis
A type of endocytosis in which the cell "gulps" droplets of fluid into tiny vesicles.
Exocytosis
The process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with a cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment
Endocytosis
Active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell.
Active transport
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
Passive transport
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
Intracellular anion
Phosphate and protein
Extracellular anion
Chloride Cl-
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