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112 terms

Cultural Anthropology

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Anthropology
the study of human species
exploration of human diversity across time and space
holistic and comparative study of humanity
from the Greek words "anthropos"- humans, and "logos"- the study of
Cultural Anthropology
the study of human society and culture
Archaeology
the study of material remains, usually from the past, to describe and explain human behavior
Physical Anthropology
the systematic study of humans as biological organisms
Linguistic Anthropology
the study of human language
Culture
traditions and customs transmitted through learning that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of people exposed to them
Society
a group of people who are interdependent and share a common culture
- as they share a common culture they typically have a group identity
Bride Service
a designated period of time after marriage when the groom works for the brides family
Holistic
interested in the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language and culture
Applied Anthropology
the application of anthropological data, perspectives and theory and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems
Ethnography
firsthand, personal study of local cultural settings
description of a culture
Ethnology
comparative study of culture
Market Exchange
buying and selling of goods and services at prices set by supply and demand
traditionally in marketplaces
today, no longer restricted to marketplaces
Nomadism
entire group moves with animals during the year
Participant Observation
technique of learning learning a people's culture through direct participation in their everyday life for an extended period
Cultural Resource Management
the branch of Applied Anthropology aimed at preserving sites threatened by dams, highways, and other projects
Emic Approach
native oriented
investigates how local people perceive and categorize t he world
Etic Approach
science oriented
emphasizes categories, explanations and interpretations that the anthropologist finds important
Bronislaw Malinowski
considered the father/founder of ethnography
Colonialism
the political, social, economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time
Potlach
practiced by tribes of the North Pacific Coast of North America
where sponsors gave away resources in exchange for greater prestige
Horticulture
the cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks
slash and burn or swidden agriculture
Ethnocentrism
the tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to apply one's own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures
Agriculture
plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor
-erosion of soil
-reliance on land
-animals lead to disease
-stratification
Cultural Relativism
the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
at its most extreme it states that the moral and ethical rules and all cultures deserve equal respect
Economy
a system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources
economics is the study of such systems
Tarawad
Nayar, India
society without nuclear family, women have multiple children but kids aren't linked to fathers
Enculturation
transmission of a societies culture from one generation to the next, by process by which a child learns his or her culture, either being taught through direct instruction or observation, experience and interaction with others
Globalization
Contemporary flow of goods, people, technology, and production across national boundaries
forces include international commerce and finance, travel and tourism, transnational migration, the mass media, and various high tech information flows
Redistribution
motives include: to maintain superiority through display of wealth, ensure a standard of living for supporters, and establish alliances
requires central administration and economic surplus, involves the element of coersion
Franz Boas
founder of the North American Cultural Anthropology
introduced the concept of cultural relativism
historical particularism
Margaret Mead
early public anthropologist
'coming of Age in Samoa'
Claude Levi- Strauss
French structuralism
symbolic anthropology
Cultural Ecology
Leslie White, Julian Steward
stressed the interaction between environment and culture
Culture Shock
a psychological disorientation experienced when attempting to operate in a radically different cultural environment
refers to a whole set of feelings about being in an alien setting and the ensuing reactions
Transhumance
part of group moves with herds
Functionalism
the view that one must study all aspects of a culture to understand the whole culture
State
autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within its territory
centralized government, draft men for war
power to collect taxes
decree and enforce laws
Historical Particularism
histories are not comparable; diverse paths can lead to the same cultural result
Chiefdom
regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single ruling individual who is at the head of ranked hierarchy of people
office of chief is hereditary and for life
redistributive system
Ethnocide
a dominant group tries to destroy and culture of an ethnic group
Ethnicity
based on cultural similarities among members of the same ethnic group and differences between that group and others
groups share beliefs, customs, name, religion
Race
a cultural category rather than a biological reality
an ethnic group that is assumed to have a biological basis but does not
socially constructed, defined in terms of contrasts perceived by particular societies
Tribe
group of communities in a region, sharing a common culture
higher population density than bands
informal leadership
Yanomami
Shaman
receives his/her power directly from the spirit world
acquires the ability to do sacred things through personal communication with the supernatural
part-time religious specialist
relationship with community is personal
Multiculturalism/ Plural Society
two or more groups live in harmony with one another while retaining their own ethnic heritage, pride, and identity
Discrimination
refers to policies and practices that harm a group and its members
de facto: practiced but not legally sanctioned
de jure: part of a law
Prejudice
the devaluation of a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities or attributes
Genocide
mass annihilation of groups of people
Burakumin
ethnically Japanese, social outcasts and generally live in segregated communities
Linguistics
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language
Historical Linguistics
anthropologists reconstruct ancient languages by comparing their contemporary descendants and in doing so make discoveries about history
Phoneme
smallest classes of sound that change meaning
Sociolinguistics
examines linguistic diversity: ranges from mulit-lingualism to the varied dialects and styles used in a single language
shows how speech reflects social differences
Kinesics
the study of gestures, body postures, and motions, facial expressions, as communicative phenomena
Phonology
investigate the sound system in any language
Morphology
the study of the structure of words
Descriptive Linguistics
studies the structure of language and its variation within language and across languages
sound and shape of language
Lexicon
vocabulary
Syntax
rules of principles of phrase and sentence making
Reciprocity
exchange of goods and services between two parties
1) generalized
2) balanced
3) negative
Foraging
hunting and gathering
Pastoralism
a type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
a theory claiming that language influences perception
Sir Edward Tylor
founder of the anthropology of religion, believed that progression of cultures was related to their religious system: animism, polytheism, monotheism
Traje
traditional Maya dress
Band
small groups of fewer than 100 people, related by kinship or marriage
Closed Corporate Community
Eric Wolf: communities that have collective control over land
mechanisms for forcing the redistribution of wealth, forbidding outsiders from joining the community
Costumbre
traditional customs of a community
Matrilineal Descent
descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish group membership
Descent
a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry
Patrilineal Descent
descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership
Ambilineal Descent
system in which individuals may affiliate with the mother or father's descent group
Patrilocality
the married couple lives with or near the relatives of the husband's father
Matrilocality
the married couple lives with or near the relatives of the wife
Clan
members claim descent from a common ancestor
members do not know the genealogical links to that ancestor
Lineage
group of consaguineal kin who trace their genealogical links to a common ancestor
Unilineal Descent
descent that establishes group membership exclusively through either the male or female line
Incest
mating with certain kin who are defined by society as being inappropriate sexual partners
Exogamy
rule the requires a person to marry outside a group
Endogamy
rule that requires a person to marry withing a group
Polygamy
having more than one spouse at a time
Polygyny
marriage of one man to more than one woman at once
Polyandry
marriage of one woman to more than one man at once
Bilateral Descent
people trace their descent equally through the father and mothers line
Zapatistas
indigenous people had a life expectancy of 40 years, malnourishment, kids not school, produces 50% of Mexico's electricity- Chiapas, Mexico
January 1, 1994
siexe San Cristobal de las Casas
subcomondante Marcos
did not win against government
movement influenced other and gathered followers
guerilla movement
Bridewealth
compensation given upon marriage by the family of the groom to the family of the bride
Dowry
involves the transfer of goods or money from the brides family to the groom or the groom's family
Sororate
widower marries the sister of the dead wife
Levirate
widow marries the brother of dead husband
Big Man
has supporters in several villages
common in south pacific societies
lead by example
regulator of regional political organization
Totem
when a clan's apical ancestor is nonhuman
Ancestral Spirits
spirit is freed at death
retains an active interest in society after death
found in societies with descent-based groups
Consanguineal
related by blood
Affinal
relatives by marriage
in-laws
Gender
refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics
Voodoo
Hatian folk religion
means "spirit"
worship of "Ioa"
Arranged Marriage
a marriage in which the partner is chosen by someone other than the bride or groom
Anthony Wallace
most important religion studying anthropologist
defined religion as "a set of rituals rationalized by myth which mobilizes supernatural powers for the purpose for achieving or preventing transformations of state in man and nature"
Animism
belief in spirit beings that may inhabit plants, animals, mountains, rocks and other natural forces
Emile Durkheim
...
Polytheism
belief in several gods and goddesses
Monotheism
belief in one single god or divinity
Hegemony
the internalization of a dominant ideology
Civilization
urbanized, state-level society
Kinship
consanguineal relatives
affinal relatives
compadrazgo
Cargo Cults
take their name from the focus on cargo- European goods that have been brought to the religion by cargo planes and ships
revitalization movements that emerge when traditional communities have regular contact with industrial societies but lack their wealth, technology, and living standards
Prince Phillip Movement
Chief
a person who exercises control over others
Mothers of La Plaza de Mayo
Argentine children were stolen by the government and are still missing
the mothers protest at the May Square in Buenos Aires every Monday in white bonnets wanting to know what happened to their children
Compadrazgo
godparenthood- fictive kinship
important means of extablishing social relations with individuals that are not blood relatives or related by marriage
Olympian Religons
organized with hierarchy
polytheistic: pantheon of gods
monotheistic: priesthoods, supernatural phenomenons are under control of one supreme deity
Handsome Lake
...