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Economics Final Study Guide

A nation has a population of 300 million. Of these 80 million are retired, in the military, in institutions, or under 16 years old. There are 210 million employed and 10 million unemployed. The unemployment rate is:
10/220 = .047r 4.76% employment rate= unemployed/labor force X 100)
The rate of unemployment when the economy is at its potential output is called the:
natural rate of unemployment
You have lost your job in an automobile plant because of the use of robots for welding on the assembly line. What type of unemployment are you experiencing?
If the annual inflation rate is 5% per yer, about how many years will it take for the price level to double?
(rule of 70 Growth rate / 70) .05/70= 7
The industries or sectors of the economy in which business cycle fluctuations tend to affect output the most are:
Producers-Captial goods
In which phase of theusiness cycle will the economy most likely experience rising real output and falling unemployment?
During periods of full employment the which groups of people decrease and rate of unemployment increases?
Ages 16-19
A college graduate using the summer following graduation to search for a job would represent what type of unemployment?
Frictional unemployment
What is structural unemployment
demand for the skill decreases
Frictional unemployment means
In between jobs
Cyclical unemployment means
unemployment that is caused by a decline in totoal spending
What are the phases of the business cycle:
Peak, recession, trough, expansion
If actual GDP is $340 billion and there is a positive GDP gap of $20 billion, potential GDP is:
(actual GDP-potential GDP= GDP gap) $360 billion potential
In which of the following cases would real income rise?
nominal income increases or prices go down
The size of the MPC is assumed to be:
(marginal propensity to consume or change in consumption to a change in income) MPC= change in consumption/change in income
Suppose that a new machine, having a useful life of one year, costs $80,000 and that it is projected to earn net additional revenue of $96,000. The expected rate of return (ROI) is:
(VF-VI)/VI= ROI) $96000-$80000= $16000. $16,000/$80000= .20 or 20%
MPS is and how to calculate
marginal propensity to save MPS= change in saving/change in income.
If business taxes are reduced and the real interest rate increases what will be affected by investment spending?
decrease in investment spending
The multiplier effect means that:
Change in spending changes output and income by more than the initial change in investment spending. (multiplier= change in real GDP/initial change in spending)
As disposable income decreases, consumption
If the consumption function shifts downward, and the shift was not caused by a tax change, then the saving schedule:
Goes up
which would shift the consumption schedule upward?
wealth, borrowing, expectaions of prices rising
An inverse relationship between the rate of interest and the level of:
Investment demand curve (See graph) f
Which would decrease investment demand?
real interest going up
The greater the MPS, the
lower MPC (decrease impact change in consumption)
A private closed economy includes:
consumption and investment
The equilibrium level of GDP in a private closed economy is where:
C + Ig= GDP
Equilibrium GDP is
level at which the total quanity of goods produced equals the total quanity of good purchased
The equilibrium level of GDP is associated with
what happens to inventory
suppose that the level of GDP increased by $100B in a private closed economy where the MPC is .5. Aggregate expenditures must have increased by:
If a $10B decrease in taxes increases equilibrium GDP by $40B then:
an increase in the investment demand curve will:
shift to the right
Saving and investment are, respectively
savings is an injection and investment is a leakage
If GDP exceeds aggregate expenditures:
Inventories rise (actual investments greater than planned)
Over time, an increase in the real output and incomes of the trading partners of the US will:
increase exports and increase imports
The amount by which an aggregate expenditures schedule must shift downward to eliminate demand-pull and still achieve full employment GDP is the:
Inflationary Gap
A rightward shift of the AD curve in the very steep upper part of the upsloping AS curve will:
aggregate demand increases
The fear of unwanted price wars might explain why many firms are reluctant to:
decrease prices
The foreign purchases effect suggests that an increase in the US price level relative to other countries will:
will decrease US export and increase imports
Which of the following would decrease aggregate demand?
decrease in income, increase in taxes, increase in real interest rate
The slope of the immediate short run aggregate supply curve assumes:
period during which output prices are flexible, but input prices are fixed or nearly fixed. AS slopes upward because with input prices fixed, changes in the price level will raise or lower real firm profit.
A decrease in the price of capital goods will shift the:
aggregate suppply
A decrease in the quanitity of real output demanded along the aggregate demand curve is caused by:
Efficiency wages contribute to:
maximum work effort and thus minimize labor costs per unit of output
which of the following will cause an increase in the price level and a decrease in output?
If aggregate supply is greater than aggregate demand:
Inventory is stored, prices have to be reduced and production is slowed
Changes in taxes and government spending without explicit action by the federal government is known as:
fiscal policy or built in budget stabilizer
As the economy declines, personal income tax revenue dramatically falls. This describes how the progressive income tax system:
helped keep household spending and real GDP from falling more
If the cyclically adjusted budget shows a deficit of about $100 billion and the actual buget shows a deficit of about $150 billion it can be concluded that there is:
the economy is not at full employment
If the government wants to reduce consumption by $36 billion in order to reduce inflation and if the MPC is .75 by how much should the government raise taxes to achieve its objective?
Which of the following is a consequence of the US public debt?
if congress cuts taxes to counter the effects of a severe recession, this would be using:
expansionary fiscal policy
The amount by which government expenditures exceed revenues during the year is the:
As a percentage of GDP the US public debt is:
Fiscal policy refers to the:
deliberate change in government spending and tax collections designed to achieve full employmnet, control inflation and encourage economic growth
The principle advantage money has over barter is its function as:
measure of value
Securitization refers to:
bundling groups of loans
If you write a check to purchase a used Honda, you are using money primarily as:
checkable deposits (checkbook money)
If a coin is "token money":
the face value of any piece of currency is unrelated to its intrinsic value
the purchasing power of money and the price level vary:
consumer price index (or cost of living) goes up value of dollar goes down
Stablizing a nation's price level and the purchasing power of its money can be achieved:
through fiscal policy, making available (printing) a specified amount of money
The basic policy making body in the US banking system is the:
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
The Federal open Market Committee (FOMC) is made up of:
12 individuals:
Seven member of Board of Governors
president of New York Federal Reserve Bank
Four of the remaining presidents of Federal REserve Banks on a 1 yr rotating basis
Currency in circulation is part of:
money supply
Moral hazard created during the financial crisis occured because:
financial investors and financial services firms took greater risks becasue they assume they are at least partially insured against losses.
Bank panics:
(1930-1933) upon closer of several banks people responded by cashing out their deposits in fear their bank would close
If the required reserve ratio is lowered:
banks can make more loans
On a banks balance sheet its office building is:
What is one characteristic of fractional reserve banking?
Banks maintain only a fraction of their assets in reserves to meet the requirements of depositors.
A commercial bank has actual reserves of $50,000 and checkable deposits of $200,000. and the required reserve ratio is 20%. The reserves of the bank are the:
When a check is cleared, the bank loses:
Mr. Smith deposits $350 in his bank account. Then, Mr. Joines gets a loan for $2,000. from the same bank. In what direction and by what amounts has the money supply changed?
Increased checkable deposits by $350, but decreased reserves by $2000. Net affect decrease in reserves by $1720 assuming reserve ratio is 20%
maximum checkable deposit expansion is equal to:
the amount of actual reserves multiplied by the monetary multiplier
If the required reserve ratio is 15% and banks hold additional excess reserves equal to 5% of any new deposit, then the money multiplier:
If a bank has checkable deposits of $400,00. and reserves of $150,000 and a required reserve ratio of 25% then how much can the bank lend and how much can the banking system lend?
$250K/$1 million