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An 8-year-old girl has scabs and pus-filled vesicles on her face and throat. Three weeks earlier she had visited her grandmother, who had shingles. What infection does the 8-year-old have?
In which of the following ways do viruses differ from eukaryotes?
viruses are required to replicate in a cell
The patient has vesicles and scabs over her forehead. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings shows gram-positive cocci in clusters. The etiology is
A 17-year-old boy has pus-filled cysts on his face and upper back. Microscopic examination reveals gram-positive rods. This infection is caused by
Which of the following is true about the normal microbiota of the nervous system?
There are no normal microbiota
Encephalitis and meningitis are difficult to treat because
Antibiotics cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier
A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following organisms could NOT be responsible for her symptoms?
A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following is most likely to provide rapid identification of the cause of her symptoms?
Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid
A 15-year-old girl was hospitalized with fever, lethargy, and rash. Gram-negative, cocci were cultured from her cerebrospinal fluid. Her symptoms were caused by
A 1-year-old boy was listless, irritable, and sleepy. Capsulated gram-negative rods were cultured from his cerebrospinal fluid. His symptoms were caused by
Which of the following is evidence that the arthritis afflicting children in Lyme, Connecticut, was due to bacterial infection?
Treatable with penicillin
Describe the replication steps for a dsDNA viral genome.
The double strands break apart and then do the same the SSDNA to replicate
Describe the replication steps for a (-)ssRNA viral genome.
It has to become a positive SSRNA in order to replicate (protein)
Describe Antigenic Shift
Antigenic shift is when a virus uncoats and combines with another to replicate and form a completely new virus. EX: a bird joins with a cow to make a new species
How do viruses acquire their envelope?
Viruses acquire their envelope by determining what they have to be protected against budding
Put the following steps in order:
Attachment, Penetration,Uncoating, Biosynthesis, Maturation, Release
Which of the following is not technically a portal of entry but rather a means by which a pathogen can circumvent the typical portals of entry?
entry though the lining of the respiratory tract
Which of the following is an example of the mucous membranes serving as a portal of entry for disease?
A bite by a mosquito that carries the malaria parasite
Which of the following situations might cause normal flora to become opportunistic pathogens?
Treatment of a cancer patient with radiation
Draw and explain an ELISA reaction: 3 points
It's finding out if you are sick or not. It's looking for antigens or antibodies in the blood
Immune-Complex mediated hypersensitivity
IgE on sensitized cells' membranes binds antigen causing degranulation
A disease that normally occurs continuously at a relatively stable rate within a given population or geographic area is considered a/an __________ disease.
Which of the following is NOT considered part of the body's nonspecific defense against disease?
Which of the following statements about innate immunity is NOT correct:
It is the body's resistance toward all pathogens
Which of the following is NOT considered part of the body's second line of defense?
lacrimal secretions (tears)
Natural Killer Lymphocytes
Nonspecific leukocytes that work by secreting
toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells
Which of the following statements about lymphocytes is incorrect?
B and T lymphocytes are non-specific
Which of the following is NOT considered the function of an antibody?
They can produce toxins that directly kill bacteria
Which of the following statements about T lymphocytes is incorrect?
T lymphocytes produce antibodies in response to antigen stimulation with B lymphocytes.
Which of the following statements concerning plasma cells is incorrect?
They live a long time and function as memory cells
Enhanced immune responses to subsequent exposures to an antigen to which the body has already been exposed are known as:
What type of immunity is produced by the body when a person gets a disease?
naturally acquired active immunity
What is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control infectious diseases?
active immunization by vaccination
An inactivated vaccine has all the following characteristics EXCEPT:
it is made from unaltered pathogens
Passive immunity is most importantly used when:
protection against a recent infection or disease is needed immediately
Deliberate infection of young children with particles of ground small pox scabs from children who had survived mild cases of smallpox was known as ___________
An antigen produced by a pathogen while living inside a cell is known as a/an _________ antigen
The surface of each B-lymphocyte is covered with about 250,000 to 500,000 identical copies of ________
B cell receptors
Which of the following is NOT considered a hypersensitivity reaction?
rejection of a transplanted kidney
How are type I allergic reactions diagnosed?
by injecting very small quantities of suspected allergens under the skin of the forearm
If a recipient has preexisting antibodies to foreign blood group antigens that are donated, which of the following would NOT happen?
The donated cells would function normally
Which of the following causes graft-versus-host disease?
skin transplant from one location in the body to another, or from one identical twin to another
Explain MHC and its functions
MHC is there for recognition. It's use in finger printing. MCHI is present in a cells except RBC's while MHC II is in B cells and APC cells
You are observing a cell through a microscope and note that it does not have a nucleus. You conclude that it most likely
is a prokaryote
After a gram stain you find an organism that is purple, which indicates high amounts of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. What type of organism do you have?
A gram positive organism
Which of the following is true about gram negative cell walls?
They have an outer layer composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.
What will happen if a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water with a high salt concentration?
Water will leave the cell
Put the following steps of binary fission in order, from earliest to latest events:
Formation of a cross wall
Elongation of the cytoplasmic membrane
Replication of cellular DNA
Put the following steps of mitosis in order, from earliest to latest events:
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the bacterias ability to stick to surfaces?
All of the following are true statements concerning enzymes EXCEPT:
They only function at 37ºC (98ºF)
In microbiology, the term "growth" usually refers to which of the following?
an increase in the number of microbial cells
A cell that uses an organic carbon source and obtains energy from light would be called a
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