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What shapes are viral capsids?

polyhedral and helical

An 8-year-old girl has scabs and pus-filled vesicles on her face and throat. Three weeks earlier she had visited her grandmother, who had shingles. What infection does the 8-year-old have?


In which of the following ways do viruses differ from eukaryotes?

viruses are required to replicate in a cell

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

Steptococcus pyogenes - erysipelas

Thrush and vaginitis are caused by

Candida albicans

Which of the following is an important virulence factor for Streptococcus pyogenes?

Group M protein

The etiologic agent of chickenpox is


What bacteria can lead to all the diseases below? Answer: ____________________


The patient has vesicles and scabs over her forehead. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings shows gram-positive cocci in clusters. The etiology is

Staphylococcus aureus

A 17-year-old boy has pus-filled cysts on his face and upper back. Microscopic examination reveals gram-positive rods. This infection is caused by

Propionbacterium acnes

Which of the following is NOT likely to spread MRSA?

Universal Precautions

Which of the following is true about the normal microbiota of the nervous system?

There are no normal microbiota

Encephalitis and meningitis are difficult to treat because

Antibiotics cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier

Which of the following organisms does NOT cause meningitis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Which of the following statements about rabies is false?

The resevoir is only horses

The symptoms of tetanus are due to

Clostridial neurotoxin

A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following organisms could NOT be responsible for her symptoms?

Clostridium botulinum

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

Listeriosis - paralysis

A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following is most likely to provide rapid identification of the cause of her symptoms?

Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid

Which of the following is NOT caused by prions?


A 15-year-old girl was hospitalized with fever, lethargy, and rash. Gram-negative, cocci were cultured from her cerebrospinal fluid. Her symptoms were caused by

neisseria menigitidis

Which of the following is treated with antibiotics?

Streptococcal pneumonia

A 1-year-old boy was listless, irritable, and sleepy. Capsulated gram-negative rods were cultured from his cerebrospinal fluid. His symptoms were caused by

Haemophilus influenzae

The antibiotics did not cure her disease because the pathogen was probably

A virus

The disease described above is


Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

UTI - Streptococcus pneumoniae

Which of the following is evidence that the arthritis afflicting children in Lyme, Connecticut, was due to bacterial infection?

Treatable with penicillin

Describe the replication steps for a dsDNA viral genome.

The double strands break apart and then do the same the SSDNA to replicate

Describe the replication steps for a (-)ssRNA viral genome.

It has to become a positive SSRNA in order to replicate (protein)

Describe Antigenic Shift

Antigenic shift is when a virus uncoats and combines with another to replicate and form a completely new virus. EX: a bird joins with a cow to make a new species

How do viruses acquire their envelope?

Viruses acquire their envelope by determining what they have to be protected against budding

Put the following steps in order:

Attachment, Penetration,Uncoating, Biosynthesis, Maturation, Release


Macular rash, fever, congenital version can cause fetal injury

Rubeola (Measles)

Macular Rash, Koplik's Spots


High fever followed by rash


Benefits, Neither benefits nor is harmed, ex: tapeworm in a human intestine


benefits, is harmed, ex: tuberculosis bacteria in human lung


benefits, benefits, ex: bacteria in human colon


declining signs and symptoms


vague, general symptoms


no signs or symptoms


no signs or symptoms


most severe signs and symptoms

Which of the following is not technically a portal of entry but rather a means by which a pathogen can circumvent the typical portals of entry?

entry though the lining of the respiratory tract









What is immunology?

The study of the body's defenses.





Symptoms are:

subjective characteristics of a disease that can only be felt by the patient

Active Naturally Acquired Immunity

caused from infection or disease

Passive Naturally Acquired Immunity

caused from the placenta

Active Artificially Acquired Immunity

injected with antigens

Passive Artificially Acquired Immunity

injected with antibodies

Which of the following is an example of the mucous membranes serving as a portal of entry for disease?

A bite by a mosquito that carries the malaria parasite

Active Immune Response


Passive Immune Response


Which of the following situations might cause normal flora to become opportunistic pathogens?

Treatment of a cancer patient with radiation

Draw and explain an ELISA reaction: 3 points

It's finding out if you are sick or not. It's looking for antigens or antibodies in the blood

A nosocomial disease is a disease acquired by:

being in a health care facility

Delayed hypersensitivity

T cells attack the body's cells

Immediate hypersensitivity

Nonphagocytized immune complexes trigger mast cell deranulation

Immune-Complex mediated hypersensitivity

IgE on sensitized cells' membranes binds antigen causing degranulation

Cytotoxic hypersenstivity

Antibodies and complement lyse target cells

A disease that normally occurs continuously at a relatively stable rate within a given population or geographic area is considered a/an __________ disease.


The index case is the first case of a disease:

identified in a given area or population

Which of the following is NOT considered part of the body's nonspecific defense against disease?


Which of the following symptoms are NOT part of the signs of inflammation?

Odor (smell)

Which of the following statements about innate immunity is NOT correct:

It is the body's resistance toward all pathogens

Which of the following is NOT considered part of the body's second line of defense?

lacrimal secretions (tears)

MACs are:

the end result of both the classical and alternate complement system

Antigens are:

specific molecules that the body recognizes as foreign


The movement of a cell toward or away from a stimulus


The coating of a pathogen by complement


Increase in allergies and helminth infection


Polymorphonuclear leukocytes


Monocytes that leave the bloodstream

Natural Killer Lymphocytes

Nonspecific leukocytes that work by secreting
toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells

First Line of Defense

Intact skin, sebum, tears, etc

Second Line of Defense


Which of the following produces an exogenous antigen?

a bacteria outside a cell

Which of the following statements about lymphocytes is incorrect?

B and T lymphocytes are non-specific

The designation "B" for B lymphocytes comes from

the bone marrow where these cells are produced

The humoral immune response is attributed to the action of

B lymphocytes

Which of the following is NOT considered the function of an antibody?

They can produce toxins that directly kill bacteria

Which of the following statements about T lymphocytes is incorrect?

T lymphocytes produce antibodies in response to antigen stimulation with B lymphocytes.

Which of the following statements concerning plasma cells is incorrect?

They live a long time and function as memory cells

Enhanced immune responses to subsequent exposures to an antigen to which the body has already been exposed are known as:

memory responses

What type of immunity is produced by the body when a person gets a disease?

naturally acquired active immunity

What is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control infectious diseases?

active immunization by vaccination

All of the following statements are true of variolation EXCEPT:

It was risk-free

All of the following are methods for attenuation EXCEPT:

treatment with bleach

An inactivated vaccine has all the following characteristics EXCEPT:

it is made from unaltered pathogens

Killed vaccines work by stimulating:

the production of antibodies

Passive immunity is most importantly used when:

protection against a recent infection or disease is needed immediately

The type of ELISA that is mostly commonly performed:

detects the presence of a particular antibody

When a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell interact, this structure is also involved:


Deliberate infection of young children with particles of ground small pox scabs from children who had survived mild cases of smallpox was known as ___________


_________ is found on all nucleated cells


__________ is found on B Cells and APCs


Attenuated vaccines produce _______ immunity

Cell mediated

An antigen produced by a pathogen while living inside a cell is known as a/an _________ antigen


The surface of each B-lymphocyte is covered with about 250,000 to 500,000 identical copies of ________

B cell receptors

Which of the following is NOT considered a hypersensitivity reaction?

rejection of a transplanted kidney

An example of a type I hypersensitivity reaction is:

watery eyes after exposure to animal dander

Which of the following cells are NOT involved hypersensitivity reactions?


When the cells involved with hypersensitivites degranulate, what is the result?


How are type I allergic reactions diagnosed?

by injecting very small quantities of suspected allergens under the skin of the forearm

If a recipient has preexisting antibodies to foreign blood group antigens that are donated, which of the following would NOT happen?

The donated cells would function normally

Which of the following causes graft-versus-host disease?

skin transplant from one location in the body to another, or from one identical twin to another

Commensal relationships harm one member and benefit another


Edward Jenner was the physician who first used cowpox to vaccinate against smallpox.


The process of reducing the virulence of a microbe is known as attenuation


Most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective against


Explain MHC and its functions

MHC is there for recognition. It's use in finger printing. MCHI is present in a cells except RBC's while MHC II is in B cells and APC cells

You are observing a cell through a microscope and note that it does not have a nucleus. You conclude that it most likely

is a prokaryote

Which of the following is a chemical component of a bacterial cell wall?


What word best describes the following arrangement of cells OOOO


After a gram stain you find an organism that is purple, which indicates high amounts of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. What type of organism do you have?

A gram positive organism

Which of the following is NOT a part of the active transport process?

Electron carriers

Which of the following is true about gram negative cell walls?

They have an outer layer composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.

What will happen if a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water with a high salt concentration?

Water will leave the cell

Explain why you chose the answer above.


For the classification of microorganisms- what are the three domains?


How do prokaryotes replicate?

Binary Fission

Which of the following will not have effects on the action of an enzyme?

presence of water

Which of the following IS FALSE about Archaea?

evidence suggests they evolved from algea

A primary difference between chemotrophic and phototrophic bacteria is?

energy source

Who was the first to use a microscope to visualize microorganisms?

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

Koch's Postulates

Were devised to identify agents of disease.

Who developed the first vaccine (using controversial methods) for smallpox?

Edward Jenner

Bacteria that are bacilli:

Have a rod shape.


Can be produced when nutrients are scarce.

Which of the following types of microbes might be found in Salt Lake?


Put the following steps of binary fission in order, from earliest to latest events:

Formation of a cross wall
Elongation of the cytoplasmic membrane
Replication of cellular DNA

The key difference between archaea and bacteria is:

Their cell wall composition

Put the following steps of mitosis in order, from earliest to latest events:

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the bacterias ability to stick to surfaces?


Name three different structures that organisms can use for movement.

Flagella and Cillia

ATP energy is expended in which of the following processes?

Active Transport


contains chromosomes

Endoplasmic Reticulum

membrane formation and secretion

Golgi Complex

transport network


digestive enzymes


brings food into cells and provides structural support


cellular respiration



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