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36 terms

bio

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taxonomy
a classification of organisms
binomial nomenclature
(linneaus) 2 word naming system; this is the species
genus
Group of closely related species, and the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature
family
larger group than species
order
broader category composed of similar families
class
similar orders
phylum
several different classes
kingdom
large category in classifying organisms; closely related phyla
domain
most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than kingdom
phylogeny
evolutionary relationships microorganisms
bacillus
rod shaped bacteria
coccus
sphere shaped bacteria
spirillum
spiral shaped bacteria
chemoheterotroph
prokaryotes that take in organic molecules for both energy and or carbon
photoheterotroph
using sunlight for energy and need to take in organic compounds as carbon source
photoautotroph
use light energy to convert co2 and h2o to carbon compounds and co2
chemoautotroph
make organic compounds from co2; don't regulate light
obligate anaerobe
organism that doesn't require a constant supply of oxygen
obligate aerobe
an organism that needs oxygen in order to live
facultative anaerobe
an organism that can live with or without oxygen
binary fission
asexual; when prokaryotic cells that double in size, replicate DNA, and divides into 2 daughter cells.
conjunction
form of sexual reproduction in which paramecium and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information
endospore
a structure bacteria form when the environmental conditions become unfavorable
nitrogen fixation
process of converting nitrogen gas to a form plants can use; recycles nitrogen through atmosphere
virus
particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in only some cases, lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells; nonliving
capsid
outer protein coat of a virus
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
lytic infection
inject nucleic acid into a host cell and the host cell bursts and releases 1000s of viruses
lysogenic infection
host cell doesn't burst right away, remains inactive for a short period of time
prophage
the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA
retrovirus
virus that contains RNA as its genetic information
pathogen
disease-causing agent
vaccine
a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens
antibiotic
compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria
viroid
single-stranded RNA molecule that has no surrounding capsids
prion
infectious particle made up of protein rather than RNA or DNA