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The Life Span - Chapter 2
Terms in this set (65)
a woman's egg
the physical structure that are the vehicles of inheritance from the mother (ovum) and the father (sperm).
ovum's nucleus is surrounded by this cellular material, which is loaded with a vast array of chemicals.
product of when the sperm's chromosomes become part of the nuclear material of the ovum--end result: a fertilized ovum.
the 22 of the 23 chromosomes that are matched (or paired) from the mother and father.
the 23rd pair of chromosomes which have an important role to play in sex determination.
the female sex chromosomes, a matched part of elongated chromosomes that determine that one will be a female.
the male sex chromosome, which pairs with an X chromosome and determines that one will be a male.
a display of the actual chromosomes from human body cells photographed under a microscope and laid out in matching pairs.
chromosomes for a karyotype can be taken from cells any where in a person's body (e.g., skin,liver, brain), because duplicate copies of the original in the zygote are found in nearly every body cell. The chromosomes of the zygote begin to divide within hours after conception, replicating themselves.
the cell division process, producing two new cells each of which contains a duplicate set of chromosomes.
over a period of about 2 weeks, the growing organism migrates down the mother's fallopian tube, into the uterus, and may succeed in attaching itself to the uterine lining.
after implantation, further growth and development of the organism results in this..
the set of processes by which facts outside of hereditary material itself can in fluency how hereditary material functions. These factors are "environmental," including the chemicals in the cytoplasm of the cell (the immediate environment) to factors in the cells and tissues adjacent to the cell, to gators beyond the body itself (e.g., heat, light, and even social interaction).
the full set of factors, from the cell to the outside world, that controls the expression of hereditary material.
heredity and environment are engaged from the beginning in an intricate dance, so that neither one ever causes any outcome of it own. heredity and environment have reciprocal effects, "meaning they can influence each other."
a multidimensional theory in which Gottlieb (e.g., 1002, 2003) emphasizes coaction in development: heredity and environment have reciprocal effects, "meaning they can influence each other."
deoxyribonucleic acid - the chromosomes of the nucleus of the cell are made of this remarkable organic chemical. This has a extraordinary property of self-replication.
long strains of DNA are combined with these proteins, wrapped and compacted too make up the chromosomes that we can see under a microscope.
functional units or sections of DNA; often called "coded" sections of DNA. Like chromosomes, these units come in matching pairs: 1/2 from the mother and 1/2/ from the father.
complex organic chemicals, made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. Genes provide a code that a cell is capable of "reading" and using to help construct these chemicals.
A, C, G and T
The DNA code is a long sequence of molecules of these 4 bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine and thiamine.
messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)
the organic compound that cells sunbathe size by copying stands of DNA. The sequence of bases (A, C, G, and T) in a gene is replicated in this, and then this compound serves as a "messenger" to the cell from the gene, guiding the cell's construction to a protein.
a process in which intertwined strands of DNA separate, and one of the stands acts as a template for the synthesis of a new single stand of mRNA.
the second step, in which the cell "reads" the mRNA codes and produces a protoprotein, a substance that with a little tweaking can become a protein.
several protein variations can be produced by the cell from a single one of these.
the entire transcription through translation process is referred to this.
parts of the 'intergenic" DNA; they do not code for protein production. These function to either initiate or prevent the gene's transcription: aka gene regulation.
the process in which noncoded genes function to either initiate or prevent the gene's transcription.
like testosterone and estrogen, are transcription factors.
One epigenetic change that can affect the expression of a gene; the addition of a methyl group (an organic molecule) to DNA, either to the coded gene or to regulatory DNA. This makes transcription of a gene more difficult.
methyl groups detach from DNA. Gene transcription is likely to increase.
acetylation and deacetylation
loosens the binding, typically increasing gene transcription, and deacetylation, tends to tighten bonds again, by detaching from or attaching to the histones (proteins) in conjunction with the DNA strand.
When the environment of outside the organism alters gene regulation.
its effects on the body must eventually influence processes like methylation or acetylation inside cells, so that certain genes in these cells become either more or less active.
the full compliment of an organism's genes; it is the same in identical twins. this is exactly the same in identical twins b/c they came from the come from the same zygote.
physical and behavioral traits
identical; from one zygote.
fraternal; when a mother releases 2 ova in the same menstrual cycle, and each ovum is fertilized by a separate sperm.
similarity b/t members of a pair of twins.
differences b/t members of a pair of twins.
the slightly different varieties of genes at the same lotion or locus on the chromosome.
two alleles of the same gene can have this.
sometimes alleles exhibit this, producing a blended or attitude outcome in phenotype (physical features)
describes traits that are affected by the products of multiple gene pairs, often located on different chromosomes, so that any one pair of gene alleles has only a limited affect on a given trait.
regulation of genes by the cellular environment, influenced by environments outside the cell, can trump dominance-recessive or codominance relationships between alleles.
process in which some gene alleles in the sperm or the ovum are deactivated. Imprinted gene alleles do not influence the phenotype of the offspring.
9-month gestation period
~ the period of the ZYGOTE (about 2 weeks, from fertilization to implantation)
~ the period of the EMBRYO (from about 3rd to 8th week, when most of the body's organ systems and structures are forming)
~ the period of the FETUS (from the 9th week till birth, when the reproductive system forms, gains body weight, and the brain and n.s. continue to develop dramatically.)
TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT depends on the GENOME to code for the products the body needs to grow and function normally; AND IT DEPEDNDS ON THE ENVIRONMENT to provide a normal range of inputs, from nutrient to social interaction in order FOR GENE EXPRESSION TO BE PROPERLY TIME AND REGULATED.
Deviation in EITHER the genome or the environment can push the developing organism off course. Watch for genetic and chromosomal deviations as well as environmental distortions that can alter development as early as the period of the zygote.
the red blood cells are abnormally shaped, more like half the moon than the usual round shape. The abnormal cels are not as efficient as carrying oxygen to the tissues. Resultant breathing problems and other difficulties can lead to organ malfunctions and without tx, to early death. Most common in people of African descent.
help screen candidates for such testing,, as well as provide into and support to prospective parents, helping them understand genetic processes and cope with testing, child bearing, and parenting.
inadequate mucus production; breathing and digestive problems; etc...
metabolism of phenylalanines in food is insufficient; gradually compromises the n.s.. causing mental retardation.
blood cells have an unusual "sickle" shape; causes heart and kidney problems.
enzyme disease; causes degeneration of the n.s. and death in the first few years of life.
blood cells abnormal, low energy, paleness, poor resistance to infection.
blood-clotting factor not produced; vulnerable to death by bleeding.
duchenne's muscular dystrophy
wasting of muscles produces gradual weakness, eventual death.
a change in the chemical structure of an existing gene.
a fatel disorder that causes rapid aging, so that by late childhood its victims are dying of "old age." It is caused by a genetic mutation during the embryonic period of prenatal development (so that while it is precipitated by a genetic defect, it does not run in families.
a disease in which the nervous system deteriorates, usually beginning b/t 30 and 40 years of age. (uncontrolled movementsand increasingly disordered psychological functioning, etc....
MAOA gene & MAOA enzyme
this gene provides the cell with a template for production of the enzyme, a protein that metabolizes neurotransmitters (brain chemicals) like serotonin and dopamine.
Down syndrome (aka 'trisomy 21')
caused by an extra copy of chromosome #21. (Occasionally, a zygote will form containing too amy chromosomes, or too few, usually b/c of problems in the production of either the ovum or the sperm.)
environmental substances and agents that can harm the developing 'fetus.' Greek for "monstrosity making." and can cross the placental barrier.
examples of teratogens
~alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana
~PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls)
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
a syndrome of babies who are exposed to alcohol prenatally. children exposed to smaller amts. of alcohol prenatally are said to exhibit a lesser form: FAE. Surgeon General stated that there is no safe amt. of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (2005).
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