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27 terms

The Cell unit vocabulary

vocab for the "The Cell" unit in biology.
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cyt-
cell
endo-
within
exo-
outside of
hyper-
above, beyond, over
hypo-
beneath, under, less
-lysis
dissolve, decompose
phag-
eat
active transport
movement of chemicals, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
concentration gradient
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
contractile vacuole
in protists, an organelle that accumulates water and then releases it periodically to maintain osmotic pressure (osmosis ☺)
cytolysis
the bursting of a cell
diffusion
the movement of particles from high density to low density areas
endocytosis
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
exocytosis
the process by which a substance is released from a cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
equilibrium
a state when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout
facilitated diffusion
the transport of substances through the cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
hypertonic
describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside the cell
hypotonic
describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside the cell
isotonic
describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside the cell
osmosis
the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution (through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent)
passive transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
phagocytosis
the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food
pinocytosis
a method of active transport across the cell membrane in which the cell takes in extra fluids
plasmolysis
the contraction of a plant cell membrane in a hypertonic solution in response to the loss of water by osmosis
sodium - potassium pump
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions out of the cell
turgor pressure
the pressure that is exerted on the inside of cell walls and that is caused by the movement of water into the cell
vesicle
a small cavity that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell