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HIST 1700 Exam 1
Chris Waters' class at SLCC
Terms in this set (80)
What is the difference between a republic and a democracy?
In a republic, people elect representatives who make laws. In a democracy, people directly participate in government.
Where did Spain land in the 1500s?
Conquistadors stopped in the Caribbean, then went on to Mexico, Central America, Florida, California, and the Colorado River.
*married natives, converted to Catholicism
What was the first French settlement in America? The first British settlement? Who came first overall?
1608 - Quebec
1607 - Jamestown
*France was the first in America though, and England was second.
Who settled Jamestown and when?
Adventurer businessmen in 1607 (3 ships, 104 men)
What were early problems in Jamestown?
- mosquitos carrying disease, starvation
What did John Smith do to help Jamestown?
- organized the colony for survival, assigning jobs/roles
- befriended the natives
What was the economy of Jamestown like?
- Virginia Co. needed to make a profit so John Rolfe began planting and exporting tobacco
- Plantations/VA became addicted to cheap labor
-> Indentured servitude -> slave labor (mid 1600s)
-> Other southern colonies followed suit
What was the government like in Jamestown?
- appointed governor over Upper House of Burgess and Lower House of Burgess
- members of the Lower House were elected by landowners. Since more people owned land, the government was more reflective of the common people
What were 6 characteristics of the Southern Colonies?
1. Developed a distinct class system with planters in control
2. Wealth was dependent on plantations, and therefore slavery/cheap labor
3. Less towns -> less schools -> less education
4. Unhealthy climate -> death/family instability
5. Anglicans (Church of England)
6. Rural, agricultural, run by planters
What were the 4 New England colonies?
Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island
When and by whom was Plymouth settled?
1620 by pilgrims fleeing the Church of England. 102 people chartered the Mayflower (1/2 died in the first winter)
- foundation of American democracy
- Men on the Mayflower signed, combining into "a civil body" to enact laws for the "general good of the colony"
- led to town meetings
Who was Massachusetts settled by and when?
Great Puritan migration of over 1,000 people in one year (mostly middle class) settled Mass. in 1630
- John Winthrop organized the migration. He was a prosperous English lawyer who wanted the colony to be prosperous, educated, and religious.
Who was Jonathan Edwards?
- most important minister in New England
- 1700s - first Great Awakening (religious revitalization)
- sons and DAUGHTERS educated, learned to work
Describe the Salem Witch Trials
1692 - Only 1 year, more than 30k killed worldwide
- started as a rumor, spread and government got involved
- 27 tried, 20 hanged
- governor's wife accused so trials stopped
What are 7 characteristics of New England?
1. Settled as middle class families -> sense of equality
2. Healthy climate -> stability, long life
3. Family, church, and town are central to life
4. Town meetings: laws at town and colonial level
5. Valued education
6. Developed apprenticeship -> skilled population
7. Diversified economy
What are 4 characteristics of the Middle Colonies? What were the Middle Colonies?
1. Settled as middle class families came to farm
2. Religious toleration
3. 2 largest cities
4. Bread colonies
- became states asap in 1776
- NY, NJ, PA, DE
What was the original colonial attitude towards England?
Originally loyal British subjects; dependent on Britain for manufactured goods. The colonies traded directly with England and the Indies.
What changes did the Native Americans experience upon contact with colonists?
1. Sharp increase in deaths (50-90% of each tribe died from European diseases. There was also an increase in wars.)
2. COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
3. Land encroachment - impacts the semi-nomadic way of life
There were over 200 tribes in 1630 when settlement began, each with their own language and culture. They lived by farming, fishing, hunting, and gathering (semi-nomadic).
The exchange of products, diseases, and culture between the old world and the new world
- Named after Columbus, started in the Indies
Give an example for each colonial area of negative Indian relations
New England: Wampanogs
Middle: Iroquois Confederacy
What 4 cultural differences prevented assimilation into American culture for the Indians?
1. Native Americans didn't believe in private ownership
2. Division of labor -> women farmed
3. Standards of modesty and dress
4. Strong sense of tradition that they believed to be superior
What was the pattern of problems that developed with the Native Americans?
- death by disease via contact; at least 50% died
- trade developed -> Native Americans became dependent on European goods
- Land encroachment led to war
- Victims of prejudice as colonists believed them to be inferior
How did African slavery begin in America?
- 10 million Africans (mostly from west Africa) brought to America for the slave trade
- Abundance of land and shortage of labor
- 30% died on the ships/middle passage
What was slavery like in the Southern colonies versus New England and the Middle colonies?
South: The movement spread to include owning slaves for life as well as their children. There were also distinct racial divisions and laws for segregation
N.E./Middle: Much less common/rigid, slaves were treated as indentured servants. Ended after the Revolutionary War and Africans mostly adapted to American culture.
What were the 5 results of contact between the Natives, Africans, and Europeans?
1. Death/Wars (of Indians and Africans in the middle passage)
2. Segregation -> reservation system, slavery
3. Changes in traditions and cultures (trade relationships, land encroachment; also an increase in adaptability amongst the Europeans themselves)
4. Rise of prejudice/racism
5. Created diversity in America
How did the French & Indian War begin?
- Arose due to a land dispute over the Ohio River Valley
- 2 years in America, spread to Europe and the Indies (7 year war in total)
- English versus French & Indians
- GW sent to build a fort/claim land for VA. Fort Duquesne was already there, GW attacked, let off with a warning from the French, England declared war
What was the Battle of Quebec?
Brits have surprise attack on Quebec from behind. Generals are killed, Brits gain control of Quebec, French lose a European battle around the same time. The Brits and Iroquois also joined forces as a result.
What treaty ended the French & Indian War?
Treaty of Paris (1763) - French surrender and have to leave North America
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR
- War between England and French/Indians that started over a land dispute
- Lasted 7 years
SIGNIFICANCE: French have to leave North America, also added a motivation for France to eventually ally with the Continental Army
How were the colonists different from the British in culture and thinking prior to the Revolution?
- People were involved in government due to land ownership
- Americans were more educated and had more developed opinions
- Americans had the opportunity to advance through the class system
What were the three major sources of problems with England prior to the Revolution?
1. Land - Proclamation of 1763 creates border barring settlement west of the Appalachians, which was very unpopular after the 9 year French & Indian War over land
2. Power - Brits feel threatened by the colonial air of independence and try to limit colonial power
3. Money - Brits established taxes to recover war debt (direct tax skips power of the colonial legislature)
List the four acts that preceded the Revolution, and the fifth that ultimately led to the Revolution.
1. Sugar Act (1765) - doubled taxes on many products
2. Stamp Act (1765) - required stamps on all products
3. Townshend Acts (1767) - another long list of products to be directly taxed
4. Tea Act (1773) - Brits given exclusivity to sell tea in America and directly tax it
5. Coercive Acts (1774)
- From the Stamp Act Congress
- Agreement not to import/buy goods from England to get attention
- Ultimately causes England to repeal the Stamp Act
What two things happened as a result of the Townshend Acts?
- Sons of Liberty arose in protest
- British troops sent to Boston to quell resistance
What happened during the Boston Massacre?
British occupying soldiers (8 of them) fired on attacking mob, killing 5 colonists. Both sides blame each other due to provocation. John Adams was the lawyer for the Brits and ended up getting them off.
What happened during the Boston Tea Party?
The Sons of Liberty (Sam Adams) throw tons of tea into Boston harbor (3 ships' worth) in response to the Tea Act
- In response to the Boston Tea Party
1. Closes port of Boston until tea is paid for and established direct taxation to pay for tea
2. Restructuring of Massachusetts government, more red coats.
3. Restructuring of town meetings to require British supervision. (Colonists meet illegally to strategize)
SIGNIFICANCE: Led to the Revolution
FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
1774: Met in Philly, 55 delegates
1. Denounce the Coercive Acts as unconstitutional
2. Call for non-importation
3. Declaration of Rights & Grievances - Parliament responds by trying to get tough
List some qualities of Ben Franklin
- self-made man from Boston
- Wrote Poor Richard's Almanac
- Sent to Paris to gain ally during the Revolution
List some qualities of John Adams
- From Quincy, Mass.
- Farmer by day, scholar by night
- Went to Harvard where he became interested in politics
- Wife Abigail was his equal
*PERSON MOST RESPONSIBLE FOR COLONIES DECLARING INDEPENDENCE FROM ENGLAND
List some qualities of Thomas Jefferson
- Renaissance man (excelled in more than one area)
- Went to college in Williamsburg after growing up on a VA plantation
- Author of Declaration of Independence
- Founder of first political party
List some qualities of James Madison
- Friends with Jefferson since childhood
- True scholar
- Mind behind the Constitution/Bill of Rights
List some qualities of George Washington
- Man of action rather than scholarship
- Born onto a large VA plantation
- Did not go to college, apprenticed as a surveyor
- Very athletic, excellent horseman
- Gained military experience during the French & Indian War
- Wealthiest man in VA due to inheritance
- Led Revolutionary army, most responsible for winning
- Realistic visionary - oversaw establishment of a new government
What were British strengths leading to the Revolutionary War?
- Brits had 4x the population, large navy (merchant supply ships), very prepared for war
What were American strengths and weaknesses leading to the Revolutionary War?
- Outstanding leaders, enthusiastic local militias, America too large to conquer
- No professional army or navy, not prepared for war, 20% loyalists/30% neutral, no manufacturing base
LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
- Local militias had sprung up so 700 Brits march to confiscate ammo
- Midnight ride of Paul Revere/shot heard round the world
- Brits win in Lexington, Americans in Concord, causing the British army to retreat to Boston
SIGNIFICANCE: Effectively began the Revolution
What happened at the Battle of Bunker Hill?
British slowly advance on a dirt fort and ultimately, Americans lose the hill
SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
The de facto government during the Revolutionary War--delegates were assigned to committees, Washington put in charge of the army, and Articles of Confederation drawn up. Responsible for managing the war effort and holding colonies together as a cohesive unit.
How does the continental army retake Boston in 1776?
Sets up cannons on a hill over the harbor and Brits retreat over threat to ships. No shots fired.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Congress had thus far been divided on the issue of independence, but after the hiring of German mercenaries, the publication of Thomas Payne's "Common Sense", and a rousing speech by John Adams, the declaration was written by Jefferson. It addresses: 1. Causes, 2. List of grievances, 3. Independence (also first mention of the United States).
Re-Crossing the Delaware
During the winter as the British relaxed in NYC for the holidays, Washington crossed the Delaware and took Trenton by surprise, then Princeton. These small victories reinstated faith in the ability of America to win the war.
How did the Continental Army lose NYC?
Battle of Long Island - withdrew onto the island so no way to retreat. Fog rolls in, so they cross the Delaware river.
What happened at the Battle of Saratoga?
First major battle that Americans win.
SIGNIFICANCE: Incites the French Alliance.
What happens in Valley Forge?
After losing Philly, the Continental Army sets up camp at Valley Forge for the winter. No supplies, disease, and harsh cold cause many deaths.
1777; Transforms the war and also extends it to Europe between England and France. France sends their navy and tons of troops.
SIGNIFICANCE: Would not have won the war without the French.
What happens in Charleston during the Revolution?
Brits lay siege and capture the city just before the end of the war, which is a huge loss for the US as it is the main city in the South and has a huge population.
1781; The final battle of the war in which Cornwallis and his army were backed against the sea on a peninsula and forced to surrender. America had won and the Peace of Paris followed.
What does the Peace of Paris entail?
End of the War:
1. British recognize American independence
2. US has land from the east coast to the Mississippi
What were the 5 main reasons that America won the Revolutionary War?
1. GW kept army in the field for 8 years
2. French Alliance: navy, more men, supplies
3. Local militias
4. Geography - America too big to conquer
5. British incompetence - slow to move/act
What were the social results of the Revolutionary War?
- 25K deaths, 6K battle deaths
- Over 100K loyalists permanently left America -> land became available
- More power to the middle class, servants/slaves reduce
- Many Native Americans killed -> land became available
What were economic results of the Revolutionary War?
- New businesses developed (No trade w/England)
- Expansion beyond the Appalachians
- Wealth created
What was the main political result of the Revolutionary War?
Articles of Confederation-based government for 8 years with very strong states' rights
What were the states like after the Revolutionary War?
- 13 very independent states along the east coast
- land available, mobility, education -> 90% farmers, large middle class, 1/5 black
- poor transportation system -> slow communication
- 4 cities: NYC, Boston, Philly, Charleston
- No standard currency
- Most wanted strong states' rights and a weak national government
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
In effect for 8 years after the war:
1. Created a unity among the colonies
2. Intermediary to the constitution
3. Established a smart land policy
Although only provided a legislative branch, government under the Articles paved the way for the Constitution
- Could not tax, regulate trade, deal with foreign affairs
What are three Enlightenment-era works that influenced the Constitution?
Locke's Two Treatises on Government: analyzed monarchy and said that people have the right to revolution if the government fails
Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws: Republic is the strongest form of government, idea of separation of powers and checks & balances
Rousseau's Social Contract: laws should express the general will of the people and all men should have the right to vote
What are the three parts of the Constitution?
2. 7 Articles (I. Legislative, II. Executive, III. Judicial, IV. States rights and state government, V. How to make amendments, VI. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land, VII. Process for Ratification)
3. Amendments/Bill of Rights (First 10 = Bill of Rights)
What does the legislative branch of government do?
Makes the laws
What does the executive branch of government do?
Executes the laws
What does the judicial branch of government do?
Enforces and interprets the laws
BILL OF RIGHTS
1791: Written by James Madison, the first 10 amendments to the Constitution that articulate the protection of civil liberties.
SIGNIFICANCE: This appeased many Anti-Federalists and led to the ultimate ratification of the Constitution
What are the three compromises that preceded the Constitution?
1. Great Compromise - dealt with representation (house - population, senate - equal representation)
2. 3/5 Compromise - Slaves count as 3/5 of a person in determining population
3. Slave Trade Compromise - Slave trade would be discontinued after 20 years
What are the 5 great fundamentals of the Constitution?
1. Separation of powers/checks and balances
2. Written Bill of Rights
3. Division of Powers (between state and federal)
4. Popular sovereignty ("power of the people" -> direct influence on government)
5. Rule of law, not of man (no person is above the law)
# of house representatives + # of senators:
Electors responsible for electing the President. The college:
1. Paved the way for a 2-party system, preventing constant run-off elections
2. Prevents favoring of larger states
3. Forces candidates to wage a national campaign in 50 separate state elections
What are the 4 main reasons for George Washington's greatness?
1. Most responsible for winning the Revolution
2. Leader of the Constitutional Convention
3. Shaped US government as the first president
4. Gave up power willingly and set a 2-term precedent
What did the Federalists believe?
- Led by Hamilton & Adams
- Stronger federal government with a focus on implied powers
What did the Democratic Republicans believe?
- Led by Jefferson & Madison
- Stronger states' rights, strict interpretation of the Constitution
What is the difference between CONSERVATIVE and LIBERAL?
Conservative: More traditional, slower to change
Liberal: Quicker to accept and try new ideas to transform society
What are 4 main beliefs of the modern Democratic party?
1. Strong central government
2. Party of the common people
3. More spending on social programs (welfare, unemployment, medicare, etc.)
4. Desire to try more new programs and incorporate them faster into society (more liberal)
What are 7 main beliefs of the modern Republican party?
1. Stronger states rights
2. Balanced budget
3. Oppose raising taxes
4. Cut social programs to encourage self-sufficiency
5. Trickle-down theory: protect private businesses with tax breaks
6. Military spending
7. More conservative
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