Blood

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where do blood cells originate
blood cells originate in red blood marrow from hematopoietic stem cells. A stem cell can divide to give rise to specialized cells as well as more stem cells. As hematopoietic stem cells divide, new cells respond to different secreted growth factors called colony-stimulating factors that turn some genes on and others off.
what factor sculpts blood?
the exposure of colony-stimulating factors ultimately sculpts the distinctive formed elements of blood including the cellular components of the immune system
erythrocytes
Red blood cells. 7.5 micrometers in diameter. biconcave discs. This special size helps these cells transport gases, this increases surface area that gases can diffuse. shape allows cell membrane closer to hemoglobin. RBC are 1/3 hemoglobin by volume.
importance of RBC biconcave shape?
7.5 micrometers diameter. Helps RBC squeeze through capillaries, shape helps transport gases due to gas diffusion, shape places cell membrane closer to oxygen carrying hemoglobin.
sickle cell anemia
one DNA base change causes an incorrect amino acid to be incorporated into the protein production of hemoglobin, causing hemoglobin to crystallize in a low oxygen environment, bending the red blood cells into sickle shape.
what are the affects of sickle cell anemia on the body?
The sickle shape of the RBC's blocks circulation in small vessels, causing excruciating joint pain and damaging many organs. the spleen must work harder to recycle the short lived sickle RBC's which makes infection more likely. Many are diagnosed at birth with this and recieve antibiotics daily for years to prevent infection.
RBC count in males and average lifespan
RBC count is 4.6- 6.2 million cells per mm*3 or 4.6-6.2 million per micro-liter. RBC last for 120 on average
RBC count in females and average lifespan
RBC count is 4.2-5.4 miilion cells per mm*3 or 4.2-5.4 million per micro-liter. RBC last 109 days on average
anemia
a condition that develop when blood lacks healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin (this binds oxygen). This causes RBC's to have low oxygen and the common symptom of this is fatigue because organs are not getting the oxygen they need to function properly. It affects 3.5 million americans
what causes anemia?
there are 400 types but 3 main causes: 1. by blood loss: ulcers, hemorrhoids, gastritis, cancer, menstruation, child bearing. 2. decreased or faulty RBC production: lack of vitamins and minerals 3. destruction of RBC.
oxyhemoglobin
when hemoglobin combines with oxygen in RBC's the color is bright red. Hemoglobin is responsible for RBC's red color
deoxyhemoglobin
when oxygen is released from hemoglobin in RBC's the color is dark blue
plasma components
complex mixture that includes water, amino acids, proteins, carbs, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes and cellular waste
erthropoiesis
formation of RBC's initially in yolk sacs, liver and spleen once born this occurs in red bone marrow. hematopoietic cells make erythroblasts which can synthasize 2-3 million hemoglobin molecules per second.
how are erythrocytes formed?
erythroblasts give rise to new cells. the nuclei of new cells shrink and are pinched off in thin coverings of cytoplasm and cell membrane, these are erythrocytes. Some new cells contain contain reticulum for 1-2 days, this is the remainder of the endoplasmic recticulum. average lifespan 120 days circulate body 75,000 times
reticulocytes
these are the cells that exist the bone marrow and enters the blood. When the reticulum degenerates, the RBC is fully matured.
erythropoietin
a hormone for negative feedback mechanism that is released with prolonged oxygen deficiency and diminished oxygen supply to tissues. It is released primarily from the kidneys and some from liver (in fetus the liver is main factor). More RBC's circulate into blood until oxygen levels normal, the hormone decreases release
how does hemoglobin break down?
After liberated from RBC's this protein breaks down into 4 component polypeptide globin chains, each surrounded by a heme group. Heme decopmposes into iron and biliverdin. Iron combines with transferrin (protein) and carried red bone marrow to be reused in new hemoglobin.
how are WBC's distinguished?
There are usually 5 types of the cells circlating through blood and are distinguished by size, nature of cytoplasm, shape of nucleus, staining characteristics, have or lack granules.
granulocyte
WBC group that have granules in cytoplasm. this WBC type is twice the size of RBC's. These include neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Develop in red bone marrow and have a 12 hour lifespan.
agranulocyte
WBC group lacking granules in ctyoplasm. Includes monocytes, arise from red bone marrow, and lymphocytes, arise from red bone marrow and lymphatic system.
Neutrophil
also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN(L)). The first to arrive at infection site. These cells phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Accounts for 54%-62%(50-65) of WBC. 12 micro-meters in diameter.
Neutrophils characteristics
can appear light purple with combination of Wright's acid (red) and base (blue) stain or take no color at all. older nucleus is lobed and consists of 2-5 section/segments connected by thin chromatin. young nucleus called bands because nuclei is C shaped.
function of neutrophils
uses diapedesis, through blood vessel walls and amoenoid. are phagocytes, when die use chemotaxis to summon more. use lysozyme which is an antibacterial enzyme. Defensins versus some bacteria, fungi, and viruses
Eosinophils
WBC has course uniformly sized granules that stains red in acid. Nucleus is bi-lobed (2 lobes). Make up 1%-4% of WBC's. 12-17 micrometers in diameter.
function of eosinophils
if high levels of this type of WBC is present it means that parasite (worms) or severe allergies are present. They bind to parasitic worms and kill them by releasing destructive enzymes. release enzymes that neutralize histamine by affecting regulation of inflammatory reactions.
diapedesis
allows white blood cells to leave the circulation. Cellular adhesion molecules (proteins) help guide leukocytes to the site of injury, called leukocyte trafficking. Once outside the blood, they move through interstitial spaces called ameboid motion. neutrophils and monocytes most mobile.
positive chemotaxis
basophils release chemicals for inflammation by dialating blood vessels when foreign organisms invade. The swelling delays spread of microorganisms to other regions. Damaged WBC's release chemicals that attract new leukocytes, when combined with diapedesis brings WBC's to inflammed areas quickly.
Basophils
similar to eosinophils nuclei, have fewer more irregularly shaped granules that are deep blue (alkaline) that obscure view of nucleus. less than 1% of WBC's. 10 micrometers in diameter and 2 lobed nucleus.
basophils functions
migrate to injury site, very motile uses amoeboid and diapedesis. release histamines, promotes inflammation and heparin, blood thinner for more blood flow to injury. releases ECF, attracts eosinophils and resemble mast cells
monocytes
largest blood cells 2-3X bigger than RBC's. make up 2%-8% of WBC count. lifespan of several weeks to months. 14-19 micrometer diameter. nucleus looks punched in, foamy, indented. use diapedesis to leave bloodstream and become macrophages.
two types of monocytes
there are two types of this WBC, the fixed and the free. The fixed (remain in one place) are: 1. Kupffer cells found in liver 2. Histiocytes found in CT 3. Microglial cells found in CNS. The free are tissue roamer WBC's
platelets/ thrombocytes
not complete cells. arise from megakaryocytes which are very large cells in red bone marrow that fragment releasing small sections of cytoplasm into circulation. lacks nucleus and is 1/2 size of RBC's. lifespan is 10 days
Leukocytosis
Total number of WBC's exceeding 10,000 per mm*3 of blood, indicating an acute infection such as appendicitis. May also occur after vigorous exercise, emotional disturbances, or great loss of body fluids.
Leukopenia
Total number of WBC's below 5,000 per mm*3 of blood, may be typhoid fever, flu, measles, mumps, AIDS, chicken pox, polio, anemia, arsenic, lead or mercury poisoning
Lymphocytes
Large spherical nucleus and thin cytoplasm. Accounts for 30% of WBC's. They can be small 6-9 micrometer or large 9-15 micrometer diameter. Contains 3 types: T cells (80%), B cells (15%), And LGL'S or NK cells (5%)
T cells
A type of lymphocyte and makes up 80%. These cells are a major part of controlling the immune system. They directly attack microorganisms, tumor cells, and transplanted cells.
B cells
A type of lymphocyte and makes up 15%. These cells produce antibodies: proteins that attack foreign molecules. The plasma cells: antibody production. Needed for humoral immunity.
LGL'S or NK cells
A type of lymphocyte and makes up 5%. These cells kill some virally infected cells.
Function of monocytes
Are avid phagocytes. Secrete chemotactic for fibroblasts, thus beginning scar formation. Secrete some blood clotting factors. Are significant to the immune system due to secreting some complement components.
Lack of nutritional factors that cause anemia
Lack of iron, amino acids, folic acid, or vitamin B12 can cause anemia. The availability of 2 b complexes- vitamin b12 and folic acid- significantly influences the production of RBC's. These vitamins are necessary for DNA synthesis: growth and division. High division needed for RBC's
Importance of vitamin 12
Important for nucleic acid formation. A lack of this vitamin usually due to stomach liner disorder rather than nutrient deficiency, for certain cells in stomach release intrinsic factor a substance that is needed for the absorption of this vitamin.
Iron
Necessary for heme formation. Much iron can be reused after decomposition of hemoglobin but some needs to be replaced. Absorbed in small intestines.
Amino acids
Necessary for glob in formation in RBC's
Folic acid
Necessary for nucleic acid formation
platelets function
shattered pieces of cytoplasm from megakaryocytes and circulate in blood. They help repair damaged blood vessels by sticking to broken surfaces. Release serotonin, which contracts smooth muscles in the vessel walls, reducing blood flow.
blood plasma
92% water. the function is transporting nutrients, gases, vitamins, regulating fluid and electrolyte balance, maintaining good pH. plasma proteins are most abundant dissolved substances in plasma. (albumins, globulins, and fibrinogens).
albumins
smallest plasma proteins, 60% of p.p. by wieght. Synthesized in liver, and due to being plentiful are useful in determining osmotic pressure.
anisocytosis
abnormal variation in the size of erythrocytes
antihemophiliac plasma
normal blood plasma that has been processed to preserve an anti-hemophiliac factor
Citrated whole blood
Normal blood to which a solution of acid citrate has been added to prevent coagulation.
dried plasma
normal blood plasma that had been vacuum dried to prevent the growth of microorganisms
Hemorrhagic telangiectasia
Inherited tendency to bleed from localized lesion of the capillaries
causes of hypoxia?
this condition may result from hemorrhage, inadequate breathing, high altitudes, anemia.
macrocytosis
abnormally large erythrocytes
microcytosis
abnormally small erythocytes
heparinized whole blood
normal blood to which a solution of heparin has been added to prevent coagulation
neutrophilla
increase in the number of circulating neutrophils
packed red cells
concentrated suspension of red blood cells from which the plasma has been removed
pancytopenia
abnormal depression of all the cellular components of blood.
poikilocytosis
irregularly shaped erythrocytes
purpura
spontaneous bleeding into the tissue and through the mucous membranes. causes purplish patches on skin and mucous membranes due to ruptured subcutaneous blood vessels.
septicemia
reproduction of disease causing microorganisms in the blood. pathogen in blood
spherocytosis
hemolytic anemia caused by defective proteins supporting the cell membranes of RBC's. These cells are abnormally spherical.
thalassemia
group of hereditary hemolytic anemias resulting from very thin, fragile erythrocytes. globin chains are missing. occurs when RBC's cant mature and grow properly.
Leukopenia
White blood cell count less Than 3,500 per mIcroliters blood. May accompany typhoid fever, flu, measles, mumps, chickenpox, AIDS, poliomyelitis. May be a result from anemia,lead arsenic, mercury poisoning.
Precursor of fibrin
Fibrinogen
What is the most common ion found in blood
Sodium
Where are RBC recylced
Liver and spleen
Normal reticulocyte count in RBC
.8%
Leukocytosis
White blood cell count exceeding 10,000 or 10,500 per mIcroliters
What is the word for clot?
Thromb
Plasmin
Protein splitting enzyme that can digest fibrin threads and other proteins associated with blood clots
What releases heparinin
Mast cells, basophils in CT surrounding capillaries. Blocks prothrombin activator. This prevents abnormal clotting
formed elements of blood
erythrocytes, thrombocytes, leucocytes
kupffer cells
fixed monocytes in liver
histiocytes
fixed monocytes in Connective tissue
Microglial cells
fixed monocytes in central nervous system
embolus
if a clot disloges or if a fragment of it breaks loose and is carried away by blood flow. can be solid body or air in circulation
hemophilia
lack of clotting factors
thrombocytopenia
reduction in the number of platelets
tunica intima endothelium in typical vein
smooth, semilunar valves
typical vein appearance
usually flattened or collapsed, relatively thin wall
is internal elastic membrane found in vein?
no internal elastic membrane is absent
tunica mediain typical vein
helps with constriction and dialation. this layer is thin, smooth muscle (ANS) and collagen fiber. external elastic membrane is absent!
tunica externa (tunica adventita) in typical vein
for support, fibrous connective (elastic and collagen) thickest layer in this type of blood system

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