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Abnormal Psychology Final

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Regarding the definition of abnormality, it is correct to state that
it is difficult to define "normal" and "abnormal"
According to the authors of your textbook, the definition of a psychological disorder is associated with
impaired functioning
Recent evidence regarding genetic influence on most psychological disorders have shown that
Multiple genes interact, with each gene contributing a small effect
Extremely high levels of GABA are associated with
Decreased anxiety
Some of the most recent research studies regarding genetic versus environmental causes of disorders in animals and humans suggested
Genetic influences may have been overstated by previous studies
Research with the elderly has found that depression is more likely in those individuals who
Have fewer social contacts
The basis of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that each dimension (psychological, biological, emotional, etc.)
Is influenced by the other dimensions
Which of the following describes the concept of validity as it applies to psychological assessment
An assessment technique measures what it is designed to measure
The advantage of using a withdrawal design as part of a single-case experiment is that the researcher can
Determine whether improvements gained with treatment are lost when the treatment is withheld
In a mental status exam, it is important to determine if the individual's sensorium is clear and if he or she is "oriented times three." this refers to
Person, place, and time
Abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the brain can be detected by neuroimaging techniques. Current research is also looking at
A possible association of these abnormalities with psychological disorders
A researcher is testing the effects of sunlight on depression. The independent variable is
Sunlight
Statistical significance determines whether an observed difference between a treatment and control group is likely due to
Chance
In a mental status exam, a psychologist evaluates an individual's thought processes by
Listening to what the person says
A researcher studies the impact of stress on college students' exam scores. Whether the results of this study help us to understand a relationship between job performance and stress levels of real-life organizational workers is a question of
External validity
Someone you know has been having a lot of difficulty because of irrational fears. Knowing that you are studying abnormal psychology, this person asks if you know of an effective and well-established treatment. You advise her that _____, based on the mid 20th century work of Joseph Wolpe, is a successful anxiety reduction procedure.
Systematic desensitization
The scientific study of psychological disorders is called
Psychopathology
If a psychological disorder is said to have an acute onset, it means that the symptoms developed
Suddenly
The systematic development of a scientific approach to psychopathology is represented by
The behavioral model
The best description of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that it is based on
Biological and psychological causes
Neurotransmitters are important because they
Allow neurons to send signals to other neurons
Research studies have shown that genetically emotional and reactive young animals raised by calm mothers tended to be
Calm
The part of the autonomic nervous system primarily responsible for our "emergency" or "alarm" response to stress is the
Sympathetic nervous system
The victims of the disorder bulimia nervosa are predominantly young females. One likely explanation for this is that young females are
More likely to feel an intense cultural pressure to be thin
Most psychological disorders appear to be influenced by many individual genes rather than caused by one single gene, a type of influence referred to as
Polygenic
The most recent estimates of the contribution of genetics to the development of personality characteristics such as shyness or anxiety level are approximately ______ percent.
30-50
Drugs that increase the activity of a neurotransmitter are called
Agonists
The neurotransmitter associated with the inhibition of anxiety is
GABA
Emotion is generally thought to be comprised of
Behavior, Physiology, and Cognition
In the 1992 studies conducted by Baxter et al., in one of the groups, OCD patients were provided with cognitive-behavioral therapy (exposure and response prevention) but no drugs. This study is important because brain imaging showed that
The neurotransmitter circuits of the brain had been normalized
A rat is placed in a cage and given electrical shocks, over which it has no control. When placed in a shuttle box, the rat does not attempt to escape the shock due to
Learned helplessness
The systematic evaluation of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person with a possible mental disorder is known as clinical
Assessment
When a diagnosis tells the clinician what is likely to happen and possibly predict the course of the disorder and the likely effect of one treatment or another, the diagnosis has
Predictive validity
The basic components of informed consent are
Competence, volunteerism, full information, and comprehension
When observational data are being collected, the observer's presence may cause a person to behave differently, a phenomenon known as
Reactivity
The ABC's of observation refer to the _____ sequence
Antecedent-behavior-consequence
A researcher is studying how depression tends to be experienced by people of different ages. The researcher interviews depressed adolescents, young adults, individuals in their 30s and 50s, and those over 70. The research design being used is called
Cross-Sectional
Adoption studies are often used when attempting to study the influence of genetic factors on psychological disorders because these studies allow examination of genetic influences of psychopathology
Without the typical confound of siblings raised in the same environment
The advantage of using a withdrawal design as part of a single-case experiment is that the research can
Determine whether improvements gained with treatment are lost when the treatment is withheld
While trying to discover the nature of the relationship between stress and blood pressure, a researcher asks participants to complete a difficult task. The researcher monitors the participants' blood pressure while some are exposed to noisy distractions and others stay in a quiet environment. This type of research is a(n)
Experiment
As a child's age increases, so does her height. This is an example of a(n)
Positive correlation
Using the multiaxial system of DSM-IV-TR, disorders such as major depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, and learning disorders are coded on
Axis I
The terms taxonomy and nosology refer to
Scientific classification
DSM-IV-TR is based on a _____ classification system.
Prototypical
Internal validity is defined as
The extent to which the results in a study can be explained by the independent variable
While studying the impact of nutrition on intelligence, a researcher has one group of rats on a vitamin-rich diet while the other rat groups Big Macs. While observing the rats run a complicated maze, the researcher notes that the vitamin-enhanced rats' maze is more brightly lit than the Big Mac rats' maze. The difference in lighting in this study is a (n)
Confound
The classical categorical approach to diagnosis assumes that each person with a particular disorder will
Experience the same symptoms with little or no variation
The dimensional approach to diagnosis is characterized by
A quantification of patients' experiences using scales measuring several areas, such as anxiety or depression
A researcher is testing the effects of sunlight on depression. The independent variable is
Sunlight
Analog Models
Create laboratory conditions that are comparable to the phenomenon under study
Which of the following characterizes the mood state known as anxiety?
Apprehension about the future
The alarm reaction to danger that is triggered by anxiety primarily involves _______ nervous system
Autonomic
Which of the following is an accurate statement about anxiety?
An inherited tendency can make us tense or uptight
Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
Worry
During lecture, I emphasized one DSM criterion that occurs in all the anxiety disorders; which of the following is the best answer?
Avoidance
Of the three types of panic attacks, which one is required to meet DSM criteria for a Panic Disorder?
Unexpected Panic Attacks
What Specific Phobia appears to have a greater genetic vulnerability?
Blood injury phobias
One treatment variable appears to be a necessary component of most, if not all, treatment approaches for anxiety disorders. What is it?
Exposure techniques
In terms of prevalence, anxiety disorders are most common in:
Females
The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence rates of U.S. veterans returning home from the war in Vietnam was directly related to their
Amount of combat exposure
In OCD, the compulsive behavior tends to:
Reduce obsessive behavior and related anxiety
The model of the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the text suggests that in order for an individual to develop OCD, _____ must be present
Both biological and psychological vulnerability
Regarding pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder, the most effective drugs are those that inhibit the reuptake of the neurotransmitter called
Serotonin
The behavioral process in which OCD patients are not permitted to carry out their compulsions while in the presence of the anxiety-producing stimulus or situation is called
Exposure and ritual prevention
What happens when people with OCD attempt to neutralize or suppress disturbing, intrusive thoughts?
The frequency of obsessive thoughts increases
Recent Research by Barlow (2002) and others indicates that vulnerability to anxiety disorders is related to
One's sense of control over environmental events
One symptom of depression is anhedonia, which means
An inability to experience pleasure
Which of the following is a symptom of the mood disorder known as mania?
Grandiosity
For children, the criteria for an MDE indicate that depressed mood may not be present; instead the child might present with ________
Irritability
To meet criteria for an MDE, five of nine symptoms must be present. One of the five symptoms must include:
Either depressed mood or anhedonia
For Dysthymic Disorder, children differ from adults on one criterion. Which of the following is the best answer?
Depressed mood may ast only one year
Women have a higher prevalence of major depression. However, men
Have a higher prevalence of competed suicides
Dysthymic disorder differs from major depressive disorder because people diagnosed with dysthymia have symptoms of depression that are
Longer lasting
In comparing the length of untreated depressive episodes and untreated manic episodes, which of the following is an accurate statement?
Depressive episodes generally last longer
Jack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to "normal". In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as dysthymic. Jack's condition is referred to as
Double depression
Current research indicates that an imbalance of various neurotransmitters may contribute to problems of mood. It appears the neurotransmitter balance is impacted by
Low levels of serotonin
For men and women, genetic contributions to depression are
Higher for women
Women may experience higher rates of depression than men because
Women experience more discrimination and abuse
In terms of medication treatment for depression,
The three classes, SSRIs, MAO inhibitors, and Tricyclics are roughly equivalent
The Mood-Stabilizing drug _______ is the gold standard for the treatment of bipolar disorder
Lithium
In the treatment of depression, research indicates that
Combined CBT and medication is most effective
Although ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) has been a controversial issue for decades, it is an effective treatment for depression, especially when
Patient response to antidepressant medication is poor
Twin studies indicate that
Suicidal behavior has a genetic contribution
The medication _______ is favored for bipolar disorder because it appears to reduce completed suicides
Lithium
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) helps depressed patients resolve relationship problems. All of the following issues are a possible focus of IPT EXCEPT
Negative thinking
Seligman and his colleagues conducted a course in which university students at risk for depression were taught cognitive and social problem-solving skills. Students in the study were determined to be at risk for depression based on a
Pessimistic Cognitive Style
A depressed young woman enters a psychologist's office for her first appointment. The therapist tells her that they will work together to recognize and correct her "negative thinking errors." The type of therapy that will be used here is called
Cognitive therapy
Although the mood-stabilizing drug lithium is the preferred treatment for bipolar disorder, patient compliance has been a problem. Patients often stop taking their lithium, even though it is effective in stabilizing their moods, because they
They miss the euphoric feelings of mania
Martin Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives is informed by
Learned helplessness model
For individuals who had not been previously depressed, research studies indicated that a marital separation or divorce resulted in
Higher rates of depression for men
Which of the following statements about suicide is correct?
For college students, suicide is the second leading cause of death
Statistics on suicide indicate that approximately one-quarter to one-half of all suicides are associated with
Alcohol
One of the challenges of Beck's cognitive therapy is that thoughts are
Often automatic and outside the awareness of the person
David Barlow and Edna Foa emphasize two different types of exposure methods in their therapy sessions. Barlow uses _______ and Foa uses ________.
Interoceptive; imaginal
Beck's cognitive triad consists of cognitive errors about
Themselves, their future, and the immediate world
Mood disorders can range from mild to severe; one of the most severe is referred to as
Major depressive disorder
Panic control treatment
Involves creating mini attacks in the therapist's office
Regarding the obsessions seen in patients with OCD, the term "need for symmetry" refers to
Keeping things in perfect order
The treatment of OCD, "Exposure and Ritual Prevention" involves
Not engaging in compulsive behavior when obsessions occur
The "Triple Vulnerability Model" includes
A biological vulnerability, a generalized psychological vulnerability, and a specific psychological vulnerability
John avoids going to parties; when he goes, he experiences panic attacks. I am not sure if he has a social phobia or if he has agoraphobia. What information could I use to make this distinction? (EC)
Whether he avoids parties due to another panic attack or dear of embarrassment/humiliation
Edna Foa uses two kinds of exposure techniques: _______ exposure in her therapy sessions and _______ exposure in her homework assignments (EC)
Imaginal; in vivo
The book indicates that Neil Jacobson uses a behavioral activation approach with depressed patients. This approach has a new focus for the treatment of depression which is (EC)
The prevention of avoidance of social and environmental cues
In order to be diagnosed with ADHD, _______ must be present
Either a pattern of inattention or a pattern of hyperactivity and impulsivity
The hypothesis that ADHD may be influence by toxins, food additives, or diet
Has little scientific evidence
The main reason that it is so important to identify children with developmental disorders as early as possible is that
Skill deficits can be identified and addressed before they impact later development
ADHD
Can occur in adults
Neurotransmitters implicated in the cause of ADHD include all of the following EXCEPT
Endorphins
The major reason developmental disorders are considered to be so serious in terms of their capacity to disrupt later functioning is
The failure at one level may impact later stages of development
According to our text, for adolescents the symptom category of _______ puts them at greater risk for pregnancy, contracting sexually transmitted infections, car accidents and speeding
Impulsivity
Of the following, the most accurate statement with regard to the genetic influences of ADHD is that
There appear to be multiple genes involved
The drug Strattera (atomoxetine) appears effective for some children with ADHD and, according to recent research, does not cause the same _______ as stimulant medication when used in larger doses
"High"
Blurting out answers to questions before questions have been completed is an example of which symptom group?
Hyperactivity
Our textbook identifies_______as a biological vulnerability for ADHD
Genetic influences
Ron is a nine-year-old boy recently diagnosed with ADHD. His parents have chosen a combined approach to treatment, which will most likely involve
Medication such as Ritalin and behavior therapy
Psychological and social factors can influence the course of ADHD. An example includes
Negative responses by teachers and parents to the child's hyperactivity and impulsivity
Recent research, although controversial, indicates that
Medication alone and behavioral treatment combined with medication were more effective than behavior therapy alone
Recent research points to possible environmental factors that may increase the risk for hyperactive and impulsive behavior; these include
Socioeconomic status and parental instability
Russell Barkley, a prominent researcher in ADHD, believes the core deficit of ADHD is
A disorder of inhibition
The medications used to treat ADHD have proven to be helpful to _______ percent of ADHD patients
70%
Barkley believes that distractibility
Occurs frequently but that the main problem is the time to resume the task after distraction
Barkley's gives an example that children are able to play video games for hours yet not be able to sustain attention to schoolwork as evidence that
That distractibility does not occur with all tasks
Northup's use of single subject research designs shows that for children with ADHD
Some children did better with medication, some responded best with behavioral treatment, and some to a combination of treatments
A characteristic pattern for children with autism is
The lack of reciprocal social interaction
Pervasive developmental disorders are characterized by problems three major areas: socialization, language, and
Cognition
Related to autism, repeated spinning around in circles would fall into the symptom category of
Restricted patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
Repeating others speech and headbanging, sometimes observed in children with autism
May occur in typically developing children
The prevalence of autism in the United States
Is similar to that seen in countries around the world
What is the convincing evidence that autism involves some form of brain damage?
Nearly half of individuals with autism have some level of intellectual disability
In lecture, I discussed Sensory Integration theory/therapy, a treatment used for autistic children, which
Is widely used but does not have well controlled research supporting its application
Current treatment programs for autism often involve
Improving communication and daily living skills
Autism is classified as a
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Jim is a teen who has no friends. Although he is quite verbal, he speaks in a strange and formal style. Jim is obsessed with airplanes and behaves in a very strange way. All his activities center on planes, and he possesses an almost encyclopedic knowledge of aircraft. Jim's constant verbal display of this knowledge interferes with socialization. Most people consider him "weird" and avoid him. Of the following, the most likely diagnosis for Jim is
Asperger's disorder
Non medication treatment for ADHD most often includes
a and d
ADHD research on pesticides indicates
They may contribute to an increased risk of ADHD
Which best describes the way ADHD develops as children grow into adulthood?
Manifestations of ADHD tend to change over time but problems often persist
According to the text, the inattention symptoms of ADHD is characterized by
Careless mistakes
All of the following side effects EXCEPT _______ are associated with the medications Ritalin and Concerta, used to treat ADHD
Weight gain
The prevalence of intellectual disability among individuals with autism is approximately
50%
Research using sophisticated eye tracking technology indicates that when individuals with autism viewed social scenes they
Tended to look at nonsocial aspects of the scene
A major difference between individuals with autism and Asperger's is
Individuals with Asperger's have spokem language but individuals with autism may not develop language
Research on parental interactions with children with autism indicates that autism is
Not the result of parenting behavior
According to the textbook, the generally accepted conclusion is that ________ are the primary distinguishing characteristics of people with autism
Social deficiencies
Research with some children with autism has found low blood levels of the neuropeptide Oxttocin; in addition, some work identifies an association between autism and the oxytocin receptor gene. This may be important because
Oxytocin is a social neurochemical that influences bonding and increases trust
The use of medication to treat autism
Generally ineffective
Lovaas from UCLA reported improvements in intellectual and educational functioning with early intervention strategies for children with autism. They provided treatment in communication and social skills
40 hours per week
Research indicated that gains made through early intervention with children with autism
Long lasting
Generally speaking, treatment for a child with autism should include
Behavior therapy, school based education, and a focus on developing as much independence as possible
There has been a great deal of controversy about whether childhood vaccines contribute to autism. One significant concern has been the use of thimersol, mercury, in some vaccines. Large epidemiological studies conducted in several countries, most recently in Denmark, indicate
There is no increased risk of autism in children who are vaccinated
According to the textbook, some success has been achieved in teaching communication skills to children with autism through the use of
Behavioral procedures involving shaping and discrimination training
No completely successful treatment for autism exists. However,_______approaches have the most empirical support
Behavioral
Research on the brains of people with autism suggests
The amygdala may be involved
Nancy Neef's research indicates that (EC)
Children with ADHD prefer immediate reinforcement and children without ADHD prefer quality reinforcement
For Barkley, a lack of inhibition is characterized by a preference for (EC)
Immediate reinforcers over delayed reinforcers
In class I discussed the Verbal Behavior Approach for teaching language to children with autism. Based on BF Skinners work, a unique feature of this approach is (EC)
An emphasis on teaching requesting first, under conditions where the child is motivated to respond
Barkley posts that behavior problems to get out of low preference activities may be influenced by a preference (EC)
Immediate negative reinforcement
In lecture, I discussed the Loovas study. In a follow-up study of the children in the early intervention, intensive therapy group (EC)
Blind examiners could not distinguish the formally autistic children from normally developing children
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of schizophrenia?
Multiple personalities
Which of the following is accurate in regard to the long-term outlook for patients with schizophrenia?
Complete recovery from schizophrenia is rare
If an individual is diagnosed as psychotic, it usually means that the person has
Delusions
John is 20 years old, lives with his parents and is delusional, believing his prayers will bring world peace. He spends most of his day in his room, talks mostly about praying, and only comes out for meals. John can only be admitted to a psychiatric hospital if
John's behavior changes and he becomes a danger to himself or others
Which of the following is the persecutory type of psychotic delusion?
People are out to get you
Which of the following is NOT true about delusions?
The use of reinforcement can alter the belief in the truth of a delusion
The most common type of hallucination experienced by psychotic individuals is
Auditory
Mark was diagnosed with schizophrenia many years ago. Most recently, he has been exhibiting some bizarre behaviors. For example, he has been standing for hours in unusual postures. Mark's motor dysfunction is called
Catatonic immobility
In what three categories does our text group the symptoms of schizophrenia?
Positive symptoms, disorganized symptoms, and negative symptoms
Delusions
A positive symptom
The negative symptom of schizophrenia called avolition is defined as
Inability to initiate and persist in activities
Which of the following does NOT apply to the disorganized subtype of schizophrenia?
Frequent remissions and improvement of symptoms
Callie has been diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. This means that in addition to schizophrenic symptoms, she also has symptoms of
A mood disorder
Which of the following symptoms would NOT constitute criteria for the residual subtype of schizophrenia?
Delusions
Which of the following defines the jealous type of delusional disorder?
Falsely believing that one's sexual partner is unfaithful
Which is NOT a characteristic of delusional disorder?
Short duration of auditory or visual hallucinations, not lasting more than two months
John had symptoms of schizophrenia for only several months and then he was able to resume to normal activities. He would most likely get a diagnosis of
Schizophreniform
The five subtypes of schizophrenia are Catatonic Type, Paranoid Type, Residual Type, Disorganized Type and
Undifferentiated Type
The more severe symptoms of schizophrenia typically first occur
During adolescence or early adulthood
Which of the following is true regarding to the genetic basis of schizophrenia?
Genes are responsible for making some individuals vulnerable to schizophrenia
Research studies focusing on genetic factors in schizophrenia have found that
An individual with a schizophrenic identical twin has the highest risk factor (almost 50 percent) of developing schizophrenia
If the environment (no genetic influence) determined schizophrenia completely, what would we expect to see in a twin study?
The concordance rates for identical and fraternal twins to be about the same
The research on schizophrenia involving the offspring of twins indicates
Parents without schizophrenia can pass on a genetic vulnerability
Based on the various genetic linkage and association studies, one possible "marker", or endophenotype, for schizophrenia involves
Eye-tracking
Which of the following statements reflects "circumstantial evidence" for the dopamine theory of schizophrenia?
Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics) can produce symptoms similar to those of Parkinson's disease (a disorder due to insufficient dopamine)
Which of the following occurs when drugs are administered to patients with schizophrenia?
Drugs that increase dopamine (agonists) cause a decrease in schizophrenic behavior
Neuroleptics are most effective treating
Positive symptoms
Neuroleptics, dopamine antagonists
Decrease the amount of dopamine
What is the evidence for structural damage in the brains of patients with schizophrenia?
The majority of patients with schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles in their brains
Recent research into the causes of schizophrenia, including studies of patients with schizophrenia who had been exposed prenatally to influenza, suggests that there might be a _______ cause of schizophrenia
Viral
Which of the following statements is true?
High expressed emotion in a family is a good predictor of relapse
Which of the following statements is true?
Recent research found that second-generation antipsychotic meds were no more effective than the older drugs
Tardive dyskinesia, a condition that can occur in patients who take antipsychotic medications
Is often irreversible
In the 1970s, researchers set up a treatment system called a token economy in a mental health center. This type of "millieu" treatment for patients with schizophrenia focused on
Socialization and self-care skills
An integrated approach to treatment includes all the following, EXCEPT
Cognitive behavioral Thearpy
The primary goal of psychosocial interventions for individuals with schizophrenia is to
Prevent relapse
The two primary components of the UCLA independent Living skills program are
Medication management and symptom management
In eating disorders, the strongest contributions to etiology are
Sociocultural factors
Most severe cases of eating disorders occur in
Young white females in middle to upper middle class
The chief motivating factor in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa is
An overwhelming urge to be thin
When individuals with anorexia nervosa have been evaluated over long periods of time, it has been found that the percentage of individuals who die as a result of their disorder is ___ percent
20
The most significant feature of bulimia nervosa is
Binge eating followed by compensatory behavior
Susan, a woman of relatively normal weight, sometimes eats huge quantities of junk food with no ability to stop herself. She follows this with long periods of complete fasting. Based on this information, Susan would
Be diagnosed with bulimia nervosa
Which of the following statements is true with regard to drug treatments for patients with anorexia nervosa?
Medications have not generally been found to be effective for the treatment of anorexia nervosa
Individuals who experience loss of control of their eating and consume great qualities of food but do not engage in any attempts to compensate for their binge would be diagnosed with
Binge eating disorder
Recent research regarding the treatment of binge eating disorder indicates that IPT is _____ CPT
Equally as effective as
Jill has been in treatment for anorexia nervosa for the past two months. Over this time, she has gained weight to the point where she is in the average range for a woman of her height. The fact that she gained weight fairly quickly in treatment means
Little in terms of how likely she is to be successful in the long term
Most individuals with bulimia nervosa are
Of fairly normal body weight
Many clinicians suggest that the most difficult part of treatment for anorexia nervosa, and the part of treatment where many people with anorexia nervosa are not successful, is
Changing their attitudes regarding body and self-image
The most common psychological disorders associated with bulimia are
Anxiety disorders
The most common reason that people with anorexia nervosa generally do not seek treatment on their own is that they (EC)
Do not see themselves as too thin
When women are asked to identify the most attractive female body weight, they typically identify a weight that is (EC)
Lower than the weight identified by men
In class I discussed a study that examined the effects of reinforcement and delusional speech. My main point was that (EC)
The frequency of delusional speech can be modified by procedures such as reinforcement
When I discussed the research on delusions and reinforcement, I diagrammed a single-case experimental design. Our authors discussed this design in chapter three. It is called a (EC)
Withdrawal design
Regarding cultural differences in expressed emotion, which is thought to be positively correlated with schizophrenia, research has found that _______ families have the highest percentage of expressed emotion (EC)
Anglo-American
Excessive exercise is (EC)
More common in individuals with Anorexia Nervosa
Our authors note research indicating substantial anxiety before and during eating snacks. These researchers theorize that (EC)
Anxiety is relieved by purging and that this reinforces purging behavior making it more likely to be repeated