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Regarding the definition of abnormality, it is correct to state that

it is difficult to define "normal" and "abnormal"

According to the authors of your textbook, the definition of a psychological disorder is associated with

impaired functioning

Recent evidence regarding genetic influence on most psychological disorders have shown that

Multiple genes interact, with each gene contributing a small effect

Extremely high levels of GABA are associated with

Decreased anxiety

Some of the most recent research studies regarding genetic versus environmental causes of disorders in animals and humans suggested

Genetic influences may have been overstated by previous studies

Research with the elderly has found that depression is more likely in those individuals who

Have fewer social contacts

The basis of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that each dimension (psychological, biological, emotional, etc.)

Is influenced by the other dimensions

Which of the following describes the concept of validity as it applies to psychological assessment

An assessment technique measures what it is designed to measure

The advantage of using a withdrawal design as part of a single-case experiment is that the researcher can

Determine whether improvements gained with treatment are lost when the treatment is withheld

In a mental status exam, it is important to determine if the individual's sensorium is clear and if he or she is "oriented times three." this refers to

Person, place, and time

Abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the brain can be detected by neuroimaging techniques. Current research is also looking at

A possible association of these abnormalities with psychological disorders

A researcher is testing the effects of sunlight on depression. The independent variable is


Statistical significance determines whether an observed difference between a treatment and control group is likely due to


In a mental status exam, a psychologist evaluates an individual's thought processes by

Listening to what the person says

A researcher studies the impact of stress on college students' exam scores. Whether the results of this study help us to understand a relationship between job performance and stress levels of real-life organizational workers is a question of

External validity

Someone you know has been having a lot of difficulty because of irrational fears. Knowing that you are studying abnormal psychology, this person asks if you know of an effective and well-established treatment. You advise her that _____, based on the mid 20th century work of Joseph Wolpe, is a successful anxiety reduction procedure.

Systematic desensitization

The scientific study of psychological disorders is called


If a psychological disorder is said to have an acute onset, it means that the symptoms developed


The systematic development of a scientific approach to psychopathology is represented by

The behavioral model

The best description of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that it is based on

Biological and psychological causes

Neurotransmitters are important because they

Allow neurons to send signals to other neurons

Research studies have shown that genetically emotional and reactive young animals raised by calm mothers tended to be


The part of the autonomic nervous system primarily responsible for our "emergency" or "alarm" response to stress is the

Sympathetic nervous system

The victims of the disorder bulimia nervosa are predominantly young females. One likely explanation for this is that young females are

More likely to feel an intense cultural pressure to be thin

Most psychological disorders appear to be influenced by many individual genes rather than caused by one single gene, a type of influence referred to as


The most recent estimates of the contribution of genetics to the development of personality characteristics such as shyness or anxiety level are approximately ______ percent.


Drugs that increase the activity of a neurotransmitter are called


The neurotransmitter associated with the inhibition of anxiety is


Emotion is generally thought to be comprised of

Behavior, Physiology, and Cognition

In the 1992 studies conducted by Baxter et al., in one of the groups, OCD patients were provided with cognitive-behavioral therapy (exposure and response prevention) but no drugs. This study is important because brain imaging showed that

The neurotransmitter circuits of the brain had been normalized

A rat is placed in a cage and given electrical shocks, over which it has no control. When placed in a shuttle box, the rat does not attempt to escape the shock due to

Learned helplessness

The systematic evaluation of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person with a possible mental disorder is known as clinical


When a diagnosis tells the clinician what is likely to happen and possibly predict the course of the disorder and the likely effect of one treatment or another, the diagnosis has

Predictive validity

The basic components of informed consent are

Competence, volunteerism, full information, and comprehension

When observational data are being collected, the observer's presence may cause a person to behave differently, a phenomenon known as


The ABC's of observation refer to the _____ sequence


A researcher is studying how depression tends to be experienced by people of different ages. The researcher interviews depressed adolescents, young adults, individuals in their 30s and 50s, and those over 70. The research design being used is called


Adoption studies are often used when attempting to study the influence of genetic factors on psychological disorders because these studies allow examination of genetic influences of psychopathology

Without the typical confound of siblings raised in the same environment

The advantage of using a withdrawal design as part of a single-case experiment is that the research can

Determine whether improvements gained with treatment are lost when the treatment is withheld

While trying to discover the nature of the relationship between stress and blood pressure, a researcher asks participants to complete a difficult task. The researcher monitors the participants' blood pressure while some are exposed to noisy distractions and others stay in a quiet environment. This type of research is a(n)


As a child's age increases, so does her height. This is an example of a(n)

Positive correlation

Using the multiaxial system of DSM-IV-TR, disorders such as major depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, and learning disorders are coded on

Axis I

The terms taxonomy and nosology refer to

Scientific classification

DSM-IV-TR is based on a _____ classification system.


Internal validity is defined as

The extent to which the results in a study can be explained by the independent variable

While studying the impact of nutrition on intelligence, a researcher has one group of rats on a vitamin-rich diet while the other rat groups Big Macs. While observing the rats run a complicated maze, the researcher notes that the vitamin-enhanced rats' maze is more brightly lit than the Big Mac rats' maze. The difference in lighting in this study is a (n)


The classical categorical approach to diagnosis assumes that each person with a particular disorder will

Experience the same symptoms with little or no variation

The dimensional approach to diagnosis is characterized by

A quantification of patients' experiences using scales measuring several areas, such as anxiety or depression

A researcher is testing the effects of sunlight on depression. The independent variable is


Analog Models

Create laboratory conditions that are comparable to the phenomenon under study

Which of the following characterizes the mood state known as anxiety?

Apprehension about the future

The alarm reaction to danger that is triggered by anxiety primarily involves _______ nervous system


Which of the following is an accurate statement about anxiety?

An inherited tendency can make us tense or uptight

Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?


During lecture, I emphasized one DSM criterion that occurs in all the anxiety disorders; which of the following is the best answer?


Of the three types of panic attacks, which one is required to meet DSM criteria for a Panic Disorder?

Unexpected Panic Attacks

What Specific Phobia appears to have a greater genetic vulnerability?

Blood injury phobias

One treatment variable appears to be a necessary component of most, if not all, treatment approaches for anxiety disorders. What is it?

Exposure techniques

In terms of prevalence, anxiety disorders are most common in:


The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence rates of U.S. veterans returning home from the war in Vietnam was directly related to their

Amount of combat exposure

In OCD, the compulsive behavior tends to:

Reduce obsessive behavior and related anxiety

The model of the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the text suggests that in order for an individual to develop OCD, _____ must be present

Both biological and psychological vulnerability

Regarding pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder, the most effective drugs are those that inhibit the reuptake of the neurotransmitter called


The behavioral process in which OCD patients are not permitted to carry out their compulsions while in the presence of the anxiety-producing stimulus or situation is called

Exposure and ritual prevention

What happens when people with OCD attempt to neutralize or suppress disturbing, intrusive thoughts?

The frequency of obsessive thoughts increases

Recent Research by Barlow (2002) and others indicates that vulnerability to anxiety disorders is related to

One's sense of control over environmental events

One symptom of depression is anhedonia, which means

An inability to experience pleasure

Which of the following is a symptom of the mood disorder known as mania?


For children, the criteria for an MDE indicate that depressed mood may not be present; instead the child might present with ________


To meet criteria for an MDE, five of nine symptoms must be present. One of the five symptoms must include:

Either depressed mood or anhedonia

For Dysthymic Disorder, children differ from adults on one criterion. Which of the following is the best answer?

Depressed mood may ast only one year

Women have a higher prevalence of major depression. However, men

Have a higher prevalence of competed suicides

Dysthymic disorder differs from major depressive disorder because people diagnosed with dysthymia have symptoms of depression that are

Longer lasting

In comparing the length of untreated depressive episodes and untreated manic episodes, which of the following is an accurate statement?

Depressive episodes generally last longer

Jack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to "normal". In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as dysthymic. Jack's condition is referred to as

Double depression

Current research indicates that an imbalance of various neurotransmitters may contribute to problems of mood. It appears the neurotransmitter balance is impacted by

Low levels of serotonin

For men and women, genetic contributions to depression are

Higher for women

Women may experience higher rates of depression than men because

Women experience more discrimination and abuse

In terms of medication treatment for depression,

The three classes, SSRIs, MAO inhibitors, and Tricyclics are roughly equivalent

The Mood-Stabilizing drug _______ is the gold standard for the treatment of bipolar disorder


In the treatment of depression, research indicates that

Combined CBT and medication is most effective

Although ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) has been a controversial issue for decades, it is an effective treatment for depression, especially when

Patient response to antidepressant medication is poor

Twin studies indicate that

Suicidal behavior has a genetic contribution

The medication _______ is favored for bipolar disorder because it appears to reduce completed suicides


Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) helps depressed patients resolve relationship problems. All of the following issues are a possible focus of IPT EXCEPT

Negative thinking

Seligman and his colleagues conducted a course in which university students at risk for depression were taught cognitive and social problem-solving skills. Students in the study were determined to be at risk for depression based on a

Pessimistic Cognitive Style

A depressed young woman enters a psychologist's office for her first appointment. The therapist tells her that they will work together to recognize and correct her "negative thinking errors." The type of therapy that will be used here is called

Cognitive therapy

Although the mood-stabilizing drug lithium is the preferred treatment for bipolar disorder, patient compliance has been a problem. Patients often stop taking their lithium, even though it is effective in stabilizing their moods, because they

They miss the euphoric feelings of mania

Martin Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives is informed by

Learned helplessness model

For individuals who had not been previously depressed, research studies indicated that a marital separation or divorce resulted in

Higher rates of depression for men

Which of the following statements about suicide is correct?

For college students, suicide is the second leading cause of death

Statistics on suicide indicate that approximately one-quarter to one-half of all suicides are associated with


One of the challenges of Beck's cognitive therapy is that thoughts are

Often automatic and outside the awareness of the person

David Barlow and Edna Foa emphasize two different types of exposure methods in their therapy sessions. Barlow uses _______ and Foa uses ________.

Interoceptive; imaginal

Beck's cognitive triad consists of cognitive errors about

Themselves, their future, and the immediate world

Mood disorders can range from mild to severe; one of the most severe is referred to as

Major depressive disorder

Panic control treatment

Involves creating mini attacks in the therapist's office

Regarding the obsessions seen in patients with OCD, the term "need for symmetry" refers to

Keeping things in perfect order

The treatment of OCD, "Exposure and Ritual Prevention" involves

Not engaging in compulsive behavior when obsessions occur

The "Triple Vulnerability Model" includes

A biological vulnerability, a generalized psychological vulnerability, and a specific psychological vulnerability

John avoids going to parties; when he goes, he experiences panic attacks. I am not sure if he has a social phobia or if he has agoraphobia. What information could I use to make this distinction? (EC)

Whether he avoids parties due to another panic attack or dear of embarrassment/humiliation

Edna Foa uses two kinds of exposure techniques: _______ exposure in her therapy sessions and _______ exposure in her homework assignments (EC)

Imaginal; in vivo

The book indicates that Neil Jacobson uses a behavioral activation approach with depressed patients. This approach has a new focus for the treatment of depression which is (EC)

The prevention of avoidance of social and environmental cues

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD, _______ must be present

Either a pattern of inattention or a pattern of hyperactivity and impulsivity

The hypothesis that ADHD may be influence by toxins, food additives, or diet

Has little scientific evidence

The main reason that it is so important to identify children with developmental disorders as early as possible is that

Skill deficits can be identified and addressed before they impact later development


Can occur in adults

Neurotransmitters implicated in the cause of ADHD include all of the following EXCEPT


The major reason developmental disorders are considered to be so serious in terms of their capacity to disrupt later functioning is

The failure at one level may impact later stages of development

According to our text, for adolescents the symptom category of _______ puts them at greater risk for pregnancy, contracting sexually transmitted infections, car accidents and speeding


Of the following, the most accurate statement with regard to the genetic influences of ADHD is that

There appear to be multiple genes involved

The drug Strattera (atomoxetine) appears effective for some children with ADHD and, according to recent research, does not cause the same _______ as stimulant medication when used in larger doses


Blurting out answers to questions before questions have been completed is an example of which symptom group?


Our textbook identifies_______as a biological vulnerability for ADHD

Genetic influences

Ron is a nine-year-old boy recently diagnosed with ADHD. His parents have chosen a combined approach to treatment, which will most likely involve

Medication such as Ritalin and behavior therapy

Psychological and social factors can influence the course of ADHD. An example includes

Negative responses by teachers and parents to the child's hyperactivity and impulsivity

Recent research, although controversial, indicates that

Medication alone and behavioral treatment combined with medication were more effective than behavior therapy alone

Recent research points to possible environmental factors that may increase the risk for hyperactive and impulsive behavior; these include

Socioeconomic status and parental instability

Russell Barkley, a prominent researcher in ADHD, believes the core deficit of ADHD is

A disorder of inhibition

The medications used to treat ADHD have proven to be helpful to _______ percent of ADHD patients


Barkley believes that distractibility

Occurs frequently but that the main problem is the time to resume the task after distraction

Barkley's gives an example that children are able to play video games for hours yet not be able to sustain attention to schoolwork as evidence that

That distractibility does not occur with all tasks

Northup's use of single subject research designs shows that for children with ADHD

Some children did better with medication, some responded best with behavioral treatment, and some to a combination of treatments

A characteristic pattern for children with autism is

The lack of reciprocal social interaction

Pervasive developmental disorders are characterized by problems three major areas: socialization, language, and


Related to autism, repeated spinning around in circles would fall into the symptom category of

Restricted patterns of behavior, interests, and activities

Repeating others speech and headbanging, sometimes observed in children with autism

May occur in typically developing children

The prevalence of autism in the United States

Is similar to that seen in countries around the world

What is the convincing evidence that autism involves some form of brain damage?

Nearly half of individuals with autism have some level of intellectual disability

In lecture, I discussed Sensory Integration theory/therapy, a treatment used for autistic children, which

Is widely used but does not have well controlled research supporting its application

Current treatment programs for autism often involve

Improving communication and daily living skills

Autism is classified as a

Pervasive Developmental Disorder

Jim is a teen who has no friends. Although he is quite verbal, he speaks in a strange and formal style. Jim is obsessed with airplanes and behaves in a very strange way. All his activities center on planes, and he possesses an almost encyclopedic knowledge of aircraft. Jim's constant verbal display of this knowledge interferes with socialization. Most people consider him "weird" and avoid him. Of the following, the most likely diagnosis for Jim is

Asperger's disorder

Non medication treatment for ADHD most often includes

a and d

ADHD research on pesticides indicates

They may contribute to an increased risk of ADHD

Which best describes the way ADHD develops as children grow into adulthood?

Manifestations of ADHD tend to change over time but problems often persist

According to the text, the inattention symptoms of ADHD is characterized by

Careless mistakes

All of the following side effects EXCEPT _______ are associated with the medications Ritalin and Concerta, used to treat ADHD

Weight gain

The prevalence of intellectual disability among individuals with autism is approximately


Research using sophisticated eye tracking technology indicates that when individuals with autism viewed social scenes they

Tended to look at nonsocial aspects of the scene

A major difference between individuals with autism and Asperger's is

Individuals with Asperger's have spokem language but individuals with autism may not develop language

Research on parental interactions with children with autism indicates that autism is

Not the result of parenting behavior

According to the textbook, the generally accepted conclusion is that ________ are the primary distinguishing characteristics of people with autism

Social deficiencies

Research with some children with autism has found low blood levels of the neuropeptide Oxttocin; in addition, some work identifies an association between autism and the oxytocin receptor gene. This may be important because

Oxytocin is a social neurochemical that influences bonding and increases trust

The use of medication to treat autism

Generally ineffective

Lovaas from UCLA reported improvements in intellectual and educational functioning with early intervention strategies for children with autism. They provided treatment in communication and social skills

40 hours per week

Research indicated that gains made through early intervention with children with autism

Long lasting

Generally speaking, treatment for a child with autism should include

Behavior therapy, school based education, and a focus on developing as much independence as possible

There has been a great deal of controversy about whether childhood vaccines contribute to autism. One significant concern has been the use of thimersol, mercury, in some vaccines. Large epidemiological studies conducted in several countries, most recently in Denmark, indicate

There is no increased risk of autism in children who are vaccinated

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