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242 terms

AP Human Geography Terms

Terms to study for taking the AP Human Geography Exam.
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Agribusiness
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-proccessing industry, usually through the ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Agricultural Revoluion
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of the Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenence or economic gain.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, such as thunderstorms and earthquakes, have discrete spirit and concious life.
Annexation
Legally or illegally adding land to a country.
Apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physicall separated different races into different geographic areas.
Arithmic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Autonomous Religion
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Balkanization
process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized
A small geographic area that could not be successfully organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Base Line
An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Basic Industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Biomass Fuel
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convinced white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families would soon be moving into the neighborhood.
Boundary
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state territory.
Brain Drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
Branch (of a religion)
A large and fundamental division within a religion.
Break-of-Bulk Point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Bulk-gaining Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
Bulk-reducing Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Cartography
The science of making maps.
Caste
The class or distinct hereditary order into which a hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Census Tract
An area delineated by the U.S, Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized ares, they correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Census
A compete enumeration of a population.
Central Business District
The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel further.\
Central Place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Centripetal Force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance a state.
Cereal Grain
A grass yielding grain for food (Rice, Wheat, Barley, etc.)
Chain Migration
Migration of paople to a specific location because of relatives or people of the same nationality previously migrated there.
City-state
A sovreign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Clustered Rural Settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlements.
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
Commercial Agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Compact State
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Concentration
The spread of something over a given area.
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Cottage Industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Creole
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Cultural Ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural Landscape
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
Custom
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
Density
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
Desertification
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Denomination
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
Development
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Diffusion
the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Dispersed Rural Settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Double Cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Edge City
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
Elongated State
A state with a long, narrow shape.
Emigration
Migration from a location.
Enclosure Movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Environmental Determinism
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Ethnic Cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Ethnic Religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
Federal State
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Folk Culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Forced Migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
Formal Region
An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.
Fossil Fuel
Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Fragmented State
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Frontier
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Functional Region
An area organized around a node or focal point
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Gender Empowerment Measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
Gender-Related Development Index
Compares the level of development with that of both sexes.
Gentrification
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Gerrymandering
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Ghetto
During the Middle Aes, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
GIS
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Global Positioning System
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Gravity Model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Green Revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Greenhouse Effect
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
Greenwhich Mean Time
the time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 longitude
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year).
Guest Workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Hearth
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
Hierarchical Diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Hierarchical Religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
Horticulture
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Immigration
Migration to a new location.
Imperialism
Control of a territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Internal Migration
Permanent Movement within a particular country.
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
International Migration
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Intervening Obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Intraregional Migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
Labor-intensive Industry
An industry for which labor costs comprises a high percentage of total expenses
Landlocked State
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Land ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Language Branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
Language Family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language Group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
Less Developed Country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Lingua Franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
Literacy Rate
percentage of people who can read and write.
Longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).
Map
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
Maquiladora
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico.
Market Area
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Mental Map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Meridian
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
Microstate
A state that encompasses a very small land area.
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Migration Transition
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Milkshed
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Mobility
All types of movement from one location to another.
Monotheism
the doctrine or belief that there is only one God
More Developed Country
Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativety far along a continuum of development.
Multi-ethnic State
A state that contains more than one ethnicity.
Multinational State
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Nationality
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Nation-state
A state who's territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Natural Increase Rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Net Migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
New International Division of Labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
Nonbasic Industries
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
Official Language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Parallel
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
Pastoral Nomadism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Pasture
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
Pattern
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
Perforated State
a state that completely surrounds another one
Peripheral Model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Pigdin Language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Place
a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character.
Plantation
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Polder
land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
Polytheism
Belief in or worship of more than one god.
Popular Culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Post-Fordist Production
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
Primary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Primate City
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Prime Meridian
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
Principal Meridian
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Projection
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Prorupted State
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.
Public Housing
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
Pull Factors
Factors that induce people to move to a new location.
Push Factors
Factors that induce people to leave old residences.
Quota
In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
Ranching
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
Range
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Rank-size Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Region
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Remote Sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Retail Services
Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
Right-to-work State
A U.S. state that has passed a law preventing union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of e3mployment.
Sawah
A flooded feild for growing rice.
Scale
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
Secondary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Sect
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Section
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections.
Sector Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Seed Agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
Self-determinism
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Shifting Cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Site
The physical character of a place.
Site Factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Situation
The location of a place relative to other places.
Situation Factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Slash-and-burn Agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because feilds are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Sovreignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Space-time Compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distinct place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Spring Wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Squatter Settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Standard Language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
State
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Stimulus Diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Structural Adjustment Program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
Subsistence Agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Sustainable Agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
Sustainable Development
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.
Taboo
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
Tertiary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
Textile
A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
Total Fertility Rate
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
Township
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
Trading Bloc
A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Transitional Corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Truck Farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
Undocumented Immigrants
People who enter a country without proper documents.
Uneven Development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
Unitary State
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Universalizing Religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Urban Renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Urbanized Area
In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
Value Added
the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
Vegetative Planting
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
Vernacular Region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Voluntary Migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
Winter Wheat
wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer
Zero Population Growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Zoning Ordinance
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.