AP Human Geography Exam Review
Terms in this set (97)
Demographic Transition Model
In four stages of transition from an agricultural subsistence economy to an industrialized country, demographic patterns move from extremely high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. In the process population growth rates skyrocket and then fall again. The crude death rate first falls because of the influx of better health technology, and then the birth rate gradually falls to match the new social structure.
Epidemiological Transition Model
Disease vulnerability shifts in patterns similar to the DTM. In this early stages, plague and pestilence spread as a result of poor medical technology. As industrialization proceeds, diseases related to urban life spread. In later stages, diseases once thought eradicated reappear as more-developed societies come into easier contact with less developed regions struggling with more primitive diseases, such as smallpox and the bubonic plague. Leading causes of death in later stages are related to diseases associated with aging, such as heart disease.
Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction
When applied to migration, larger places attract more migrants than do smaller places. Additionally, destinations that are more distant have a weaker pull effect than do closer opportunities of the same caliber.
Zelinsky Model of Migration Transition
Migration trends follow demographic transition stages. People become increasingly mobile as industrialization develops. More international migration is seen in stage 2 as migrants search for more space and opportunities in countries in stages 3 and 4. Stage-4 countries show less emigration and more intraregional migration.
the area in which you travel on a daily basis
Number of farmers per area of farmland.
Antinatalist population policy
Restrictive policy that discourages people from having babies.
Land that can be used for agriculture
Number of people per area
Net out-migration of the most educated individuals from a region
Maximum number of people a region can reasonably sustain.
When migrants move to a new place based on information they received from family or community members who made the same journey earlier.
Group of people usually classified by age.
Crude birth rate
Number of live births per 1,000 people over a year.
Crude death rate
Number of deaths per 1,000 people over a year.
Movement made on a daily basis that involves a very short move to and from one's home.
Demographic accounting equation
Equation used for evaluating population change on global and subglobal levels. At the global level, the CBR and CDR are the only two factors in the equation of change. At the subglobal level, immigration and emigration are taken into account.
Demographic momentum (hidden momentum)
Phenomenon of a growing population size even after replacement-level fertility has been reached. This occurs when the base of the population pyramid is so wide that the generation of parents will take them to cycle out before zero growth occurs.
Study of population characteristics, transitions, and projections
Measurement in which the number of people unable to work because of age is compared with number of workers in society.
Removal of salt from saltwater to make potable drinking water.
Spread of a particular phenomenon across a given space.
Number of years it will take for a population to double in size.
portion of the earth's surface that is habitable for humans.
Movement out of a country or regions
Center, or most intensely affected region, of an outbreak or disaster.
Disease spread acutely over a localized area.
Nineteenth-century geographer who wrote essays outlining 11 generalizations of migration, some of which still apply today, where as others have changed since he wrote them during the Industrial Revolution in England.
Principal critic of Malthusian theory who argued that overpopulation could be solved by increasing the number of subsistence farmers.
Eugenic population policy
Policy that encourages some groups of people to have babies and discriminates against other groups, discouraging their reproduction.
Growth that is compounded, like interest in a bank account; contrasts with linear growth, which does not increase in rate.
Ability to conceive a child
In response to restrictive population policies, families kill their female infants so they can try to have male babies.
Reproductive behavior in a population leading to births.
First agricultural revolution
Occurred 10,000 to 12,000 years ago when humans first developed the ability to remain in a settlement and domesticate crops and animals. Led to the development of cities.
Friction of distance
Negative impact that distance has on spatial interaction, including communication and travel
General fertility rate
Number of births per 1,000 women in the fecund range over a year.
Evidenced by a population pyramid showing a higher number of older, or elderly, people in its projection than younger, working-age people. The pyramid is top-heavy.
Migrant who is temporarily permitted to stay in a country only to work.
Humans immunodeficiency virus is the onset of what turns into the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A global pandemic, outbreaks are most acute in Africa and Asia.
Movement into a country or region
Began in England around the 1700s and later diffused in an eastward direction throughout Europe and to the United States. Saw the development of factory-based economies and urban migration at a large scale. Coincided with the second agricultural revolution and high population growth rates.
Infant Mortality rate
Number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1,000 births over a year.
"Backbone" of a society, including communication, transportation, and other such maintenance structures.
Internally displaced person
Another name for an intranational refugee, someone who is forced from home but remains within the country.
Refugees who flee their country and move to another country.
Internal migration among particular regions in a country.
Barrier encountered on a journey that prevents or interferes with getting to the planned, final destination.
New opportunity that arises along a journey that is more attractive to the person making the journey and diminishes the attractiveness of the final destination.
Refugees who abandon their homes but remain in their country to escape persecution.
Internal migration within a particular region, such as from a suburb to an inner city.
Involuntary (forced) migration
Occurs when a migrant is forced to move because of abuse, war, or similar negative circumstances against their will.
Principal critic of Malthusian theory who argued that overpopulation was the fault of unchecked capitalism and unequal distribution of resources, leaving some places unable to care for their populations.
Average number of years a person is expected to live.
Linear (arithmetic) growth
Growth that is regular and not compounded over time. The growth remains at a steady pace, rather than increasing in pace over time (exponential).
Period in stage 2 of the demographic transition model when lifesaving medical technology drastically reduces the CDR, leading to longer life expectancies and higher rates of natural increase.
Movement of a person across an administrative border. The move is intended to be permanent.
Combination of factors that predict a person's likelihood to migrate based on factors like age, gender, and education.
Migration streams and counterstreams
In a migration stream migrants are moving from a place of origin to a destination. When the original flow of migrants produces an opposite flow of returning migrants, a counterstream results.
Death-related activity in a population
Contemporary believers in Thomas Malthus's original ideas. They call for sustainable population growth to be achieved through birth control teachings and regional attention to birth patterns.
Occurs when the number of immigrants is larger than the number of emigrants.
Occurs when the number of emigrants exceeds the number of immigrants.
Restrictive, antinatalist policy in China that aimed at immediately reducing China's birth rate to replacement level and below.
Occurs when a region exceeds its carrying capacity. This is difficult to measure because of changing technology and environmental issues that continually alter the carrying capacity.
Disease spread acutely over a large area or worldwide.
Number of people per area of farmland
Degree of attractiveness of a place to a migrant.
Exponential, unprecedented growth in human population size over the last three centuries.
Often called age-sex pyramids, a population pyramid shows the distribution of ages and genders in a particular year.
Pronatalist population policy
Expansive policy that encourages more live births in a population.
Factor that attracts a migrant to a region, such as good schools or nice weather.
Factor that causes a migrant to move out of a region, such as high taxes or poor schools.
Rate of natural increase
Natural growth rate of a population, which is CBR minus CDR expressed as a percentage. A positive RNI indicates a growing population, whereas a negative RNI indicates a population reducing in size. An RNI equal to zero indicates a stabilizing population.
Migrant forced from his or her home by threat, real persecution, or abuse.
Sum of money sent by a migrant to his or her family back home.
When the number of births equals the number of deaths. Usually reached at a TFR between 2.1 and 2.5.
Decay of the once bustling factory-based economy regions of the north-eastern United States.
Scale of inquiry
Level of geographic area being investigated. At a very large scale, a neighborhood may be the focus. At a very small scale, the entire earth may be the focus.
Form of cyclic movement when a person moves temporarily because of a change in season.
Second agricultural revolution
Coincided with the Industrial Revolution in England and a higher population growth rate, and say the development of improved sanitation, storage, and fertilization techniques, allowing for greater food output.
Number of males compared to 100 females in a population.
Reduction of the friction of distance and distance decay effects because of improved transportation and communication technology. Often space-time compression is seen as the increasing links among people of the earth so that real distance remains the same but perceived distance decreases.
Exchange of ideas, people, money, and products among various places.
Long migration that occurs as a journey of smaller steps from one place to another until the destination is reached.
Growth of the economy in the sunny regions of the southern United States that developed as the dominance of the factory-based economy in the northeastern United States decreased.
Malthus's An Essay on the Principles of Population was an alarming report during the British Industrial Revolution that predicted that food production would be outpaced by population growth rates. He warned of negative checks, such as famine, and called for positive checks, such as birth control.
Total fertility rate
Number of children predicted to be born to a woman as she passes through the fecund years.
Form of pastoral nomadism in which people herd their animals from higher altitudes, such as mountains, to lower places, such as pastures.
Measure that is difficult to pinpoint; occurs when a population size is below its carrying capacity and cannot sustain the economic development it has reached.
United Nations growth scenarios
Predictions by the United Nations that yield high, medium, and low population growth forecasts for the earth's future.
United Nations population conferences
United Nations conferences held in 1974, 1984, 1994, and 2004 to address population. International controversies and tensions beside population drove the approaches taken at each conference, with the most recent focusing on empowering women as a primary approach to reducing global population growth.
Pertaining to the city, as opposed to rural, pertaining to the farmlands.
Migration into cities from rural areas.
U.S. Quota Act of 1921
Immigration legislation that limited the number of people from any one country and discriminated against Asians and favored European migrants.
Move made by a migrant because he or she wants to move.
Zero population growth
Occurs when births equal deaths, leading to a stationary population level.