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Terms in this set (108)
Autism is described as a _____ that appears in children by the age of ____ and is characterized by:
Developmental disorder that appears in children by the age of 3 and is characterized by:
1) language deficits
2) social delays
3) repetitive patterns of behavior
Name 8 deficits in Behavior
1) language 2) social skills 3) play 4) motor skills 5) self-help skills 6) perspective taking and theory of mind 7) executive function 8) attention & school skills
Name 6 excesses in Behavior
1) non-compliance 2) tantrums 3) Stereotypy ( self-stimulatory ) 4) aggression 5) self-injury 6) inflexibility
At FirstSteps our goal is to change behavior such that we ____ while ____
increase the skills in the deficit areas and decrease the excessive behaviors
Treatment plan: Gather information about the child via: (six things)
1) standardized assessment (ex: provides information about the skills children have acquired as well as what skills should be learned next.)
2) behavioral observations
3) functional assessments (These assessments are typically, but not exclusively, used to identify the causes of challenging behaviours such as self-injury, aggression towards others or destructive behaviors.)
4) developmental norms
5) parent/ teacher report
6) any additional information
Behavior is defined as:
the whole range of measurable activities of a living animal.
- essentially anything we as humans do or say (ex: saying "hello" playing with a truck, attending to a teacher, pushing a peer)
What is ABA?
applied behavior analysis is the science concerned with the identification, prediction and modification of socially important behaviors. Socially important behaviors may include:
-language and communication
-adaptive behavior/ self-care
- academic skills
ABA includes observations of
-the environment in which a behavior occurs
- it describes factors associated with the occurrence of behavior in terms of antecedence( what occurs before the behavior) and consequences (what occurs after the behavior
What are the ABC's?
Antecedent (what occurs directly before the behavior) => Behavior (what occurs following the antecedent) => Consequence (what occurs directly after the behavior)
also known as the 3-term contingency
Importance of changing consequences:
changing consequences consistently is key. changing consequences help us change behavior.
Core Principle: The law of effect
1) Behaviors followed by preferred consequences will be reinforced and increased in the future
2) behaviors followed by non-preferred consequences will decrease in the future
3) behaviors followed by withholding the desired consequence will decrease in the future (extinction)
Behaviors followed by preferred consequences will be ____ and ____ in the future.
Behaviors followed by preferred consequences will be reinforced and increase in the future: 3 examples
1) Behavior: Jimmy takes a bath
Consequence: babysitter gives jimmy a cookie
future: behavior increases
2) Behavior: Tom studies
Consequence: tom gets an A on test
Future: behavior increases
3) Behavior: Amy does chores
Consequence: Amy gets an allowance
Future: behavior increases
Behaviors followed by a non-preferred consequence will ____ in the future (3 examples)
1) Behavior: kate is late for curfew
consequence: kate gets grounded
2) Behavior: Emma says hi to his friend
consequence: friend hits emma
Future: behavior decreases
3) Behavior: Robert smokes a cig
consequence: robert feels sick
future: behavior decreases
Behaviors followed by withholding desired consequences will ___ in the future (3 examples)
B: child tantrums for attention C: no attention F: decrease
B: child hits to gain access to toy C: toy withheld F: decrease
B: child throws crayon to escape act. C: child is still required to color F: decrease
Anything that follows a response that increases the frequency of that response in the future
Reinforcement is highly ______
idiosyncratic ( what is reinforcing to one can be punishment to another)
If a behavior continues to occur then ...
some reinforcer is maintaining it
if a behavior within a childs repertorire stops occurring ....
it has been extinguished: no reinforcer maintaining it
unlearned, unconditioned reinforcer, anything that has intrinsic reinforcing value (food, drink, sleep, warmth, physical touch)
(learned/paired) conditioned reinforcer
- anything that has acquired a reinforcing value as a result of being paired w/ an existing reinforcer ( smiles, stickers, high fives, tokens, $, etc)
a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a preferred stimulus and as a result occurs more often in the future
a behavior is followed immediately by the termination/ removal of a non-preferred stimulus and as a result occurs more often in the future
a consequence that decreases the probability of future occurrence of the behavior it follows. also can be positive or negative
Schedules of Reinforcement (Parameters &Values): what are the 3 parameters of reinforcement?
2) when are adjustments made?
1) (magnitude, quantity, duration)
2) adjustment of one or more parameters of reinforcement can be made depending on the behavior reinforced.
-Effort required: (ex: high effort response=> bigger reward)
-Duration of behavior or duration of access: (how long does it take for them to do hw? ex: 3 min => shorter break
-Amount of reinforcement available: (amt of chips, stickers, etc. )
a schedule of reinforcement is a rule specifying:
-which response will be followed by reinforcement and which will not
-how much time has to pass before a behavior is reinforced
-depending on which schedule is used the intensity of the behavior
two schedules of reinforcement provide the boundaries for all other possible schedules
continuous reinforcement (CRF) and extinction (EXT- withholding reinforcement)
Continuous Reinforcement (CRF) provides reinforcement for each occurrence of behavior in other words
every prompted or independently correct response is reinforced
When we begin teaching new skills we use____ (type of reinforcement) to establish and strengthen the behavior
we use CRF schedule during the ____ of learning and to _____ behavior
continuous reinforcement; during the initial stages of learning and to strengthen behavior
Intermittent schedules of reinforcement (INT) is..
a schedule where some, but not all instances of behavior are reinforced
Intermittent schedules of reinforcement are helpful when
trying to make the most of time and reinforcement
INT reduces the possibility of
Intermittent schedules of reinforcement reduces the possibility of the occurrence of reinforcement satiation (kid won't get tired of reinforcement)
INT is used to
build resistance to extinction
common to have Praise on CRF but access to tangible on ____
praised on CRF but access to play-dough on INT
Schedules of Reinforcement: various parts of a schedule (7)
1) continuous reinforcement: every instance of a behavior is reinforced
2) ratio schedules: reinforcement is based on the # of behaviors emitted
3) interval schedules: reinforcement is based on the passage of time
4) Duration Schedules: Sr is based on the continued performance of a response
5) Fixed schedules: requirements for reinforcement change randomly
6) extinction: behavior will access no reinforcement
What is a token economy?
a system providing positive reinforcement to a child by giving them tokens for completing tasks or behaving in desired ways. Token economies are used as a method of strengthening a behavior or increasing its frequency because the tokens are a way of paying children for completing tasks and the children can then use these tokens to buy desired activities or items
Tokens are _______ reinforcers and must be taught (paired with existing reinforcer) before using a full token board system because...
secondary; taught (paired with existing reinforcer) before using a full token board system (kid needs to understand the stars lead to a reward.
Initial steps in teaching the value of token economy systems
- preparation of materials
- preference assessment to determind most effective reinforcer
- paired tokens with existing reinforcer
- initially there shall be a one-for-one example. Engaging in target behavior one time results in a token on the board and the token board is immediately exchanged for desired item
- the one-for-one continues until the exchange is happening consistently without prompts
- instructors can them gradually increase the number of tokens b4 an exchange is allowed
what is a functional assessment
involves analysis of patterns in antecedents and consequences to determine what is maintaining a behavior. usually identifies one of a few possible "causes" of a behavior (maintaining variable)
name 2 reductive procedures
Antecedent manipulation, consequence manipulation
changing what occurs before the behavior. Involve changing the environment, allowed us to reduce likelihood of a particular behavior occurring
what is non-contingent reinforcement ? what type of manipulation is it?
a response independent presentation of maintaining reinforcers its an antecedent manipulation. Child does not have to respond in any particular way in order to access the desired reinforcer. Delivery of reinforcer is time-dependent not behavior dependent. Its effective because it decreases motivation to engage in problem behavior in the first place
what is consequence manipulations?
involve changing what comes after a behavior so as to change the frequency in the future. Sets up contingencies such that problem behavior no longer results in preferred consequences. New consequences should be determined via functional assessment.
what is extinction?
dissolving the contingency that maintains a behavior. In simpler terms, no longer giving the reinforcer for a previously reinforced behavior. Results in a decreased frequency of that behavior in the future.
what is an extinction burst
a temporary increase in the frequency, duration or magnitude of the target response
what is a spontaneous Recovery
behavior that used to obtain reinforcement will re-appear. As extinction procedures are continued this increased rate of responding will decrease until it is extinguished
what is Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) (give exact definition)
systematic extinction of problem behavior and systematic reinforcement of replacement behavior results in a decreased frequency of that behavior in the future and increased in new, appropriate skills. AKA extinction and redirection
what is differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)
systematic reinforcement of other behavior meaning reinforcement is delivered when the target behavior is not emitted during an interval of time. any behavior at the end of the interval is reinforced if the target behavior was NOT observed in the interval. any occurrence of the target behavior causes a reset of the interval.
Time out may be defined as
a negative punishment procedure that is immediate, response-contingent removal from any opportunity to attain reinforcement for a specified amount of time. It results in a decreased frequency of that behavior in the future
*T.O and all punishment should be contingent upon _____
* Time in must be_____
*Time out should not be an opportunity to ____
* TO should be emotionally____
*TO should be how long?
*a specified target behavior and used consistently each time it occurs
* a positive/ reinforcing ("enriched") environment
*escape, gain attention, stem etc
* 1 minute for each year of childs age
what is response cost? when is it used?
a type of negative punishment that is defined as immediate, response-contingent loss/removal of a specific amount of reinforcement. it results in a decreased frequency of that behavior in the future. Should be contingent upon a specified target behavior and used consistently each time it occurs
what is guided compliance ?
positive punishment procedure contingent on problem behavior, child is physically guided through activity. equivalent to "escape extinction"
what is overcorrection name 2 types
1) positive practice: requires a child to practice an appropriate behavior an abundant number of times
2) Restitutional: requires a child to correct the effects of his behavior by restoring the environment to a state better than its original condition when the behavior occurred. ex: picking up blocks thrown and other things around the room cleaning soiled garnets, etc
what are overcorrection guidelines
-must relate directly to the target behavior, must not give child opportunity to escape from a task, must be a void of positive reinforcement, must be determined as appropriate intervention by PD
-One teaching method used in ________.
- Rapid and repeated_______
-each trial has ________
-used in ABA programs
- presentation of teaching trials
- a discrete beginning and end (starts with sd and ends with consequence)
- rapid acquisition of new skills
describe one DTT trial
SD--> response--> consequence
What are the benefits of DTT?
- Allows instructor to present many learning opportunities in a short amount of time
- Allows us to establish stimulus control
- let the child know he/she should respond
- help instructors maintain consistency in delivering consequences
- Facilitate data collection and progress assessment
when does Stimulus control occur
when a response is altered in the presence of an antecedent stimuli. Its the antecedent stimulus that controls the response.
Initially our instructions plus our prompting is what controls our client response. Our goal is to transfer _________ from the prompting stimuli to the ________
stimulus control from the prompting stimuli to the instruction alone.
when does a stimulus acquire control?
when responses following antecedent stimuli are reinforced (SD) and responses in the absence of antecedent stimuli are not (S-Delta).
stimulus control plays a fundamental role in everyday ________
over time our instructs become _______ (signal reinforcement is available) if certain behaviors are emitted its common for our clients to respond at higher rates to instructor demands than to demands from non-instructios. this shows we have established ____
SDs; stimulus control
the SD is the discriminative stimulus. anything we present to the child or anything the child sees, hears, smells, tastes or feels. A stimulus in the presence of which a specific response is reinforced and in the absence of that stimulus the response is not reinforced.
What are the SD guidelines?
1) initially should be ____ &_____
2) should be presented only when child is _______
3) should be presented without ________
4) should be presented without childs _____
5) Child should not respond until __________
6) should not be repeated without ________
1) clear and short
3) interruption (if mom starts talking pause and restart)
5) entire SD is presented
6) completing the entire trial ( w/out giving a consequence
a response is any single instance of behavior.
-anything the child does following the SD.
In DTT there are 3 types of responses following an SD:
1) correct response (C)
2) incorrect response (I)
3) non-response (NR)
1) instructors should agree on _____
2) Do not reinforce a response if it occurs with _____
3) limit time between SD and response to ______
4) Non-responses are considered ____
1) what constitutes a correct response to ensure consistency
2) extraneous bx
3) 3-4 seconds
the Sr stands for the stimulus reinforcer or the consequence that occurs immediately after a response
two possible consequences follow a response:
1) reinforcement (cookies, praise)
2) error correction procedures (informational "no")
1) must be something _____
2) must be delivered _____
3) must be delivered before SD is ____
4) should be easy to ______
5) should be contingent on a ____
2) immediately following a response
4) give and take away
5) correct response
what is an Inter-trial interval
time between the termination of one trial and the start of the next. should be long enough to make each trial discrete but not so long that the child loses attention
what is Discrimination training ? 2 types
procedure used to teach a child to distinguish between 2 or more SD's (how we teach give me apple vs give me orange)
- Mass trials: repeated presentation of the same SD; used when teaching discrimination of materials (pictures, Objects)
- Expanded trials: a series of trials in which distracters are used to build a childs memory retention over time; used when teaching discrimination of verbal SDs
Mass trial 7 step procedure:
used for tangibles, responses where child touches something
1) MT-Iso (target in isolation)
2) MT-Dist (present target with unknown distractor and ask for target)
3) MT-Iso (second target (T2) in isolation)
4) MT-Dist (present T2 with a different unknown distractor & ask for T2)
5) MT-Dist (known) (present T1 &T2 &ask for T1)
6) MT-Dist (known) (present T2&T1 & ask for T2)
7) RR (random rotation) rotate known targets
Mass trial 4 step procedure:
1) MT-Iso (target in isolation)
2) MT- Dist (target with unknown distractor and ask for target only)
3) MT-Dist (target with known distractor and ask for target only)
4) RR: random rotate target with known distractors and ask for both
Criteria to progress through steps of MT
child must reach 80% or better; with the first trial correct; across 2 different instructors; skipping steps is only allowed if PD has given instructions to do so
Expanded trials: (used for what type of responses)
used for verbal responses; Exp (expressive response); a procedure used to ensure that skills are maintained overtime.
1) MTT1 (mass trial target 1; x=> known distractors no data taken on these distractors)
2) T1xT1xT1xT1 (ET1)
3) T1xxT1xxT1xxT1 (ET2)
4) T1xxxT1xxxT1xxxT1 (ET3)
5) T1xxxxT1xxxxT1xxxxT1 (ET4)
Step 2: next introduce second target using same procedure
1)MTT2 ...etc (sane as above but w/ T2)
Step 3: when bringing 2 targets into random rotation
5) RRT1 &T2
Discrimination training guidelines:
Maximize differences between _____
examples to avoid
ex: Visual: don't introduce blue Vs green; Auditory (don't do ball vs doll)
*avoid using items that have recently been used as distractors
* avoid items that are distracting to the child
when is a good time to conduct preference assessments
before every other program
Error correction procedures allow the child to know that____
can be used to ____
a particular response is incorrect
-used to teach a correct response & build a skill repertoire
- reduce frustration for the child
what are error correction procedures
- prompting and fading
should be firm but void emotion, delivered immediately, tells child response was not correct; follows and incorrect or NR
A prompt is
an additional stimulus presented simultaneously with the SD which facilitates a correct response (prompts are not consequences they are part of the antecedent)
fading refers to
the systematic reduction of a prompt as a target response occurs more and more independently
Types of prompts: (8)
2) verbal (Vr)
3) Visual (Vs)
6) proximity (put target closer)
7) linking ( use when generalizing ex: what color is this? they say shirt... go back to cards what color is this? they say blue reinforce & bring back the shirt)
8) Inflection: (what COLOR is it?)
Prompt for new skill:
prompt for mastered skill or skill in acquisition:
2) follow NO-NO- prompt rule:
incorrect response=> informational "no" & repeat SD
2nd incorrect response=> informational "no"
repeat SD w/ less intrusive prompt, increasing until response is correct
Guidelines for prompting:
1) fade prompts from _____ when introducing new skills
2) use the least intrusive prompt needed to facilitate a correct response with ______
3) use __________ to fade prompts
4) Use _____ reinforcement:........
5) Avoid giving _____ prompts
6) avoid prompt _______
1) most to least intrusive
2) mastered skills
3) delayed prompting (don't jump to prompt right away)
4) differential reinforcement: less praise for prompted trials, more for independent trials.
5) inadvertent prompts (don't look at target and give it away)
6) overuse: cause prompt dependency
The Transfer Trial is VERY important:
1) fading prompts successfully includes the _____
2) The transfer trial is the trial ..........
3) the transfer trial should occur quickly after a .......
4) a transfer trial MUST always occur before ......
5) never end a program on a prompted trial and never move on to a different target of SD until .....
2) presented after a prompted trial that elicits a correct response
3) prompted trial to increase the probability of a correct response from the learner
4) moving on to another target
5) a successful TT has occurred
what is shaping ?
an instructional procedure used to teach simple bx that are not in the childs repertoire. Involves reinforcing successive approximation to a target response
Transfer trial example: prompted then transfer
prompted: SD: what color? say red ... R: red ... C: wooohooo
Transfer: SD: what color? .... R: red...C: AH YOU DID IT!
4 procedural steps to shaping
1) define target bx
2) do task analysis (break down bx into smallest steps)
3) introduce first step & reinforce approximations until response is strong
4) add next steps reinforcing closer approximations until target bx is met
what is chaining
an instructional procedure used to link together simple bx already in the childs repertoire to create a complex bx. Involves the reinforcement of success elements of a bx chain
ex: childs already learned all steps to making bed then you say "make the bed" and wait to reinforce until you need to verbal prompt
4 procedural steps to chaining
1) define target bx
2) do task analysis
3) reinforce successive elements of the chail
4) as more elements are mastered reinforce only after child has performed the element closest to target
two types of chaining
1) forward: from beginning of chain and prompt toward end
2) backward: start process for them and then have them do it independently toward end
specific characteristics of DTT (5)
1) trials typically run at table or location with minimal distractors
2) 5-10 trials run of a single target
3) instructor chooses targets to teach
4) reinforcers can be but are not always functional within interaction (tangibles, praise and escape)
5) instructor guides/ directs learning opportunities
specific characteristics of NET (functional approach) (5)
1) programs are run in the natural environment. distractions are plentiful
2) targets are mixed. running programs 10 trials at a time no longer occurs
3) programs targeted are based on child directed interactions and captured or contrived by instructors
4) reinforcers are functional within interactions (build into activities)
5) instructor guides/directs learning opportunities
shared NET&DTT characteristics (5)
1) continue to follow through with demands
2) continue to use the SD-R-Sr contingency
3) consequences are always given
4) learning opportunities are still occurring at a high rate
5) instructor guides/ directs learning opportunities
Benefits of NET (5)
1) increased opportunity for generalization
2) increased opp for the occurrence of spontaneous language
3) sessions can be run in a variety of settings including play dates, community outings, classes and sport camps
4) various targets can be taught and maintained at once
5) easier for parents to be involved due to the natural environment and interactions
Verbal Behavior: Functional approach offers a behavioral classification of language including: (5 things)
1) receptive: following instruction (pointing to ball when someone says point to ball)
2) Echoic: repeating what you hear others say ( saying ball when someone else says ball)
3) Mand: asking for reinforcers you want (saying ball when you want a ball)
4) tact: identifying/ naming objects, actions, events etc. (saying ball when you see a ball)
5) intraverbal: answering questions or words controlled by other words (saying ball when asked "what did you play with today?"
Mastery of skills: Maintenance
ensures that a previously acquired skill is maintained in childs repertoire after it is no longer a target. incorporated into RR
Mastery of Skills: Generalization ( across 4 types and describe)
1) across stimuli: verbal ( can respond to wants your dads name and whats your dad called) non- verbal/ visual ( can respond correctly to give me dog when stuffed toy is used and to a picture of a dog
2) across settings: respond to the SD "hi" across all settings not just therapy room
3) across people: respond to SD "hi" to others besides the therapist
4) across responses: tony says ball when asked what do you want? to generalize he should say I want ball, give me ball, can i have ball... etc
what are the three dimensional qualities of behavior?
1) repeatability: bx can occur over and over again and when thats important we have (count, rate, frequency)
2) Temporal extent: Bx can last for an amount of time and when thats important we have (duration)
3) Temporal locus: Bx can start and stop and when thats important we have (response latency, IRT)
7 direct measurements
1) Narrative (A-B-C) recording: Antecedent-Bx-consequence
2) Frequency or event recording: use tally marks and convert freq of Bx to rate per hour
3) per opportunity: out of how many opportunities did it occur
4) permanent product: you're not there during the bx but you are looking at something it created
5) Duration: how long did tantrum last?
6) IRT; Inter-response time: time between responses
7) sampling methods: 1) partial-interval recording 2) whole-interval recording 3) momentary time sample
name 3 sampling methods
1) partial interval recording (PIR) or (PITS)
2) whole interval recording (WIR) or (WITS)
3) Momentary time sampling (MTS)
sampling method: (PIR) or (PITS)
partial interval recording: record occurrence if target occurs during ANY part of the interval
- provides an estimate of freq (OVER estimates)
- appropriate for: moderate to high rate responses (can't be recorded with freq or duration)
-responses to be reduced
- multiple responses or people
(not appropriate for low rate bx)
sampling method: Whole interval recording (WIR) or (WITs)
bx happened the whole interval or don't record.
-record occurrence if target occurs during ENTIRE interval
- provides an estimate of duration (UNDER ESTIMATE)
- Appropriate for: responses extended in time, responses to be increased
-not appropriate for: low-rate responses that are not extended in time
sampling method: Momentary time sampling (MTS)
record occurrence if target occurs during/ at the moment of observation at the end of interval
-provides an estimate of freq or duration (can UNDER or OVER estimate)
-appropriate for: moderate to high rate responses, multiple responses/ individuals
- not appropriate for: low-rate responses
ex: gave a timer and when it goes off if the bx is occurring at that time record it
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