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45 terms

Chapter 6 Honors Biology (Photosynthesis)

Mrs. Howard's Honors Biology class, extensive chapter 6 notes
STUDY
PLAY
Autotroph
Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds.
C4 Pathway
Alternative pathway enables certain plants to fix CO2 into four-carbon compounds.
Calvin Cycle
A series of Enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar.
Carbon Fixation
The incorporation of CO2 into organic compounds.
Chloroplast
Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
Heterotroph
Animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances.
Light-Dependent Reactions
First stage of photosynthesis, the process when plants capture and store energy from sunlight. (light to chemical energy)
Light-independent Reactions
(In stroma) Sugar is made using carbon dioxide and the products of light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) and other various chemicals (calvin cycle).
Photosynthesis
The biochemical process by which green plants and some bacteria capture light energy and use it to produce chemical bonds. Carbon dioxide and water are consumed while oxygen and simple sugars are produced.
Photosystem
Each cluster of pigment molecules and the proteins that the pigments molecules are embedded in. A unit of several hundred chlorophyll molecules and carotenoid migment molecules in the thylakoid membrane.
Pigment
A colored chemical compound that absorbs light.
Primary Electron Acceptor
A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls.
Thylakoid
A membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.
Accessory Pigment
A pigment that absorbs light energy and transfers energy to chlorophyll a in photosynthesis
ADP
Adenosine diphosphate - a substance involved in energy metabolism formed by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate
ATP Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP fro ADP and phosphate
Biochemical Pathway
A series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction
C4 Plants
A plant that incorporates CO2 into four-carbon compounds
C3 Plants
Plant that utilizes C3 carbon fixation pathway to convert CO2 into organic compounds; CO2 is first fixed into a compound containing C3 before entering the Calvin Cycle.
Chlorophyll A
A pigment that does a good job in absorbing violet and red colors.
Chlorophyll B
It helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy and it is more soluble than chlorophyll a because of its carbonyl group. Its color is green.
CAM
Crassulacean acid metabolism; a biochemical pathway in certain plants in which CO2 is incorporated into organic acids at night and released for fixation in the Calvin cycle during the day
Carotenoid
a light-absorbing compound that functions as an accessory pigment in photosythesis
Chemiosmosis
A process in chloroplasts and mitochondria in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
Chlorophyll
A class of light-absorbing pigments used in photosynthesis, a ny of a group of green pigments found in the thylakoids of the Chloroplasts.
Electron Transport Chain
Molecules in the thylakoid membrane or inner mitochondrial membrane that use some of the energy in electrons to pump protons across the membrane in a series of chain reactions. They transfer electrons from molecule to molecule in a chain.
Granum
A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
NADPH
Nicotinamide adenine dinucloeotide phosphate; an organic molecule that accepts eletrons during redox reactions
PGA
Phosphoglycerate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the first step of the Calvin cycle
PGAL
Glyceraldehyde phosphate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the second step of the Calvin cycle that can leave the cycle and be used to make other organic compounds
Stomata
One of many small pores usually located on the underside of a leaf; aids in gas exchange
Stroma
The solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast
STEP 1: Calvin Cycle
Rubisco attaches the carbon atom to CO2 to RuBP, which starts the cycle; this compound forms from splitting of an intermediate compound.
STEP 2: Calvin Cycle
PGA gets phosphate groups from ATP, priming them for synthesis reactions that regenerate RuBP.
STEP 3: Calvin Cycle
ATP gets phosphate group from ATP, plus hydrogen and electrons.
STEP 4: Calvin Cycle
NADPH donates hydrogen and electrons to PGA molecules.
STEP 5: Calvin Cycle
PGAL is in air spaces inside a leaf; diffuses into photosynthetic cells.
STEP 6: Calvin Cycle
Glucose is formed by combination of two of twelve PGAL molecules
STEP 7: Calvin Cycle
PGAL donates phosphate groups to PGA
STEP 1: Stomata Opening
Message sent to guard cells
STEP 2: Stomata Opening
Protein channels told to actively transport potassium ions into guard cells (creates hypotonic solution)
STEP 3: Stomata Opening
Water passively rushes into the guard cells, causing them to swell and that causes the stomata to open
STEP 4: Stomata Opening
Opens holes between the cells (allows water to rush in)
STEP 1: Photosynthesis
Light Reactions: converts solar energy into potential energy. (light-dependent)
- Photosystems 1 and 2
STEP 2: Photosynthesis
Calvin Cycle: Capture carbon dioxide
and make the precursors (compound creating another compound) of carbohydrates. (light-independent)