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Mrs. Howard's Honors Biology class, extensive chapter 6 notes


Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds.

C4 Pathway

Alternative pathway enables certain plants to fix CO2 into four-carbon compounds.

Calvin Cycle

A series of Enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar.

Carbon Fixation

The incorporation of CO2 into organic compounds.


Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.


Animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances.

Light-Dependent Reactions

First stage of photosynthesis, the process when plants capture and store energy from sunlight. (light to chemical energy)

Light-independent Reactions

(In stroma) Sugar is made using carbon dioxide and the products of light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) and other various chemicals (calvin cycle).


The biochemical process by which green plants and some bacteria capture light energy and use it to produce chemical bonds. Carbon dioxide and water are consumed while oxygen and simple sugars are produced.


Each cluster of pigment molecules and the proteins that the pigments molecules are embedded in. A unit of several hundred chlorophyll molecules and carotenoid migment molecules in the thylakoid membrane.


A colored chemical compound that absorbs light.

Primary Electron Acceptor

A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls.


A membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.

Accessory Pigment

A pigment that absorbs light energy and transfers energy to chlorophyll a in photosynthesis


Adenosine diphosphate - a substance involved in energy metabolism formed by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate

ATP Synthase

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP fro ADP and phosphate

Biochemical Pathway

A series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction

C4 Plants

A plant that incorporates CO2 into four-carbon compounds

C3 Plants

Plant that utilizes C3 carbon fixation pathway to convert CO2 into organic compounds; CO2 is first fixed into a compound containing C3 before entering the Calvin Cycle.

Chlorophyll A

A pigment that does a good job in absorbing violet and red colors.

Chlorophyll B

It helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy and it is more soluble than chlorophyll a because of its carbonyl group. Its color is green.


Crassulacean acid metabolism; a biochemical pathway in certain plants in which CO2 is incorporated into organic acids at night and released for fixation in the Calvin cycle during the day


a light-absorbing compound that functions as an accessory pigment in photosythesis


A process in chloroplasts and mitochondria in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP


A class of light-absorbing pigments used in photosynthesis, a ny of a group of green pigments found in the thylakoids of the Chloroplasts.

Electron Transport Chain

Molecules in the thylakoid membrane or inner mitochondrial membrane that use some of the energy in electrons to pump protons across the membrane in a series of chain reactions. They transfer electrons from molecule to molecule in a chain.


A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast


Nicotinamide adenine dinucloeotide phosphate; an organic molecule that accepts eletrons during redox reactions


Phosphoglycerate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the first step of the Calvin cycle


Glyceraldehyde phosphate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the second step of the Calvin cycle that can leave the cycle and be used to make other organic compounds


One of many small pores usually located on the underside of a leaf; aids in gas exchange


The solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast

STEP 1: Calvin Cycle

Rubisco attaches the carbon atom to CO2 to RuBP, which starts the cycle; this compound forms from splitting of an intermediate compound.

STEP 2: Calvin Cycle

PGA gets phosphate groups from ATP, priming them for synthesis reactions that regenerate RuBP.

STEP 3: Calvin Cycle

ATP gets phosphate group from ATP, plus hydrogen and electrons.

STEP 4: Calvin Cycle

NADPH donates hydrogen and electrons to PGA molecules.

STEP 5: Calvin Cycle

PGAL is in air spaces inside a leaf; diffuses into photosynthetic cells.

STEP 6: Calvin Cycle

Glucose is formed by combination of two of twelve PGAL molecules

STEP 7: Calvin Cycle

PGAL donates phosphate groups to PGA

STEP 1: Stomata Opening

Message sent to guard cells

STEP 2: Stomata Opening

Protein channels told to actively transport potassium ions into guard cells (creates hypotonic solution)

STEP 3: Stomata Opening

Water passively rushes into the guard cells, causing them to swell and that causes the stomata to open

STEP 4: Stomata Opening

Opens holes between the cells (allows water to rush in)

STEP 1: Photosynthesis

Light Reactions: converts solar energy into potential energy. (light-dependent)
- Photosystems 1 and 2

STEP 2: Photosynthesis

Calvin Cycle: Capture carbon dioxide
and make the precursors (compound creating another compound) of carbohydrates. (light-independent)

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