ap psych 4
Terms in this set (60)
1. Professor Smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a
continuous interplay among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and
personally constructed expectations and assumptions. The professor's emphasis best
C) natural selection.
D) a biopsychosocial approach.
2. Children's tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely
to facilitate the process of
A) behavior genetics.
E) natural selection.
3. Genetically female children exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development
subsequently exhibit more "tomboyish" behaviors than most girls. In order to avoid
overestimating the influence of prenatal hormones on these behaviors, it should be noted
that these children
A) do not experience gender-typing.
B) have unusually reactive temperaments.
C) may be treated more like boys because they frequently look masculine.
D) are affected by a variety of random errors in gene replication.
E) develop a more masculine brain-wiring pattern prior to birth.
4. Female children are most likely to act like tomboys if they were exposed to excess
________ during their prenatal development.
5. When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that
boys are not expected to. Waldo's behavior best illustrates the importance of
B) gender roles.
6. Compared with men, women experience a greater risk of
B) color blindness.
C) eating disorders.
D) antisocial personality disorders.
7. The enduring traditions, ideas, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people
and transmitted from one generation to the next define their
D) gender schemas.
8. Innovation and creativity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by
E) free association.
9. If a genetic predisposition to fear darkness contributes to reproductive success, that trait
will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates
C) behavior genetics.
E) natural selection.
10. People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in
individualist cultures to report experiencing
B) family loyalty.
C) personal freedom.
D) marital romance.
E) group harmony.
11. When male and female student research assistants at Florida State University sexually
propositioned an attractive person of the opposite sex, their invitations were accepted by
A) most men but virtually no women.
B) a sizeable minority of men but virtually no women.
C) most men and a sizable minority of women.
D) hardly any men or women.
E) a sizeable minority of both men and women.
12. Parents in Westernized cultures are more likely than parents in Asian cultures to encourage
children to value
B) gender roles.
C) cultural traditions.
E) enduring friendships.
13. The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a specific ecological niche
is known as
B) behavior genetics.
C) natural selection.
14. It has been suggested that our sensitivity to peer influence is genetically predisposed
because it has facilitated the process of human mating. This suggestion best illustrates
A) gender schema theory.
D) an evolutionary perspective.
15. The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of
D) personal space.
16. The importance of romance in marriage relationships is most strongly emphasized in
cultures characterized by
A) gender schemas.
E) gender stereotypes.
17. Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by
18. Returning personal favors to those who have shown you kindness is especially likely to be
emphasized in cultures characterized by
A) gender schemas.
19. Brittla spends a lot of money on cosmetics and expensive clothing in order to attract a
desirable mate. According to evolutionary psychologists, Brittla's behavior is a product of
C) gender schemas.
D) genetic predispositions.
E) social pressure.
20. Professor Shankar believes that her students' most important personal characteristics are
those that distinguish them as uniquely different from most other people. Her attitude best
illustrates one of the consequences of
E) the selection effect.
21. In comparison to 40 years ago, American women today are more likely to marry for the
A) economic advantage.
B) social status.
C) reproductive success.
D) gender identity.
22. A stimulating environment is most likely to facilitate the development of a child's
E) neural connections.
23. Cultural diversity best illustrates our
A) human temperaments.
B) gene complexes.
C) gender identities.
D) adaptive capacities.
E) individual temperaments.
24. According to evolutionary psychologists, behaviors that promote reproductive success are
likely to be
A) socially prohibited.
B) genetically predisposed.
C) ecologically disruptive.
E) learned by association
25. Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it underestimates the
A) impact of genetic predispositions on human sexual behavior.
B) impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behavior.
C) variety of traits that contribute to reproductively successful behaviors.
D) extent to which certain gender differences in sexual behavior are common to all cultures.
E) number of human traits influenced by genetics.
26. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes
toward casual sex to the fact that men have ________ than do women.
A) larger bodies
B) stronger gender identity
C) a weaker sense of empathy
D) greater reproductive potential
E) more insecurities
27. Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
B) selective mating.
C) gene splicing.
D) hormone injections.
28. Chromosomes are composed of
E) deoxyribonucleic acid
29. Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease is influenced by
B) gender schemas.
30. Our enduring personality traits are first evident in our differing
A) birth weights.
B) time asleep versus time awake.
C) gender schemas.
E) reproductive capacities.
31. A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on
A) skin color.
B) sexual anatomy.
C) physical attractiveness.
D) personality traits.
E) emotional stability.
32. As members of the human family, we all share a common
A) value system.
B) personal space.
C) gender schema.
D) biological heritage.
E) gender role.
33. A child's temperament is likely to be
A) difficult to observe.
B) stable over time.
C) a product of parenting style.
D) a reflection of his or her gender schema.
E) different as an infant than as a teenager.
34. Heritability refers to the extent to which
A) unrelated individuals share common genes.
B) genetic mutations can be transmitted to one's offspring.
C) trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
D) adult personality is determined by infant temperament.
E) nurture controls a trait rather than nature.
35. The labels "easy," "difficult," and "slow-to-warm-up," are used to refer to differences in an
A) gender schema.
B) personal space.
D) gender typing.
36. Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to malefemale
genetic differences because
A) physical maturation proceeds at a different rate for males and females.
B) variations in temperament contribute to gender differences.
C) heritable traits can be influenced by social environments.
D) males and females are also affected by their different sex hormones.
E) chromosomal adaptation has not been accounted for.
37. Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be
A) intelligent and imaginative.
B) irritable and unpredictable.
C) fearless and assertive.
D) extraverted and cheerful.
E) introverted and depressive.
38. Because Marla is the first girl in her fourth-grade class to sexually mature, she is sometimes
teased and rejected by her classmates. Marla's sense of social isolation and embarrassment
result from the interaction of
A) X and Y chromosomes.
B) nature and nurture.
C) schemas and roles.
D) individualism and collectivism.
E) home environment and school environment.
39. Compared to identical twins, fraternal twins are
A) less likely to be the same sex and more likely to be similar in extraversion.
B) more likely to be the same sex and more likely to be similar in extraversion.
C) more likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
D) less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
E) less likely to be the same sex and equally likely to be similar in extraversion.
40. The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on
behavior and personality traits is known as
A) molecular genetics.
B) evolutionary psychology.
C) behavior genetics.
E) genome research.
41. Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commercial
A) night terrors
E) sleep apnea
42. The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are called
A) alpha waves.
B) beta waves.
C) delta waves.
D) theta waves.
E) sleep spindles
43. Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural
A) dissociation theory
B) social influence theory
C) activation-synthesis theory
D) Freud's dream theory
E) divided consciousness theory
44. Concluding his presentation on levels of information processing, Miguel states that
A) humans process both conscious and unconscious information in parallel.
B) conscious processing occurs in parallel, while unconscious processing is serial.
C) conscious processing is serial, while unconscious processing is parallel.
D) all information processing is serial in nature.
45. Selective attention is most accurately defined as
A) the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
B) our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
C) failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
D) separating our conscious awareness to focus on two tasks at the same time.
46. Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the
B) cell body.
D) myelin sheath.
47. An all-or-none response pattern is characteristic of the
A) initiation of neural impulses.
B) release of endorphins into the central nervous system.
C) release of hormones into the bloodstream.
D) activation of either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic system.
E) inheritance of behavioral predispositions.
48. Reuptake refers to the
A) movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap.
B) release of hormones into the bloodstream.
C) inflow of positively charged ions through an axon membrane.
D) reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.
E) the ending of the refractory period.
49. The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the
A) limbic system.
B) endocrine system.
C) sympathetic nervous system.
D) reticular formation.
E) central nervous system.
50. After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to
sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he began to
experience unusual difficulty figuring out how to find his way to various locations in his
neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his
D) association areas.
E) autonomic nervous system.
51. After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American, Ervin
concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups.
Ervin's conclusion best illustrates the danger of
B) hindsight bias.
C) the placebo effect.
D) generalizing from vivid cases.
E) randomly assigning variables.
52. According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional instability made it clear
from the beginning days of his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose
World War II. The grandfather's claim best illustrates
A) the hindsight bias.
B) illusory correlation.
C) the false consensus effect.
D) an illusion of control.
E) random sampling
53. Natassia believes that boys learn to be more aggressive than girls primarily because boys are
more frequently exposed to external pressures to fight. Natassia's belief most directly
exemplifies the ________ perspective.
54. Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?
C) John Locke
D) Charles Darwin
E) William James
55. In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in
the scientific study of
A) mental processes.
B) hereditary influences.
C) unconscious motives.
D) learned behaviors.
E) evolutionary influences.
56. The inheritance of behavioral characteristics was emphasized by
A) John Locke.
B) John Watson.
C) Wilhelm Wundt.
D) Charles Darwin.
E) B. F. Skinner.
57. Dr. Tiao conducts basic research on the effects of head injuries on people's problem-solving
and abstract-reasoning skills. Which psychological specialty does her research best
A) developmental psychology
B) biological psychology
C) industrial/organizational psychology
D) clinical psychology
E) personality psychology
58. For no apparent reason, Adam has recently begun to feel so tense and anxious that he
frequently stays home from work. It would be most beneficial for Adam to contact a(n)
59. Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain
diseases on memory?
E) behavior genetics
60. Dr. Kozak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcoholism among citizens of a
small African country can be attributed to strong fundamentalistic religious influences in
that region. This belief best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.
A) behavior genetics