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31 terms

After the Civil War-Reconstruction

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Reconstruction
A process in which an area tries to restore itself after a downfall
Amnesty
An official or governmental pardon for people who have been found guilty of political crimes.
10 percent plan
A plan by Abraham Lincoln that would help restore the South by allowing a southern state to rejoin the union if at least 10% of it's voters swore loyalty to the union and if slavery were abolished. The plan also gave amnesty to some southerners.
Wade-Davis Bill
An alternative to the 10% plan proposed by the Republicans requiring a majority vote instead of just 10% and denying voting or office rights to confederate volunteers.
Freedman's Bureau
A US government agency that helped former slaves and poor whites. The agency gave former slaves clothes and food. If you were a freedman, then it would try to find a job for you. The agency also would supply medical care for those people and set up a great public school system.
13th Amendment
The Amendment that banned slavery in the entire country. It was part of Johnson's plan and followed the Emancipation Proclamation.
Problems for the North after the Civil War
Even though the bad economy was only temporary, there were not a lot of jobs available for returning soldiers.
Problems for the South after the Civil War
Most of the battles took place in the south and areas of land were destroyed. The Southern economy did not work anymore. Also, the financial system was a mess with Confederate money being valueless and lenders not getting repaid. Since slaves and freedmen could finally learn how to read and write, almost four million people competed for jobs and property.
Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
Required a majority vote of loyalty for a state to rejoin the union and also required ratification of the 13th Amendment, which banned slavery across the nation. This went beyond the Emancipation proclamation, which only banned slavery in the south.
South's reaction to Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
To accept it
North's reaction to Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
Anger because some Confederate leaders were becoming part of the US government and the southern states were not letting former slaves vote.
Black Codes
gave freedmen certain rights, but their intent was to keep the former slaves in a dependent position and give planters a supply of cheap labor
Radical Republicans
members of congress who wanted a stronger reconstruction program especially aimed to the south.
14th Amendment
Declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
Impeachment
Charge someone in office with improper behavior
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Radical Republicans' reaction to black codes
They were upset about the black codes because they kept rights away from African Americans.
Radical Republicans' goals for the south
get basic political rights for African Americans in the south. this included equal protection, no discrimination, and the right to vote.
Reasons for a President's impeachment
treason, (betrayal) bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
a.) put the South under military rule b.) Ordered states to hold new elections for deleagates to creat new state constitutions c.) Required all states to allow all qualified male voters to vote in elections d.) Barred those who supported the Confederacy from voting. e.) Required southern states to guarante
Scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
Carpetbaggers
northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
Conservatives
Like to stick to the traditional ways of government and tend to oppose change
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties
Sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
Poll Tax
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Literacy Test
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
Grandfather Clause
a voting restriction that allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor in the voting rolls in 1867
Segregation
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Plessy v. Ferguson
court case where the Supreme Court ruled that segregation is constitutional if it was "separate but equal" After its decision, laws segregating African Americans and white spread quickly. These laws were "Jim Crow" laws and they segregated buses, schools, trains, restaurants, swimming pools, parks, and other public facilities. Brown v Board of Ed overturned this ruling.