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93 terms

Islamic art exam 1 makhoul

ch. 1-4
• The Quran:
-qarah: to recite
-114 surahs, chapters
• Surahs:
chapter, 114 in Quran
Makkan surahs
with ethical and spiritual teachings of the Day of Judgment
Medini surahs
deal with social legislation
• Hijrah
flight, emigration
-to Yathrib in 622 CE
-started the Islamic Calendar
• Masjid:
a place to pray
• The five pillars of Islam
1. Shahadah: profession of faith
-2. Prayer: salah
-3. Zakat: fee on property, wealth
-4. Sawm: fasting
-5. Hajj
• Sasanian:
a Persian empire, centered at the capitol Ctesiphon, Zoroastrian
-Persia and central Asia, 224-651 CE
-on the Tigris river is capitol
-economy based on silver
-used reliefs
• Iwan:
a barrel vaulted portal walled on three sides with one opening into a courtyard
• Byzantine period
eastern extension of roman empire and is Christian and capitol is Constantinople from 4th century
-Golden ages, Middle Byzantine, Late Byzantine
-Basilica-plan and central plan churches
-Greek cross and Latin cross (not equal)
• Coptic art
Christian art in the upper Nile valley of Egypt
-descendants of ancient Egyptians and Christians, stopped in 640-642
-reflects late antiquity, Byzantine, and Mesopotamia
• Jewish:
religion of Jews, descendants from Hebrews
-in 2nd and 3rd century, relaxed about rule of not making images
-biblical scenes, used characteristics from new eastern, classical, and roman art
• Early caliphs
Abu Bakr, Omar ibn Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, ali ibn Abi Talib
Abu Bakr
632-634: father of prophets wife
634-644: expanded Islamic empire
(644-656) - Umayyad clan, killed by fellow Muslims
656-661: followers were Shiites
• Prophet Muhammad
: born in Mecca 570-632
-Al-Amin (the trusted one)
-became messenger on Lay lat ul qadr
• Hypostyle hall:
building in which roof or ceiling is supported by closely spaced rows of columns
• Umayyad dynasty:
-ruled from ruled from Damascus and till India, North Africa, and Spain
-invested in agricultural installations
-built monumental buildings as propaganda
• Dome of the Rock
-built by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, on site of old Jewish temple which was broken down
-tile work is Ottoman, built by Umayyad
reasons for building dome of the rock
-1. To commemorate night journey (no writing proof)
-2. To replace Kaaba (no writing proof)
-3. To advertise Islam in the city
• Centrally planned mosque
: a structure designed with a primary central space surrounded by symmetrical areas from each side
• Jerusalem
holy to all three religions
• The great mosque of Damascus
-built by Umayyad caliph: al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik
• Hypostyle Mosque
mosques have a square/rectangular plan with an enclosed courtyard and a covered hypostyle prayer hall
• Hypostyle Hall
a hall with a roof supported by closely spaced columns
• Umayyad Desert palaces:
economic: estates in agricultural development projects
-geographical: small fortified towns
-social: rest spots
• Khirbat al-Mafjar
complex of a two story square enclosure with palace, mosque, bath, basement
-unified with a fountain, mosque is rectangular hypostyle hall
-large fancy bath, hammam
-Byzantine and Sasanian influence
• The Abbasids
-reigned until Mongol invasion
-First caliph: Abu al-Abbas as-saffah (the butcher)
-capital was first raqqah
-2nd caliph: abu jaffar al mansour, moved capital to Baghdad
• Baghdad
madinat al salam, city of peace
-round city, mud brick walls
• Samarra:
new capital of Abbasids by al-mu'tassim in 836
-on Tigris river
• Pointed Arch:
forming each side of the arch from a different center point, the greater the distance between two points, the sharper the point
• Fresco painting
method of wall painting in which water-based pigments are applied to lime plaster
• Mosque of Mutawakkil
848-852, Samarra, Iraq
-is fortified
-has a minaret,
• Samarra stucco A
: vine-leaf ornament that has resemblance to Hellenistic origin
• Samarra stucco C:
molded pattern, abstract and vegetal and geometric motifs, in borders
• Samarra stucco B
vegetation with some abstract
• Tulunid Dynasty:
-First local dynasty of Egypt and Syria to exist independently of Abbasid caliphate
-founded by Ahmad ibn tulun, rose from slavery to a governor
• Cairo
contains the city of Fostat
-has the mosque of ibn tulun
• Mosque of ibn tulun
-built by Ahmad ibn tulun
-hypostyle hall
elements of a mosque:
qibla, mihrab, minbar, minaret, wudu area, prayer hall
direction of Mecca, prime factor, marked with a mihrab
niche or marker used to indicate direction of prayer
pulpit of imams to give khutbahs
place where muadhin calls adhan
Ablution fountain:
where Muslim makes wudu
Hypostyle prayer hall
roofed structure supported by columns
• Aghlabid Dynasty
-Tunisia and eastern Algeria, Banu al-aghlab, capital is al Qayruwan
great mosque of Qayrawan
-originally built in 7th Ce, rebuilt in 9th century
• Fustat:
capital of the Tulunid dynasty
-founded in 641 along the east bank of Nile river
• Jericho
in Palestine
-Khirbat al-Mafjar
• Arabic calligraphy
the art of beautiful or elegant handwriting by formatting letters
-written from right to left, Semitic
-28 alphabets,
-17 characters, w/o dots
-made of root letters
• Hijazi Script
ma'il/slanted form
-no vowel markers
-vertical form and one of earliest
• Kufi script
script of kufa
-square and angular
-heavy and bold style
-thick, unslanted letters
• Nashki script:
cursive script based on certain laws governing the proportion between the letters
• The styles of Arabic calligraphy:
Kufi (old Kufi and ornamented geometric Kufi)
-Diwani and Diwani Djeli (ottoman)
• Harakat
fathah, dammah...shaddah
• Chapter heading from surat al kahf
- Chapter 18
-9th-10th century
-ink and gold on parchment
• Parchment (animal skin) while vellum( calfskin or fine parchment) is horizontal type
paper replaced parchment in year 1000
• Umayyad coinage:
the reworking old ideas, sasanid and Byzantine in new contexts
Sasanian coins were silver
one side was head of ruler, and other was altar with flame
-Byzantine coins were gold,
• Silk road
an ancient network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting east, south, and western Asia with Mediterranean world including north Africa and Europe
• Muhammad placing black stone in his cloak
Jami al Tarawikh. From al tabri 1315
Govt controlled factories tiraz
made cloths for court and officials as gifts
-used as ceremonial robes, altar cloths and wraps
• Tapestry
a heavy textile with a woven design; used for curtains and upholstery
• Weaving
is interlocking vertical and horizontal threads of a fiber craft
• Warp:
vertical threads of a weave, yarn arranged lengthways on a loom
• Weft:
horizontal threads known as woofs
• Loom
machine for weaving thread or yarn into clothing/rugs
• Jami al Tarawikh
universal history
• Zandaji fragment textile:
-associated with relics of St. Amon, toul cathedra, France
-a compound twill with beiege/ vertical
-facing lions/palm trees
• Tapestry showing the victorious emperor
Egypt, 8th century
-has 2 war prisoners
-wool and linen
• Rashid al din
made 4 volumes, universal history books
• Embroidery , known as tiraz,
were made in workshops and given to his court
• The arts of fire
ceramics, glass, metalwork since they are transformed by fire
• Glass
made by fusing silica/sand/quartz and lime at high temperatures, 1100C
-minerals added to make color
-First glass made by Egyptians and Mesopotamian in 2000bc
• Glass blowing
inflates the liquid glass into a bubble/sphere with aid of a blow tube
-found between 27bce and 14ce
-creates thinner walls
• Glass bottle with relief cut decoration:
-decoration in green overlay; by cutting away outer layer except where decoration was
-found in nashipur Iran with stylized birds and abstract vegetation
-9th-10th century
-early Abbasid, with bilateral symmetry
• Glass cosmetic bottle:
-decorated with trailed glass threads
-are carried on back of domestic animals to imitate wicker baskets or cages protecting the bottle
• Luster
a high gloss finish with iridescence.
-started in 800bce with Egyptian and Syrian glass makers
-used metallic stains to get shimmering effect
• Glass beaker with polychrome luster decoration
free blown and painted in 3 colors
-bowl with Kufic inscription
-Damascus or Egypt in 8th-9th century
-metropolitan dates it 9th-10th centuries
-yellow, brown copper, silver stains,
• Ceramics:
more inclusive term than pottery
• Potter's wheel:
round spinning platform to make pottery on
-started in 4000bce in Egypt, 3250 in near east
• Earthenware painted with abstract design:
stained clay making ceramic luster
-9th century
-has both representational and abstract figures
• Sgraffito ware
: scratched: technique used in painting, pottery, glass. Having a preliminary surface, covering it with another, and then scratching the top layer.
-splash ware is created
• Dish from Uzbekistan:
green(copper), ochre (iron), brown(manganese)
-white, slip incise.
-with polychrome glaze, under transparent glaze
-10th century, nashipur Iran
• Metal work
been in use from 4th millennium,
Inherited techniques from Sasanian and Byzantine
• Dish with king representation
-Sasanian influence, 7th-8th century, Umayyad or early Abbasid
• Dish with geometric design enclosing simurghs
Iran, 9th-10th century
-beaten and punched
• Simurgh:
mythological creature of bird: half phoenix and lion
• Sculpture in the round: free standing sculpture
decoration of inlay with silver, and copper. With inscriptions, etc
• Ewer in form of a bird:
signed by sulayman in 796 Iran. Cast brass inlaid with copper and silver