8 terms

Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism

Lipid Catabolism =
Description: Conversion of TG to glycerol plus FA
Goal: Produce ATP
Hormones: epinephrine, norepineephrine, cortisol, and growth factor
Pathway: Beta Oxidation splits FA -> 2 carbons + CoA -> Acetyl CoA -> Krebs
Lipid Anabolism =
Description: Conversion of Carbs, Fats, and proteins into TG
Goal: Storage for later
Hormone: Insulin
Pathway A: AA ->Acetyl CoA -> FA -> TG
Pathway B: Glucose -> glyceraidenyde 3-D -> glycerol ->TG
Glucose -> glyceraldehyde 3-P -> Pyruvic Acid->Acetyl CoA ->FA ->TG
Pathway C: Dietary FA-> combine w/glycerol -> TG
Protein Catabolism
Description: break down proteins into amino acids
Goal: recycle worn out cells, make glucose and ATP
Hormone: Cortisol
Pathway: Worn out cells -> AA or deaminated CNH2 removed -> Krebs cycle
Protein Anabolism
Description: Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids
Goal: new proteins are produced (ribosomes)
Hormones: growth factors, thyroid hormones, insulin, estrogen, and testosterone.
Essential Pathway: ribosomes assemble them
Nonessential Pathway: ribosomes assemble them via transamination (move NH2)
Glucose Catabolism =
Cellular Respiration
Description: oxidation of one molecule of glucose
Goal: ATP formation
Pathway: glycolosis -> Acetyl CoA formation -> krebs cycle ->electron transport chain
Glucose Anabolism =
Description: the conversion of glucose into glycogen
Goal: Carbohydrate Storage
Hormone: Insulin
Pathway: Glucose ->(hexokinase) G6P-> G1P->uradine diphosphate glucose-> glycogen
Glycogen Catabolism =
Description: conversion of glycogen into glucose
Goal: to make glucose available
Hormone: glucagon, epinephrine
Pathway in Hepatocytes: glycogen ->(phosphorylase) G1P -> G6P-> (phosphoatose) glucose
Pathway in Skeletal Muscle: glycogen -> (phosphorylase) G1P -> glycolosis -> krebs cycle
Glucose Anabolism =
Description: conversion of non carbohydrate sources into glucose
Goal: make glucose available
Hormone: cortisol and glucagon and some thyroid hormone
Pathway A: LA AA ->pyruvic acid -> glyceraidenyde 3-P -> G-6-P-> glucose
Pathway B: glycerol -> glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate -> G-6-P -> glucose